Current and Future Responses to Drivers of Change for Water Availlability and Use for Agriculture. Prof. Elijah K. Biamah
Presentation by: Prof. Elijah K. Biamah,
Environmental and Water Systems Engineer and Chairman/Head of
Department of Environmental & Biosystems Engineering, University of Nairobi, Kenya
November 22, 2010
Sustaining water availability a challenge and
opportunity for communities in ACP countries..
Water quality and availability Vs population growth
and expanding economies.
Focus of ACP countries:
o Equitable distribution of water within society
o Preservation and protection of water quality,
o Ensure adequate water supplies
o Preservation of the environment.
Key drivers of change: demographic, technological,
social, environmental and governance.
End of 20th Century Predicted change: End of
Less than 400mm
More than 1000 mm
End of 20th Century
Drop by 10-20%
Drop by up to 10%
Increase by up to 10%
Increase by 10-20%
Livestock deaths in 2009
Soil erosion and land degradation
Flash floods displacing families
Crop failure due to drought
Domestic water shortage
Vegetation degradation and loss
Emerging land use changes due to a shrinking resource
Comprehensive water policy and legislation – water
Impacts of climate change – excessive water flows and
Effects of human activities – drought and desertification
Future water requirements – influenced by climate,
economy and standards of living
Understanding Indicators of Agricultural Drought.
Choice of Suitable Conservation Techniques.
Adoption of Appropriate Techniques for Rainwater
Application of Technologies for Conservation Agriculture
Soil and water management technologies
Use of stable ecosystem management techniques
Use of agroforestry for water conservation
Land use planning and conservation practices
Soil fertility management techniques
Adoption of Appropriate Land Use Policy
Focus on Smallholder Conservation Agriculture
Integrated Water Resources Management Policy
Promotion of Public and Private Partnerships
Adoption of International Land and Water Initiatives
Adequate Legislative and Regulatory Interventions
Proper Water Resource Planning.
Adaptation of Water Resources
Management strategies to cope with
Response to Key Drivers of Change.
Integrated Watershed Management
Rainwater Harvesting and
Conservation Technologies for
Technologies for Drip Irrigated
Coordination of cross-sectoral water services
Incorporation of land use and watershed management in national
water management strategies.
Promotion of rainwater harvesting technologies for increasing
Rehabilitation of inefficient water systems, reduction in wastage
and unaccounted for water, recycling and reuse of water.
Use innovative water technologies like water harvesting, water
recycling and desalinization.
Water transfer facilities to move water from surplus to deficit
The formulation and enforcement of appropriate policies and
Capacity building in project identification, preparation,
implementation, monitoring and evaluation.
Involvement of local communities in the conservation and
management of the environment and water
Management of land and water as finite resources and on the co-
ordination and integration of water, land-use, and population
policies for sustainable development.