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An introduction to some of the key issues surrounding Globalization, with slight emphasis upon visual practices.

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  • For those of you who know the original Where’s Bin Laden, by Xavier Waterkeyn and Daniel Lalic, you’ll realise when I reveal the answer, that this is a cheap spin off based upon the ‘Where’s Wally’ (if you’re British) or ‘Where’s Waldo’ (if you’re American) by Martin Handford. Though obviously these prior publication were the inspiration for Waterkeyn and Lalics’ own parody. There were at least three versions of this game on the internet when I searched, using the same page from Where’s Wally, but adding in the Bin Laden head in different places. It seems indicative of one of the changes brought about by digital technology.
  • Globalization

    1. 1. Modernism and After (Vis Com) Part II<br />Lecture 4: Globalization<br />
    2. 2. Where’s Bin Laden?<br />
    3. 3. Mirai Nikki (2008) Future Diary, Scanlated by Atashi<br />
    4. 4. Where’s Bin Laden?<br />
    5. 5. An example of Globalization<br />This example (slides 4 - 10) is taken from Mafried B. Steger’s excellent Globalization: A Very Short Introduction<br />
    6. 6. Osama bin Laden addressing the glode in 2001<br />
    7. 7. Office in Kabul<br />
    8. 8.
    9. 9.
    10. 10.
    11. 11. Contemporary Military Fatigues<br />Timex Watch<br />AK-47 Kalashnikov Rifle<br />
    12. 12. Key elements in this example<br />Transnational Corporations<br />Global Crime<br />International Flow of Capital<br />Americanisation?<br />Communications Technology<br />$1<br />,465,<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />Local<br />Global<br />
    13. 13. Discussions surrounding Globalization<br />Historical: When did it begin? Is it new? What makes it different?<br />Ethical: Is it a good thing? Does it benefit everybody?<br />Cultural: In what way is it changing culture, locally and globally?<br />
    14. 14. Historical Issues<br />
    15. 15. Historical Issues<br />1986<br />
    16. 16. Historical Issues<br />“Globalization denotes the intensification of worldwide social relations and interactions such that distant events acquire very localized impacts and vice versa.” <br />(Held and McGrew 2007, p.2)<br />“... If perceived as the growth of transplanetary – and more specifically supraterritorial – spaces, then globalization has unfolded mainly since the mid-twentieth century. Although transworld relations are not completely novel, the pace and scale of their expansion has become qualitatively greater over the past five decades.”<br />(Scholte 2005, p.101)<br />
    17. 17. Second Life<br />
    18. 18. Ethical Issues<br />“In 1820 the five richest countries in the world were three times as rich as the five poorest. By 1950, they were 35 times as rich; by 1970, 44 times; and by 1992, 72 times.”<br />(Fulcher 2004, p.98) <br />
    19. 19. Ethical Issues<br />“At the dawn of the 21st Century, the bottom 25% of humankind live on less than $140 a year. Meanwhile, the world’s 200 richest people have doubled their net worth to more than $1 Trillion between 1994 and 1998. The assets of the world’s top three billionaires are more than the combined GNP of all the least developed countries and their 600 million people.”<br />(Steger 2003, p.105)<br />
    20. 20. Ethical Issues<br />
    21. 21. Cultural Issues<br />Homogenization vs. Hetrogenization<br />
    22. 22.
    23. 23. McDonaldization<br />Homogenization<br />Disenchantment<br />Dehumanization<br />
    24. 24. “... While new communication systems can create access to distant others, they also generate an awareness of difference ; that is, of the incredible diversity in lifestyles and value orientations.”<br />“Defenders of the vitality and continuing significance of national culture point out that there is no common global pool of memories; no common global way of thinking; and no ‘universal history’ in and through which people can unite.”<br />(Held and McGrew 2007, p.32)<br />Cultural Issues<br />
    25. 25. Roderick Buchanan (1995) Work in Progress. “Players who associate themselves with Italian football by wearing Inter Milan and A.C. Milan shirts amid the dozens of local tops on display every night on the football parks of Glasgow.”<br />
    26. 26. Bertien Van Manen (2003) La Courneuve. Chez Monsieur Fofana (Mali). They came to Paris in 1963<br />
    27. 27. Okwui Enwezor<br />Thomas Hirschhorn (2002), Bataille Monument. Kassel, Documenta 11.<br />Documenta 11 (2002)<br />
    28. 28. Tim Davies (2001) McDonald 2<br />
    29. 29. “[The Globalizaed World] will probably tend towards high levels of differentiation, multi-centricity and chaos. There will be no central organizing government and no tight set of cultural preferences and prescriptions. In so far as culture is unified it will be extremely abstract, expressing tolerance for diversity and individual choice. Importantly territoriality will disappear as an organizing principle for social and cultural life; it will be a society without borders and spatial boundaries. In a globalized world we will be unable to predict social practices and preferences on the basis of geographical location.”<br />(Waters 2001, p. 5)<br />
    30. 30.
    31. 31. References/ Readings<br />Azuma, H (2001) Superflat and Otaku Nationalism. Available at [last accessed 12/02/2010]<br />Behrend, H (2000) ‘Feeling Global’: The Likoni Ferry Photographes of Mombasa, Kenya. African Arts, 33 no3 (Autumn). Pp 70-7.<br />Coleman, A.D. (2000) The Perils of Pluralism: Thoughts on the Condition of Photography at the Century’s End. In European Photography, 21 no 67 (Spring/Summer). Pp 10-15.<br />Cotton, C (2004) The Photograph as Contemporary Art. London, Thames and Hudson.<br />Held, D and Anthony McGrew (2000) The Global Transformation Reader. Cambridge, Polity Press.<br />Held, D and Anthony McGrew (2007) Globalization / Anti-Globalization(2nd edition). Cambridge, Polity Press. <br />McLuhan, M and Bruce R. Powers (1986) The Global village. Oxford, Oxford University Press. London , Institute of International Visual Arts. <br />Sholte, J. A (2005) Globalization: A Critical Introduction(2nd edition). Hampshire, Palgrave McMillan.<br />Steger, M (2003) Globalization: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, Oxford University Press.<br />Stiglitz, J (2002) Globalization and its discontents. London, Penguin Books.<br />Schwartz, D (2003) Tales from a Globalizing World. London, Thames and Hudson.<br />Tawadros, g (2004) Changing States: Contemporary Art and Ideas in an Era of globalization. <br />Waters, M (2001) Globalization: Second Edition. London, Routledge.<br />Avalable from the college library or art absracts.<br />