Toward a Strategy for Conservation of Crop Wild Relatives of the USA: Initial ResultsColin Khoury, Stephanie Greene, Nora Patricia Castañeda Alvarez, John Wiersema
Strategy Flowchartsource: adapted from Maxted N. various publications
National Inventory Taxa directly used for food, fiber, forage, medicine, ornamental, and restoration purposes CWR taxa (taxa used for crop improvement through breeding) Both native and non-native taxa Sources: GRIN World Economic Plants Database; Flora of North America; McGuffin (2000); Native Seed Network Database.• List reviewed by US researchers, curators, breeders (THANK YOU!) Phaseolus angustissimus source: SEINet• Inventory currently lists over 4,600 taxa
Taxonomic PrioritiesPrioritization of taxa based upon potential use value genepools of major crops with active breeding programs primary focus on food cropsGathered data on major crops globally (FAOSTAT,published literature, ITPGRFA)Prioritized the listResults: 242 World’s Top Crops (268 genera)101 crops (119 genera) in Priority 1141 crops (149 genera) in Priority 2Includes all the most important agricultural cropsaround the world by a number of measures, and coversall crops listed in FAOSTAT for US production and food Juglans hindsii source: http://dendro.cnre.vt.edusupply, with virtually all major US crops on Priority 1.
Taxonomic Priorities for the USApplied World’s Top Crops list to thenational inventory and GRINtaxonomy to derive a priority list ofCWR occurring in the USAReviewed inventory and proposedadditional priorities that did notemerge from global dataProposed iconic US wild harvestedspecies crops, e.g. sugar maple, wildrice, echinacea, pine nut, pecan, jojoba,agaveList reviewed by US researchers,curators, breeders (THANK YOU!) Vitis rotundifolia source: Will Cook, 2008
Taxonomic Priorities for the US>2,000 taxa of 175 priority genera occur in the USA800 taxa of 69 Priority 1 genera316 taxa of 33 genera 1A (closely related native taxa)477 taxa of 47 genera 1B (distantly related, non-native)Priority 2 genera- future work!Important crops with rich genepools include Allium(onion), Cucurbita (squash), Fragaria (strawberry),Helianthus (sunflower), Ipomoea (sweet potato),Phaseolus (bean), Prunus (cherry, almond, peach,etc.), Ribes (currant), Rubus (raspberry), Vaccinium(blueberry, cranberry), and Vitis (grape), among Rubus hawaiensis source: luirig.altervista.orgothers.
Gap Analysis: Global Project Occurrence Data Sources• Online data• Researchers• Herbarium and genebank databases• Herbarium visits- more than 25,000 photos taken at NY, PH, US, MO, CAS, UC, WAG, CUVC, R, RB, MA, COI, RBGE, LISU, LISC, LISI, BM, RBGE, P, L, K, VIR. Global database contains ca. 4 million geo-referenced records add new occurrence data for 18 USA CWR priority genera filter for US occurrences
Gap Analysis: Methodology Ramírez-Villegas J, Khoury C, Jarvis A, Debouck DG, and Guarino L (2010).A Gap Analysis Methodology for Collecting Crop Genepools: a Case Study with Phaseolus Bean. PLoS ONE 5(10): e13497
Gap Analysis: Dimensions TaxonomicGeographic Environmental
US Phaseolus germplasm gapsgermplasm gap richness for high priority species
Next StepsGather more occurrence data- US herbaria,expert sourcesGather data on threats to CWR populationsPerform full gap analysis methodology onPriority 1 genepoolsDevelop methodology for in situconservation analysis and perform analysisAdvocate for collecting and for establishmentof genetic reserves
Expected ProductsWeb-based map tool for visualizingspecies distributions and ex situ and insitu gapsPublish checklist of CWR of the USAPublish gap analysis resultsPublish analysis of management of geneticreserves under climate changeContribution to new accessions conserved,management plans for conservation ofCWR in genetic reserves Helianthus exilis source: Greg Baute
Contribute!Occurrence data needed forUS distributions of priority1 taxaExpert review of gapanalysis results (for bothUS and Global CWRprojects) Ribes niveum source: www.plantsystematics.org
US Phaseolus modeling uncertainty metricsmodeling uncertainties as maximum standard deviations of taxa
US Phaseolus gap uncertainty metricscollecting uncertainties as maximum standard deviations of taxa collecting uncertainties as maximum geographic distance to known populations
Gap Analysis: Global Project Occurrence Data SourcesAcademy of Natural Sciences Herbarium (PH), USAAfrican Biodiversity Conservation and Innovations Centre (ABCIC) (Dr. Dan Kiambi), KenyaArmenian State Agrarian University (Dr. Alvina Avagyan), Armenia National Center for Agricultural Research and Extension (NCARE) (Dr. Maha Syouf), JordanAustralias Virtual Herbarium (AVH), Australia (accessed 10/2011) Natural History Museum Herbarium (BM), UKAustralian Tropical Grains Germplasm Centre (ATGGC) (Dr. Sally Norton), Australia Natural History Museum, Planetary Biodiversity Inventory (PBI) Solanum: A worldwideBotanical Society of the British Isles Herbaria@home, UK treatment, Solanaceae Source, UKCalifornia Academy of Sciences (CAS), USA New York Botanical Garden Herbarium (NY), USACentro de Referência em Informação Ambiental (CRIA), Brazil (accessed 6/2011) Nordic Genetic Resources Center (NordGen), SwedenComisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad (CONABIO), Mexico (accessed Plants of Taiwan, Taiwan5/2011) Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid (MA), SpainCommonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) (Dr. Robert Lawn), Australia Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh (E), UKConsortium of Pacific Northwest Herbaria, USA Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K), UKConsultative Group on International Agricultural Research System-wide Information Network for Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K) (Josephine Piggin), UKGenetic Resources (SINGER) (accessed 6/2011) Smithsonian Institution, National Herbarium (US), USADenver Botanic Gardens Herbarium (DBG), USA United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (Dr. David Spooner),DIVEA, DEP, FEEMA Herbário Alberto Castellanos (GUA), Brazil USAEuropean Search Catalogue (EURISCO), Europe (accessed 6/2011) United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National ClonalField Museum (F), USA Germplasm Repository (Dr. Kim Hummer), USAFlorida State University Herbarium (FSU), USA United States Department of Agriculture, National Plant Germplasm System, GermplasmGENESYS Global Portal (accessed 6/2011) Resources Information Network (GRIN), USA (accessed 6/2011)Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (accessed 4/2011) United States Department of Agriculture, National Plant Germplasm System, Western RegionalHarvard University Herbarium (HUH), USA Plant Introduction Station, Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Seeds ofHerbário do Jardim Botânico do IICT (LISC), Portugal Success Program, USAHerbarium and African Library of the Free University of Brussels (BRLU), Belgium United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service; Bioversity International;Institute for Cereal Crops Improvement (ICCI), Harold and Adele Lieberman Germplasm Bank, Israel International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT); and the UniversityInstituto Superior de Agronomia (LISI), Portugal Universidad del Valle Herbarium (CUVC), ColombiaInternational Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) (Alicia Velasquez), Colombia Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Museu Nacional, BrazilInternational Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Colombia Universidade Lisboa Museu Nacional de História Natural e da Ciência (LISU), PortugalInternational Potato Center (CIP), Peru Universidade Nova de Lisboa (Dr. Susana Neves), PortugalInternational Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Philippines University of Birmingham (Dr. Nigel Maxted), UK.Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro (JABOT), Brazil University of California, Riverside (Dr. Jeff Ehlers), United States Department of Agriculture,LAC-Biosafety, Colombia Agricultural Research Service (Dr. Roy Pittman), USALeibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK) (Dr. Benjamin Kilian), Germany University of California, Riverside Herbarium (UCR), USAMain Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences (MHA), Moscow, Russia University of Çukurova (Dr. Hakan Özkan), TurkeyManchester University Herbarium (MANCH), UK University of Helsinki (Dr. Markku Hakkinen), FinlandMillennium Seed Bank of the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, UK University of Washington (Dr. Joshua Tewksbury), USAMissouri Botanical Garden Herbarium (MO), USA V. L. Komarov Botanical Institute (LE), St. Petersburg, RussiaMoscow State University (MW), Moscow, Russia Wageningen University (Dr. Laurentius Josephus Gerardus van der Maesen), The NetherlandsMuseu Nacional de História Natural (Dr. Joana Brehm), Portugal Wageningen University Herbarium (WAG), The NetherlandsMuseu Nacional de História Natural e da Ciencia (MNHN), Portugal West Virginia University Herbarium (WVA), USAMuseum National d’Histoire Naturelle Herbarium (P), France World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), KenyaN.I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Sciences (VIR), St. Petersburg, Russia World Vegetable Center (AVRDC), TaiwanNationaal Herbarium Nederland Collection Database (L, U, WAG), The NetherlandsNationaal Herbarium Nederland, Herbarium Utrecht (U), The NetherlandsNationaal Herbarium Nederland, Leiden University branch (L), The Netherlands