THE HISTORY OF TANNINGCosmetic tanning is a 20th century fashion craze. Crimson White Ad
Before the 20th century, upper- class men and women alike powdered their skin to get a paler complexion. From Wikipedia
During the Industrial Revolution, working-class laborers moved from farms to factories and grew pale, while the upper-class spent their leisure time outdoors and became tanned. From the Guardian.co.uk
In 1906, ultra-violetlamps were invented inGermany by Heraeus, a medical corporation. Late 1929 ad
Tanning popularity sky-rocketed by the 1920’s. 1920’s ad
Since the 1920’s, ultra-violet lamps were also advertised for their “health benefits”. 1929 ad
The sunlamps offered multiple benefits at once.1941 ad
Sunlamp Brands Newborns to Prevent Hospital Mix-ups1938 ad
In the defense industryduring World War II, it wasthought that workers could be kept healthier whileworking longer hours if they were given several extra minutes of sunlight with sunlamps. 1940’s ad
A late 1940’s advertisement for the “ultra-violet ray lamp” in the Medical Journal of Australia. 1948 ad
Tanning for health remained a trend through the 1950’s. However, beauty wasgradually eclipsing health as the main reason to tan. 1950 ad
1. Indoor tanning is as safe, or safer, than sun-bathing Myth Fact From Palm Beach Tan: From the Skin Cancer Foundation: “…Regular exposure to sunlight “When compared to people whocan: strengthen bones regulate blood have never tanned indoors, indoorpressure reduce stress and tension tanners have a higher risk of allkeep hair, skin and nails strong and forms of skin cancer. A controlledhealthy.” dose of tanning lamp radiation is a high dose: Frequent tanners using “Tan Fact: Our state-of-the-art new high-pressure sunlamps maytanning equipment is designed to receive as much as 12 times thereplicate the UVA and UVB produced annual ultraviolet A (UVA) dose theyby the sun, while allowing you to receive from sun exposure.”control your exposure.”
Tanning and sun-bathing cause the same kind of harm to yourskin, but tanning beds allow for a deeper tan (and thus, more harm) in a shorter time-span: 20 minutes in a tanning bed = 4 minutes of indoor tanning Every time you tan, the epidermis (outer layer of the skin) breaks, allowing UVA rays -- which causes melanoma and premature aging of the skin –to get down deeper into the skin. From there, it shakes up the secretion and activation of melanin, which is necessary for tanning.
2. Indoor tanning is a safe way to tan without sunburns or sunscreens Myth Fact From the Indoor Tanning Association: From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:“Indoor tanning, for individuals who candevelop a tan, is a smart way to minimize “Indoor tanning and tanningthe risk of contracting sunburn while outside are both dangerous.maximizing the enjoyment and benefit of Although tanning beds operate on ahaving a tan…By taking into account the timer, the exposure to ultraviolettanner’s skin type and the intensity of the (UV) rays can vary based on the ageequipment, this schedule helps to deliver a and type of light bulbs. You can stilldosage of UV light that is designed to get a burn from tanning indoors,minimize the risk of sunburn. .. This kind of and even a tan indicates damage tocontrol is impossible outdoors, where your skin.”variables including seasonality, time of day,weather conditions, reflective surfaces andaltitude all make sunburn prevention moredifficult.”
From Health Made Easy: “In a news release issued by the Cancer Institute of New Jersey, study author Jerod Stapleton, a behavioral scientist at the institute,said their findings reveal that indoor tanning, which is promoted as a ‘controlled’ exposure to ultraviolet radiation “resulting in minimal risk of burn, results in quite the opposite.” He said that in spite of these claims, the findings of their study suggest that sunburn commonly occurs as a result of using a tanning bed. “This is particularly worrisome given data that suggest sunburns increase future skin cancer risk,” he added.”
3. Indoor tanning is a safe way to get Vitamin D Myth Fact From VitaminDTanning.com: From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: “…tanning lamps that emit someUVB light - and most of them do - “Vitamin D is important for bonehave been shown by peer-reviewed health, but studies showing linksresearch to stimulate vitamin D between vitamin D and other healthproduction in the skin and elevate conditions are inconsistent. Althoughblood levels of vitamin D in the it is important to get enough vitaminbody. While it may not be necessary D, the safest way is through diet orto develop a tan to produce supplements. Tanning harms your skin,sufficient amounts of vitamin D, and and the amount of time spent tanningwhile dietary supplements are an to get enough vitamin D varies fromalternative, UVB exposure is the person to person.”bodys natural way to producevitamin D.”
INDOOR TANNING AND SKIN CANCER Each year, there are 160,000 cases of melanoma worldwide and 48, 000 deaths occurring from melanoma.In the United States alone, there will be 27,000 cases of melanoma this years and 8,900 deaths occurring from melanoma. One third of those who contract melanoma will die of the disease.But some of these melanoma cases could have been easily prevented from ever happening.
INDOOR TANNING AND SKIN CANCER Studies have shown that an individual’s melanoma risk increases by 75% just by going to the tanning bed more than ten times each year.Indoor tanning beds are listed as a Group 1 carcinogen (cancercausing substance) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. To put this ranking in perspective, cigarettes are also listed as a Group 1 carcinogen.
INDOOR TANNING AND SKIN CANCER Key Risk Factors: - Light skin - Family history - Childhood sunburns - Sensitive skin, including freckles - Blue/green eyes - Red/blonde hair - Moles
A-B-C’s of Melanoma- Asymmetry- Border irregularity- Color bleaching at lesion’s borders- Diameter: ¼ inch- Elevation
INDOOR TANNING AND COLLEGE STUDENTS Melanoma is the second most common cancer for young people between the ages of 15 and 29. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention states that “people who begin tanning younger than age 35 have a 75% higher risk of melanoma.” The most frequent indoor tanners are 18-29 year olds and those who have some degree of college education.
INDOOR TANNING AND COLLEGE STUDENTS Most college students have heard about the risks associated with indoor tanning, but they try to “rationalize” their habit or addiction. The largest defense of college students for indoor tanning is that they “look better when they are tanned”. Many students admit that “tanning beds make them ill, but everything causes cancer these days”, and they insist that “tanning bed use is no more risky than lots of things that people do”.
INDOOR TANNING AND ADDICTION A study documented in the Archives of Dermatology discovered that addiction to tanning beds are a serious problem, specifically among college students. As many as 39% of college students could be addicted to indoor tanning. With this addiction comes increased anxiety and increased alcohol and drug use.But the most disturbing issue is that, in the same study, 100%of the college students said that they were aware of the skin cancer risk involved with indoor tanning.
INDOOR TANNING AND ADDICTIONIt is true that tanning produces endorphins, which is an incentive, whether consciously or subconsciously, for people to tan. However, these endorphins could actually be the center of the problem, because tanning beds release so many endorphins that tanning becomes an addiction.
This New Jersey woman was arrested and charged with second-degreechild endangerment when school officials investigated a rash found on her five-year-old daughter’s skin. Although she pleaded not guilty and says that her daughter never went to a tanning salon, she herself admitted that she has visited tanning salons for years and has tanned beyond the average tan-goer.
INDOOR TANNING AND CULTUREEvery special occasion can be used by the industry as an excuse to get a tan.
Even health and educational centers have not gone untouched by the tanning industry. Article from the Crimson White on the opening of the new Student Health Center at the University of Alabama
Advertisement for the Opening Celebration of the Student Health Center Among the prizes is a tanning bed certificate
An advertisement forsunlamps in a 1947 edition of the Crimson White
A modern advertisementfor indoor tanning from a 2012 edition of the Crimson White
From the University of Alabama’s Telephone Directory
Advertisement Connecting Tanning to UA Football
Based on a lecture by Dr. Alan Blum, M.D.Director, the University of Alabama Center for the Study of Tobacco and Society for the University of Alabama’s Student Health Center, October 2012 Research conducted by Dr. Alan Blum and Courtney Kaderbek Slideshow designed by Courtney Kaderbek
BIBLIOGRAPHYPhotographs• Tanning Bed Photograph, from ONW Convergence Journalism – http://www.onwravens.net/ravendaily/2011/10/13/tanning-beds-banned-in-california/• CotyTan Ad, from Duke University Libraries Digital Collections – http://library.duke.edu/digitalcollections/adaccess/guide/cosmetics/• “Slot Machine Vends 25c Sunburns” Advertisement, from Modern Mechanix – http://blog.modernmechanix.com/slot-machine-vends-25c-sunburns/• “Wanted: Men to Sell Sunbeams” Advertisement, from Modern Mechanix – http://www.guardian.co.uk/money/2010/jan/09/employment-law-market-changes• Industrial Revolution Factory Photograph, from the Guardian.co.uk – http://www.guardian.co.uk/money/2010/jan/09/employment-law-market-changes• Marie Antoinette Painting, from Wikipedia – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Marie_Antoinette_by_Joseph_Ducreux.jpg• Palm Beach Tan Christmas Advertisement, Palm Beach Tan.com – http://palmbeachtan.com/• “The Positive Side of Tanning”, VitaminDTanning.com – http://vitamindtanning.com/vitamin_d__the_positive_side_of_tanning• “Skin Cancer Myths vs. Facts”, SkinCancer.org – http://www.skincancer.org/skin-cancer-information/skin-cancer-facts/myths-vs-facts• “Basic Information About Skin Cancer, from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention.com – http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/skin/basic_info/index.htm• “Sunbed Tanning” from Palm Beach Tan.com – http://palmbeachtan.com/sunbed-tanning/• “Sunwise” from Palm Beach Tan.com – http://palmbeachtan.com/sunbed-tanning/how-to-get-the-perfect-color/#sunwise-info• DuPont Tan Ad – http://www.cracked.com/article_18772_13-wildly-irresponsible-vintage-ads-aimed-at-kids.html• “New Sun Lamp Held in Hand Brands Babies”, from Modern Mechanix – http://blog.modernmechanix.com/new-sun-lamp-held-in-hand-brands-babies/• Suntan Tuesday Taylor Photographs – http://phillycollector.blogspot.com/2010/03/bewitched-and-bewildered-by-boxes-part.html• “Sunshine in a Tube,” from Modern Mechanix – http://blog.modernmechanix.com/sunshine-in-a-tube/• “Healthful Sleep on an Ultra-Violet Ray Bed”, from Modern Mechanix – http://blog.modernmechanix.com/healthful-sleep-on-ultra-violet-ray-bed/
BIBLIOGRAPHY• “Tuesday Taylor and Taylor Jones, more fashionable girls from Ideal!”, CrissyandBeth.com – http://crissyandbeth.com/Tuesday.html• “The History of Tanning”, Paradis Island Tan – http://www.paradisislandtan.com/history.html• “History”, Oracle Thinkquest Educational Foundation – http://library.thinkquest.org/15215/Foe/Tanning/history.html• “The History of the Suntan”, Suntan.com – http://www.suntan.com/?factshistory• “History of Tanning Beds”, Sunco Tanning – http://www.sunotanning.com/wolff tanning beds.htm
BIBLIOGRAPHY• “Indoor Tanners Rationalize Risky Behavior”, U.S. News – http://health.usnews.com/health-news/news/articles/2012/06/20/indoor-tanners-rationalize-risky-behavior-study-finds• “Use of Indoor Tanning Devices by Adults – United States, 2010”, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6118a2.htm• “What Does Melanoma Look Like?”, Melanoma.com – http://www.melanoma.com/what_does.html• “Tanning Hazards Information Sheet”, New York Department of Health – http://www.health.ny.gov/environmental/indoors/tanning/fact_sheet.htm• “Skin Cancer Facts”, Skin Cancer Foundation – (http://www.skincancer.org/skin-cancer-information/skin-cancer-facts#indoor)• “The Positive Side of Tanning”, Vitamin D Tanning.com – http://vitamindtanning.com/vitamin_d__the_positive_side_of_tanning• “Burn Injuries Common among College Students Who Tan”, Health Made Easy.com – http://www.healthmadeeasy.com/health-news/burn-injuries-common-among-college-students-who-use-tanning-beds/• “Basic Information About Skin Cancer”, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – (http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/skin/basic_info/indoor_tanning.html)• “Skin Cancer Myths vs. Facts”, Skin Cancer Foundation – (http://www.skincancer.org/skin-cancer-information/skin-cancer-facts/myths-vs-facts)• “Sunbed Tanning”, Palm Beach Tan – http://palmbeachtan.com/sunbed-tanning/• “How to Get the Perfect Tan”, Palm Beach Tan – (http://www.palmbeachtan.com/sunbed-tanning/how-to-get-the-perfect-color/#sunwise-info)
BIBLIOGRAPHY• “FAQs”, Indoor Tanning Association – http://www.theita.com/?page=FAQs#responsible• “N.J. Tanning Mom: ‘I love to tan,’ but didn’t burn my daughter in a salon bed”, NJ.com – http://www.nj.com/news/index.ssf/2012/05/nj_tanning_mom_i_love_to_tan_b.html• “N.J. Tanning Mom Reportedly Banned from Tanning Salons”, ABC News – http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/headlines/2012/05/n-j-tanning-mom-reportedly-banned-from-salons/• “College Tanning Bed Addicts: Why?”, CBS News.com – http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-505145_162-37241947/college-tanning-bed-addicts-why/• “Young People May Not Perceive Tanning as a Particular Danger”, Dermatology Associates of Plymouth Meetings, P.C. (from the Archives of Dermatology) – http://plymouthmeetingdermatology.com/young-people-may-not-perceive-tanning-beds-as-a-particular-danger/• “Reasons for Tanning Bed Use: a survey of community colleges in North Carolina”, PubMed.gov – http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22860315