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1.1 Manuele Margni


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1.1 Manuele Margni

  1. 1. Behind the Water Footprint Stream - Metrics and InitiativesOverview of available metrics to asses potential impacts of water use and current initiatives integrating them within LCA<br />ManueleMargni, Ph.D.<br />Scientificcoordinator, CIRAIG<br />Ecole Polytechnique Montréal<br /><br />(Incl. materialprovided by Quantis)<br />
  2. 2. CIRAIG Factsheet<br />Founded in 2000<br />Multidisciplinary world-renowned research centre <br />135+ professors, researchers and students<br />10 universities, 7 Chairs, 5 research units<br />Member of the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative<br />Numerous collaborations (Canada, USA, Europe)<br />120+ applied research projects (industry and gov.)<br />Official spin-off<br />Expertise: <br />Carbon and Water footprint<br />LCA<br />Company-based LCA and sustainability dashboard<br />Ecodesign<br />Environmental communication<br /><br />2<br />
  3. 3. The Water Footprint Stream: Initiatives and timeline<br />Source: WBCSD<br />3<br />
  4. 4. WhichFootprint Is Correct?<br />But what water is important?<br /><ul><li>There is currently little consistency in the scope of water footprint and what is measured
  5. 5. There is nearly no consistency in how to evaluate impact</li></ul>4<br />
  6. 6. Problem Statement<br />But what water is important?<br /><ul><li>To know what water is important, we must know what type of water use occurs and where
  7. 7. To know the impact of water use, we must know the impact of each use type in each geography
  8. 8. The method must be operational for companies to apply in decision making</li></ul>5<br />
  9. 9. Accounting vs. Impact Assessment vs. Communication<br />
  10. 10. Impact AssessmentFramework in LCA<br />
  11. 11. Water ScarcityAssessment<br />(«Screening assessment » using Water stress index, WSI)<br />
  12. 12. Water Scarcityvs. Full Assessment<br />CH<br />DE<br />CH<br />CH<br />DE<br />DE<br />Turbined water<br /><ul><li>Importance to check the (range/scope of) validity of the results</li></li></ul><li>Why Expanding the Scope of Water Footprint to LCA?<br />Climate change<br />Ecosystems<br />Natural <br />resources<br />Human health<br />Waterfootprint<br />To avoid burden shifting from an impact category to another<br />10<br />
  13. 13. Framework for Freshwater use In LCA (UNEP-SETAC LC Initiative)<br />Endpoint<br />Midpoint<br />Inventory<br />Areas of Protection<br />All Impact Categories<br />Backup Technology<br />Water deprivation for human uses<br />Human Health<br />Human uses<br />Modification of water availability for…<br />Water deprivation for ecosystems<br />Water Use<br />Water Use<br />Ecosystems Quality<br />Ecosystems<br />Water deprivation for future generations<br />Natural resources<br />Future Generations<br />
  14. 14. Human Health Impacts from production of board in Hanoi for different scenarios<br />12<br />
  15. 15. ... Avoid Taking the Wrong Decision<br />13<br />Spatial variation of blue water consumption bioenergycrop production within Spain at two different levels:<br />Impact AssessmentInventory accounting<br />(Source: Nunez Montserrat, SETAC EU 2010)<br />
  16. 16. UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative<br />International initiative for LCA<br />Review and characterization of existing accounting and Impact assessment methods<br />Recommendations (end 2010) for:<br />Science<br />Practitioners (incl. industry)<br />Contact: <br />ManueleMargni, CIRAIG<br />SebastienHumbert, Quantis<br />14<br />
  17. 17. Towards an International Standard for Water Footprinting<br />“Water Footprint: Principles, Requirements and Guidances”<br />International standard for water footprinting<br />This International Standard specifies requirements and guidelines to assess and report water footprint based on LCA<br />Terminology, communication<br />Important stages to consider<br />Consistency with carbon footprinting and other LCA impact categories<br />Scope, system boundary<br />Review/Validation<br />Reporting<br />Began 2009, end 2011<br />Towards industry and practitioners<br />
  18. 18. ManueleMargni<br />CIRAIG – École Polytechnique de Montréal<br />16<br />
  19. 19. 17<br />
  20. 20. From Lack of Methods to Methods Overload?<br />Inventory & Categorize<br />Impact<br />Net Damage<br />18<br />
  21. 21. Risks to Business<br />19<br />
  22. 22. Physicalrisks<br />Scarcity<br />Quality<br />Deficiency or Compensation<br />
  23. 23. T-shirt produced in India and Turkey<br />SIMPLIFIED RESULTS<br />
  24. 24. Risks associated with water use:<br />Water pollution<br />Ground water over exploitation<br />Reduced availability for nutrition<br />Risks associated with water use:<br />Water rights<br />Water pollution<br />Ground water over exploitation<br />Risks associated with water use:<br />Water pollution<br />Risks associated with water use:<br />Water pollution<br />Ground water over exploitation<br />River drying<br />Greenhouse gases emissions<br />Greenhouse gases emissions (from deforestation)<br />Water use (including “green water”)<br />Water impact (human health and ecosystems)<br />Regionalization of impacts<br />
  25. 25. Geen Water LCI<br />23<br />(Source: Nunez Montserrat, SETAC EU 2010)<br />
  26. 26. Implications of Water Shortages<br /><ul><li>Ecosystem quality
  27. 27. Lakes and rivers drying
  28. 28. Disappearance of wetlands
  29. 29. Lack of water for wildlife
  30. 30. Human health and welfare
  31. 31. Disease
  32. 32. Displacement
  33. 33. Conflict / warfare
  34. 34. Nutrition
  35. 35. Economic development
  36. 36. Resources
  37. 37. Future development and response</li></ul>24<br />
  38. 38. 25<br />About Quantis<br />A Global Presence<br />Academic Partners<br />Diverse Clientele<br />
  39. 39. Inventory in the model<br />The method assesses the impacts of the water withdrawal and credits the impacts of the water release<br />HHimpact = Human health impacts in Daly<br />CFi = Characterization factor for water type i for the impact category Human Health (in Daly/m3 of water type i consumed) <br />Vi = Volume of water type i – inventory value (in m3), positive value for water withdrawn and negative value for released flows<br />26<br />
  40. 40. Inventory<br />13 Water classes described by:<br /><ul><li>Source (surface, ground or rain)
  41. 41. Quality (34 parameters + organics)
  42. 42. Users it can be functional for</li></ul>27<br />
  43. 43. Direct impacts on Human Health<br />i: Scarcity of water class i (dimensionless) <br />Di,j: User j distribution of water class i (dimensionless)<br />AC : Adaptation capacity (dimensionless)<br />Ej: Effect factor for user j (DALY/m³)<br />Characterisation factor for water i (DALY/m3)<br />EFFECT<br />FATE<br />EXPOSURE<br />28<br />
  44. 44. Surface water scarcity<br />PROPOSED AS A MIDPOINT INDICATOR<br />29<br />
  45. 45. Direct impacts on HumanHealth – Effect Factor<br />Di,j = User’s distribution of water type i for activity j (no units)<br /><ul><li> Assesses the proportion of the elementary flow affecting each user.
  46. 46. Based on </li></ul> 1) Quality of the water : its functionality<br /> 2) Geographical region :intensity of each activity in that region<br />30<br />
  47. 47. Direct impacts on HumanHealth – Adaptation Capacity<br />100% compensation<br />Proportional adaptation<br />No compensation<br />Proportional adaptation<br />31<br />
  48. 48. Direct impacts on HumanHealth – Effect Factor<br /> Ej= Effect factor for user j (daly/m3)<br />HealthBurden by kcal malnutrition* (Daly/kcal)<br />Efish/agriculture =<br />(DALY/m3) <br />Water requirement per kcal (m3/kcal)<br />Health Impacts from water related issues* (Daly/yr)<br />Edomestic = <br />(DALY/m3) <br />Water in deficit for domestic use* (m3/yr)<br />* Data by country, geometric average used to produce resulting Effect factor<br />32<br />
  49. 49. How much water should be compensated?<br />All Impact Categories<br />Backup Technology<br />Human Health<br />Water deprivation for human uses<br />Ecosystems Quality<br />Human uses<br />Modification of water availability for…<br />Natural resources<br />IScomp,i = Impact Score of compensation for water of class i <br /> (m³to be compensated/m³water class i)<br />2 options:<br /><ul><li>Aggregated (as an indicator)
  50. 50. Desaggregated (by user) for modeling of compensation by system expansion</li></ul>33<br />
  51. 51. Using GIS for combining scale<br />0.5° x 0.5° grid<br />Water consumption<br />Water availability<br />808 Resulting cells<br />All data<br />227 Main Watersheds<br />Some quality data<br />208 countries<br />Adaptation capacity<br />Some quality data<br />Some statistical data<br />34<br />
  52. 52. Results – Human Health CF<br />35<br />
  53. 53. Results – Compensation<br />36<br />
  54. 54. Application<br /><ul><li>Board production from recycled fibers</li></ul>37<br />
  55. 55. Human Health Impacts from production of board in Hanoi for different scenarios<br />38<br />
  56. 56. Normalized Human Health (HH) impacts and compensation volume (Comp) for the production of 1 ton of board<br />39<br />
  57. 57. Discussion<br />Future Work<br />Only methodology to <br />Use adaptation capacity<br />Consider quality of water withdrawn and released<br />Evaluate scarcity based on consumed water<br />Evaluate scarcity for different water qualities <br />Include and differentiate instream/offstream users<br />Includes all water types: ground, surface, sea, rain, wastewater, etc...<br />Limits<br />Unreliable regional quality data<br />Cases of over/under estimation of impacts due to water categories<br />Temporal adaptation of CF<br />User’s distribution for transport and recreation not evaluated<br />Impacts from compensation are not evaluated<br />Does not include impacts on future generations or ecosystems<br /><ul><li>Evaluate impacts based on functionalities instead of water classes and compare results
  58. 58. Evaluate fraction of water used by transport and recreation
  59. 59. Identify default compensation scenarios and their impacts
  60. 60. Modeling of the resource depletion aspect of water use</li></ul>40<br />