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AN INTRODUCTION
TO
GAME DESIGN,
PLAYTESTING AND
GAMES WITH A PURPOSE
LUCA GALLI
POLITECNICO DI MILANO
ABOUT MYSELF
LUCA GALLI
Ph.D. Student - Politecnico di Milano
http://www.lucagalli.me

lgalli@elet.polimi.it

• RESEARCH B...
6th Qualinet General Meeting

3

AGENDA
AGENDA

6th Qualinet General Meeting

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• Play vs Games
• Pointers to Game Design
• Introduction to Games with a
Purpose
...
6th Qualinet General Meeting

5

Something really bad is
going to happen…
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Or not?
WHAT IS PLAY?
Autonomy: play is a voluntary activity.
Safety: during play there are radically reduced serious
consequences...
GAMES VS PLAY
Games are distinguished from play

– Play is free-form
– Games are rule-based
A game is a closed, formal sys...
9

6th Qualinet General Meeting
6th Qualinet General Meeting

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FLASH INTRODUCTION
TO GAME DESIGN
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Mancala, 7th
century AD
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Unreal
Tournament 3,
Epic Games,
2007
Turn based boardgame vs Real time action shooter
Handmade physical board vs Personal Computer

6th Qualinet General Meetin...
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1 - PLAYERS
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2 - OBJECTIVES
OBJECTIVES: EXAMPLES
Solution: solve a problem or puzzle before (or
more accurately) than the competition or
following cer...
6th Qualinet General Meeting

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3 - PROCEDURES
3 – PROCEDURES: EXAMPLE
Starting action: Choose a player
to go first. Each player chooses a color:
red or yellow.

Progres...
4 - RULES
• Define Objects

• Restrict Actions
• Determine Effects (ECA rules)
Chess: A player cannot move her king into c...
5 – RESOURCES: EXAMPLE

Time

Points

Card
6th Qualinet General Meeting Hunter, Blue Manchu Pty Ltd, TBR

20

Actions
6th Qualinet General Meeting

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6 - OUTCOME
GAMES WITH A PURPOSE
Games with a Purpose (GWAPs) are digital games that generate
useful data as a by-product of play. [vA...
6th Qualinet General Meeting

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EXAMPLE:INGRESS
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EXAMPLE: INGRESS
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EXAMPLE: AUSTRALIA
COVERED
CASE STUDY: FASHION TREND MINING
Problem statement: segment fashion images for mining trends based
on visual features of g...
THE FASHION TREND MINING PIPELINE

6th Qualinet General Meeting

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Male, 24 Female, 22Female?, ??
REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION
Input Objects: A fashion image, an optional
tag defining the garment to identify.
Task Descript...
SKETCHNESS
Solution Mechanics:
Pattern Recognition
Established genre:
Draw and Guess

Inversion Problem Mechanic

PLAYERS:...
PLAYER ROLE: SKETCHER

●

●

●

The only player to see the
low confidence image
“May” be asked to provide a
tag for the im...
PLAYER ROLE: GUESSER

●

●

●

Any other player in the game

His/Her goal is to guess the
object for which the Sketcher
ha...
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RESULTS:
RESULTS:

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Sketchness Aggregator

Kota Yamaguchi, M Hadi Kiapour, Luis E
Ortiz, Tamara L ...
TASK TO GAME
MECHANICS MATCHING
Does a game with game
mechanics similar to the task
exist?
If so, integrate the task withi...
HOW TO EVALUATE A GAME?
The Goal is a fun game…
… but also to solve a task!
Game designs are hypotheses

Playtests are exp...
REQUIREMENTS
SPECIFICATION

Execution Interface
Input Objects

Operations

6th Qualinet General Meeting

Output Objects

O...
HOW TO IMPROVE GAME
DESIGN
We want to make informed decisions:
• Get data early, get data often
• Iterate constantly

• We...
TRADITIONAL METHODS

6th Qualinet General Meeting

38

DIRECT OBSERVATION
TRADITIONAL METHODS
VERBAL REPORTS

I don’t know
what I am
supposed to
do...

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I am bad a...
TRADITIONAL METHODS

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Q&A/SURVEYS
TRADITIONAL METHODS
ISSUES

Artificial gameplay sessions
– Many potential biases
– Distorted data (interpreted behavior)

...
TECHNICAL APPROACHES

6th Qualinet General Meeting

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STAT COLLECTION
TECHNICAL APPROACHES

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STAT COLLECTION
TECHNICAL APPROACHES
PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS

Heartrate
Skin
Conductance Level
Eye Tracking
Face Recording

6th Qualine...
A CLASSIC EXAMPLE:
Just how bad is Big Rigs:
Over the Road Racing?
It's as bad as your
mind will allow you to
comprehend.
...
CONCLUSIONS
•Play is a universal need
•Games and videogames are entertaining and
controlled means to satisfy it
•We can ex...
THE CUBRIK PROJECT

●

CUbRIK is a research project
financed by the European Union
Goals:
●

●

●

●

●

Advance the archi...
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CUbRIK and gaming experience@Qualinet

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presentation made by Luca Galli at 6th Qualinet general meeting , 25 Sept 2013

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CUbRIK and gaming experience@Qualinet

  1. 1. AN INTRODUCTION TO GAME DESIGN, PLAYTESTING AND GAMES WITH A PURPOSE LUCA GALLI POLITECNICO DI MILANO
  2. 2. ABOUT MYSELF LUCA GALLI Ph.D. Student - Politecnico di Milano http://www.lucagalli.me lgalli@elet.polimi.it • RESEARCH BACKGROUND AND INTERESTS 6th Qualinet General Meeting 2 • Robotics & AI • Game Design • Crowdsourcing and Human Computation
  3. 3. 6th Qualinet General Meeting 3 AGENDA
  4. 4. AGENDA 6th Qualinet General Meeting 4 • Play vs Games • Pointers to Game Design • Introduction to Games with a Purpose • Gameplay validation through playtesting • A Classic Example: Big Rigs
  5. 5. 6th Qualinet General Meeting 5 Something really bad is going to happen…
  6. 6. 6th Qualinet General Meeting 6 Or not?
  7. 7. WHAT IS PLAY? Autonomy: play is a voluntary activity. Safety: during play there are radically reduced serious consequences in what we do Exploration: the possibility to experiment and try out new things 6th Qualinet General Meeting 7 Mastery: the will to improve one’s own skills
  8. 8. GAMES VS PLAY Games are distinguished from play – Play is free-form – Games are rule-based A game is a closed, formal system that · Engages players in structured conflict and · Resolves its uncertainty in an unequal outcome. 6th Qualinet General Meeting 8 Fullerton, T.; Swain, C. & Hoffman, S. Game Design Workshop: A playcentric approach to creating innovative games, 2008
  9. 9. 9 6th Qualinet General Meeting
  10. 10. 6th Qualinet General Meeting 10 FLASH INTRODUCTION TO GAME DESIGN
  11. 11. 6th Qualinet General Meeting 11 Mancala, 7th century AD
  12. 12. 6th Qualinet General Meeting 12 Unreal Tournament 3, Epic Games, 2007
  13. 13. Turn based boardgame vs Real time action shooter Handmade physical board vs Personal Computer 6th Qualinet General Meeting 13 Public domain rules vs Copyrighted
  14. 14. 6th Qualinet General Meeting 14 1 - PLAYERS
  15. 15. 6th Qualinet General Meeting 15 2 - OBJECTIVES
  16. 16. OBJECTIVES: EXAMPLES Solution: solve a problem or puzzle before (or more accurately) than the competition or following certain constraints 6th Qualinet General Meeting Professor Layton and the Miracle Mask, Level-5, 2011 16 Connect Four, Milton Bradley, 1974
  17. 17. 6th Qualinet General Meeting 17 3 - PROCEDURES
  18. 18. 3 – PROCEDURES: EXAMPLE Starting action: Choose a player to go first. Each player chooses a color: red or yellow. Progression of action: On each turn, a player drops one colored checker down any of the slots in the top of the grid. until one of the players gets four checkers of one color in a row. The row can be horizontal, vertical, or diagonal. 6th Qualinet General Meeting Connect Four 18 Resolving actions: The play alternates
  19. 19. 4 - RULES • Define Objects • Restrict Actions • Determine Effects (ECA rules) Chess: A player cannot move her king into check. Poker: A straight is five consecutively ranked cards; a straight flush is five consecutively ranked cards of the same suit. 6th Qualinet General Meeting 19 WarCraft II: To create knight units, a player must have upgraded to a keep and built a stable.
  20. 20. 5 – RESOURCES: EXAMPLE Time Points Card 6th Qualinet General Meeting Hunter, Blue Manchu Pty Ltd, TBR 20 Actions
  21. 21. 6th Qualinet General Meeting 21 6 - OUTCOME
  22. 22. GAMES WITH A PURPOSE Games with a Purpose (GWAPs) are digital games that generate useful data as a by-product of play. [vA06,LvA09] 6th Qualinet General Meeting 22 The design of a GWAP requires to create a game so that its structure encourages computation, correctness of the output and players retention.
  23. 23. 6th Qualinet General Meeting 23 EXAMPLE:INGRESS
  24. 24. 6th Qualinet General Meeting 24 EXAMPLE: INGRESS
  25. 25. 6th Qualinet General Meeting 25 EXAMPLE: AUSTRALIA COVERED
  26. 26. CASE STUDY: FASHION TREND MINING Problem statement: segment fashion images for mining trends based on visual features of garments (e.g. color and texture) Color descriptors Texture descriptors coarse (sub-)image similarity 6th Qualinet General Meeting 26 Use case: identifying trends in collections of images of people and garments Applications: retrieving similar garments, inspect clothing trends in image collections, analyzing trends change in the years
  27. 27. THE FASHION TREND MINING PIPELINE 6th Qualinet General Meeting 27 Male, 24 Female, 22Female?, ??
  28. 28. REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION Input Objects: A fashion image, an optional tag defining the garment to identify. Task Description: Recognize if a particular garment is present within a picture or define a new one and outline its contours. Aggregation Strategy: assign a value of 0 to each pixel outside the contour and 1 to each pixel contained within the contour, sum all the contribution and apply a threshold based on the number of players. 6th Qualinet General Meeting 28 Output Data: For each submitted task the game has to provide the contour of the garment within the image (Polyline) and a tag defining the garment that has been segmented
  29. 29. SKETCHNESS Solution Mechanics: Pattern Recognition Established genre: Draw and Guess Inversion Problem Mechanic PLAYERS:Number >=2 Multilateral Competition 6th Qualinet General Meeting 29 Two different roles: Sketcher: has to draw the contours of the stated garment Guesser: has to guess the garment drawn by the sketcher
  30. 30. PLAYER ROLE: SKETCHER ● ● ● The only player to see the low confidence image “May” be asked to provide a tag for the image Is asked to draw the contour of the object for which the Tag of the tag is provided within the target allotted time object Goal of the Sketcher is to let the other players guess the tag within a time slot without providing any other hints than the contour 6th Qualinet General Meeting Low Confidence Image Contour provided by the user 30 ●
  31. 31. PLAYER ROLE: GUESSER ● ● ● Any other player in the game His/Her goal is to guess the object for which the Sketcher has provided the contour Not allowed to draw on the whiteboard, just to type in the chat box the probable answer as fast as possible Scoring: ● ● Sketcher: 10 pts + 1 for each guesser Contour of the garment provided by the Sketcher Guesser: 10 pts to the first, then decreasing down to five 6th Qualinet General Meeting 31 ●
  32. 32. 6th Qualinet General Meeting 32 RESULTS:
  33. 33. RESULTS: 6th Qualinet General Meeting 33 Sketchness Aggregator Kota Yamaguchi, M Hadi Kiapour, Luis E Ortiz, Tamara L Berg, "Parsing Clothing in Fashion Photographs", CVPR 2012
  34. 34. TASK TO GAME MECHANICS MATCHING Does a game with game mechanics similar to the task exist? If so, integrate the task within the existing game 6th Qualinet General Meeting 34 If not, a custom game with custom game mechanics has to be implemented...
  35. 35. HOW TO EVALUATE A GAME? The Goal is a fun game… … but also to solve a task! Game designs are hypotheses Playtests are experiments Evaluate designs off playtest results 6th Qualinet General Meeting 35 Repeat
  36. 36. REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION Execution Interface Input Objects Operations 6th Qualinet General Meeting Output Objects Output Validation 36 Task Description uTask
  37. 37. HOW TO IMPROVE GAME DESIGN We want to make informed decisions: • Get data early, get data often • Iterate constantly • We don’t know what’s best (players do) • Create a feedback loop between design and 6th Qualinet General Meeting 37 playtest
  38. 38. TRADITIONAL METHODS 6th Qualinet General Meeting 38 DIRECT OBSERVATION
  39. 39. TRADITIONAL METHODS VERBAL REPORTS I don’t know what I am supposed to do... 6th Qualinet General Meeting 39 I am bad at drawing...
  40. 40. TRADITIONAL METHODS 6th Qualinet General Meeting 40 Q&A/SURVEYS
  41. 41. TRADITIONAL METHODS ISSUES Artificial gameplay sessions – Many potential biases – Distorted data (interpreted behavior) – Lack of empiricism – Missing elements of objectivity – Sometimes difficult to establish emotions, 6th Qualinet General Meeting 41 baselines, and independence
  42. 42. TECHNICAL APPROACHES 6th Qualinet General Meeting 42 STAT COLLECTION
  43. 43. TECHNICAL APPROACHES 6th Qualinet General Meeting 43 STAT COLLECTION
  44. 44. TECHNICAL APPROACHES PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS Heartrate Skin Conductance Level Eye Tracking Face Recording 6th Qualinet General Meeting 44 EEG
  45. 45. A CLASSIC EXAMPLE: Just how bad is Big Rigs: Over the Road Racing? It's as bad as your mind will allow you to comprehend. 6th Qualinet General Meeting 45 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7f3HDsg LV68
  46. 46. CONCLUSIONS •Play is a universal need •Games and videogames are entertaining and controlled means to satisfy it •We can exploit players to accomplish astonishing results... •...if we design a good and tailored gaming experience 6th Qualinet General Meeting 46 •Technological improvements cannot fix a gameplay mined by bad design choices
  47. 47. THE CUBRIK PROJECT ● CUbRIK is a research project financed by the European Union Goals: ● ● ● ● ● Advance the architecture of multimedia search Exploit the human contribution in multimedia search Use open-source components provided by the community Start up a search business ecosystem http://www.cubrikproject.eu/ 6th Qualinet General Meeting 47 ●

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