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Summary
We assessed the extent of representativeness of global ex situ
collections of wild relatives of cultivated potato ...
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Gap analysis potato

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The crop wild relatives of potato have been largely and successfully used in breeding to acquire agronomical attributes that can help the cultivated potato to be more resistant against pest, diseases and extreme environmental conditions. Assessing the representativeness of these species in genebanks, is a fundamental step to secure these genetic resources for plant breeding and future availability of this crop.

Poster prepared for the International Potato Center (CIP) Board of Trustees meeting, December 2014

Published in: Science
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Gap analysis potato

  1. 1. Summary We assessed the extent of representativeness of global ex situ collections of wild relatives of cultivated potato compared to the full range of potential diversity. Analysis was based on a systematic gap analysis involving the largest species occurrence database of its kind for any crop wild relative. It is concluded that significant gaps exist in global ex situ collections as 43.8% of the species analyzed received a high priority status for gap filling. Introduction Gap analysis is a systematic approach to analyze the degree of ex situ conservation of species and to place priorities on geographic locations, species and potentially useful traits that are un- or under secured (Maxted et al., 2008; Ramírez-Villegas et al., 2010). Additionally, gap analysis can help to set priorities for complementary in situ conservation. Materials and Methods A total of 49,164 records for 73 species of wild relatives of potato were compiled (75.8% with coordinates), corresponding to 11,100 germplasm accessions and 37,251 reference sightings. We used a gap analysis methodology (Maxted et al., 2008; Ramírez-Villegas et al., 2010), including complementary metrics: (i) Sampling Representativeness Score, (ii) Geographic Representativeness Score, (iii) Ecoregional Representativeness Score. In turn these scores used to calculate the Final Priority Score (FPS). MaxEnt (Phillips et al., 2006) was selected for the purpose of estimating the potential niche breadth of each taxon. As environmental drivers we used 19 bioclimatic variables derived from the WorldClim database (Hijmans et al., 2005). Maps visualizing species richness and predicted gap density were produced using GIS and environmental niche modelling algorithms Figure 2. Current and potential distribution of the closest wild relatives of potato: A) Distribution of germplasm and herbarium registers included in the analysis, B) Species richness patterns, C) Hotspots where collecting of HPS is suggested based on predicted species occurrence Conclusions (i) Significant gaps exist in the representativeness of potato wild relatives in global ex-situ collections. (ii) We propose three levels of priority for filling gaps. First level: urgent collections of unsecured species lacking any active accessions in genebanks (4 HPS, 2 countries). Second level: targeted collections of the main under secured species (28 HPS, 8 countries). Third level: complementary collections of MPS. Bibliography • Maxted N, Dulloo E, Ford-Lloyd BV, Iriondo JM, Jarvis A, et al. 2008. Gap analysis: a tool for complementary genetic conservation assessment. Divers Distrib 14: 1018–1030. • Ramírez-Villegas J, Khoury C, Jarvis A, Debouck DG, Guarino L. 2010. A gap analysis methodology for collecting crop genepools: a case study with phaseolus beans. PLoS One 5: e13497. • Phillips S, Anderson R, Schapire R. 2006. Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecol Modell 190: 231–259. • Hijmans RJ, Cameron SE, Parra JL, Jones PG, Jarvis A. 2005. Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. Int J Climatol 25: 1965–1978. Nora Castañeda-Álvarez1,2 Stef de Haan3 Henry Juárez3 Colin Khoury1,4 Harold Achicanoy1 Chrystian Sosa1 Vivian Bernau1 Alberto Salas3 Bettina Heider3 Reinhard Simon3 Nigel Maxted2 David Spooner5 1 International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Km 17, Recta Cali-Palmira, Cali, Colombia 2 School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK 3 International Potato Center (CIP), Lima, Peru 4 Centre for Crop Systems Analysis, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands 5 USDA-ARS, Vegetable Crop Research Unit, Department of Horticulture, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA (Solanum sect. Petota) Gap analysis of the wild relatives of potato Conserving Diversity for the Future: The CIP Genebank Figure 1. High Priority Species (HPS) and countries where these occur Figure 3. Priorities for gap filling and conservation by country Figure 4. Flowers, plants and habitats of A) Solanum acaule Bitter, B) S. candolleanum Berthault, C) S. laxissimum Bitter, D) S. rhomboideilanceolatum Ochoa, E) S. simplicissimum Ochoa and F) S. wittmackii Bitter. Photographs taken by: S. de Haan Results Species richness is highest in Peru, followed by Mexico and Argentina (Figure 2B). A total of 32 species (43.8%) are High Priority Species (HPS) and need to be prioritized for further collecting due to significant gaps in ex situ collections. Such gaps are most notable in Peru with 21 HPS in its territory, followed by followed by Mexico (4 HPS); Bolivia (3 HPS), Colombia (2 HPS), Ecuador (2 HPS) and Argentina, Chile and Guatemala (each with 1 HPS). See: Figures 1, 2C, and 3. A total of 20 species are Medium Priority Species (MPS) and only three species were found to require no further collection (NFCR). Four species require urgent attention as no active germplasm accessions are currently available in any global collections: S. ayacuchense (PER), S. neovavilovii (BOL), S. olmosense (PER) and S. salasianum (PER).

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