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The Fundamentals of the Internet

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Presentació duta a terme per Maria Isabel Gandia, cap de Comunicacions del CSUC, en el marc de l'Escola de Tardor de l'IBEI-ICANN-CSUC sobre els Reptes de la Governança d'Internet (The Challenges of Internet Governance) celebrada del 16 al 19 d'octubre de 2018.

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The Fundamentals of the Internet

  1. 1. Maria Isabel Gandía Carriedo “The Challenges of Internet Governance” IBEI-ICANN-CSUC, Barcelona, 17-10-2018 The Fundamentals of the Internet
  2. 2. Agenda  Introduction  The History of the Internet  Some Technical Concepts: • Technical Definitions • Internet Principles • Internet Topology • A Layered Approach to the Internet Model • Routing Principles  Internet Exchanges (IX)  The DNS  Who controls the Internet?  Useful and Available Tools  Credits & References
  3. 3. What Is CSUC? CSUC is a Consortium of 10 Universities and the Catalan Government. “Collaborating and Sharing to Improve the University System“
  4. 4. CSUC: What Do We Do?
  5. 5. Who am I?  Communications Manager at CSUC  Responsible for the management of: • The Research and Education Network in Catalonia (Anella Científica) • The Catalonia Neutral Internet Exchange (CATNIX)  Member of several Programme Committees, Working Groups , Steering Committees and Communities: • RIPE Programme Committee • ESNOG (Spanish Network Operators Group) • SIG-NOC (Special Interest Group for Network Operation Centres) SC at GÉANT • Network and Performing Arts Production Workshop • EURO-IX Benchmarking Club  Networks, networks, networks…
  6. 6. Agenda  Introduction  The History of the Internet  Some Technical Concepts: • Technical Definitions • Internet Principles • Internet Topology • A Layered Approach to the Internet Model • Routing Principles  Internet Exchanges (IX)  The DNS  Who controls the Internet?  Useful and Available Tools  Credits & References
  7. 7. The Internet: A Bit of History  The first description of the social interactions that could be enabled through networking was a series of memos written by J.C.R. Licklider of MIT in August 1962 discussing his “Galactic Network” concept.  The first time the word “internet” was defined was in 1974… but it was not the internet as we know it today.
  8. 8. The Internet: A Bit of History
  9. 9. The Internet: A Bit of History  Research on packet switched networks began in the 60’s.  Several isolated packet switched networks appeared: • NPL (Europe) • ARPANET (DARPA, USA)  Kleinrock • RAND • Tymnet • Merit Network • Telenet • CYCLADES • X.25 • NORSAR • …  Different languages!
  10. 10. The Internet: A Bit of History  The ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking (by which separated networks could be joined into a network of networks).  By the end of 1969, four host computers were connected together into the initial ARPANET.  Fifteen sites in the USA were connected to the ARPANET by the end of 1971.  In 1972, Ray Tomlinson at BBN wrote the basic email message send and read software, motivated by the need of the ARPANET developers for an easy coordination mechanism.
  11. 11. The Internet: A Bit of History  NCP (Network Control Protocol) was the language used at DARPA for ARPANET.  The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) standard was an improved version of NCP.  Usenet, in 1979, was born as a decentralized way of sharing things.  AS of January 1983, there was a “flag-day” to change from NCP to TCP/IP.  By 1985, Internet was already well established as a technology supporting a broad community of researchers and developers, and was beginning to be used by other communities for daily computer communications.  Tim Berners-Lee, from CERN, made a proposal for an information management system in 1989, and he implemented the first successful communication between a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) client and server via the internet. The World Wide Web was born.  Peer-to-peer networks emerged in the late 90’s.
  12. 12. The Internet: A Bit of History  A key concept of the Internet is that it was not designed for just one application, but as a general infrastructure on which new applications could be conceived. It is the general purpose nature of the service provided by TCP and IP that makes this possible.  The governments, industry and academia have been partners in evolving and deploying this exciting new technology.
  13. 13. Agenda  Introduction  The History of the Internet  Some Technical Concepts: • Technical Definitions • Internet Principles • Internet Topology • A Layered Approach to the Internet Model • Routing Principles  Internet Exchanges (IX)  The DNS  Who controls the internet?  Useful and Available Tools  Credits & References
  14. 14. What is the Internet?
  15. 15. What is the Internet?  While it may seem like a simple question, defining the Internet isn’t easy. Because unlike any other technology, the Internet can be whatever we make it. We can shape it. We can mold it. But most importantly, we can use it to connect people, communities, and countries around the world.  Open standards enable this network of networks to communicate. This makes it possible for anyone to create content, offer services, and sell products without requiring permission from a central authority. https://www.internetsociety.org/internet/
  16. 16. A Technical Definition of Internet  The word Internet means a “network of networks”.  The core function of the Internet is to tie disparate networks together into a universal and global network.  Networks are physically located in different countries and under different jurisdictions.  Networks talk to each other using the same rules and language called communication protocols.  The protocol that allows inter-networking is called Internet Protocol or IP (as in IP address).
  17. 17. A Technical Definition of Network  A computer network, or simply a network, is a collection of computers and other hardware components interconnected by communication channels that allow sharing of resources and information.  Networks use different physical mediums (fibre optic, copper, coaxial cable, wireless, microwaves) to transmit binary information across computing systems. 00110101100010101011101010101010101010111101110101110110000 01101101010101010101010101011100011000101010010001000111001 01010101010101010110011010110001010101110101010101010101011 11011101011101100000110110101010101010101010101110001100010 10100100010001110010101010101010101011001101011000101010111 01010101010101010111101110101110110000011011010101010101010 10101011100011000101010010001000111001010101010101010101101 11010010000101101101000101011101000011110110001001000110000
  18. 18. Internet principles  The Internet is a universal and global network with: • a common name space and address space • a common set of protocols • basic interoperability • end to end architectural principle  A common namespace and address space gives the Internet its uniqueness and global reach • www.catnix.net is unique and can be accessed from anywhere on the Internet.
  19. 19. Internet Principles  Basic interoperability is the ability of heterogenous computer systems to work together (inter-operate) and exchange information. • It’s achieved through a common set of protocols (the TCP/IP stack): TCP, UDP, IP, HTTP, FTP, BGP, DNS, etc.  The end-to-end architectural principle states that in a general- purpose network, such as the Internet, application-specific functions reside in the end points of the network.
  20. 20. What’s behind the Internet cloud?
  21. 21. Internet Topology  The Internet consists of thousands of Internet Service Providers (ISP) or carrier networks, interconnected with one another in a sparse mesh.  Each of the interconnecting links between networks takes one of two forms: • Transit agreements: customer < > provider relationship. • Peering agreements: peer-to-peer relationship.  Depending on these transit and peering agreements, each network defines rules called routing policies which determine which links will packets follow.
  22. 22. Internet Topology  Transit agreements are commercial contracts in which a customer pays a service provider for access to the entire Internet. Transit agreements are most common at the edges of the Internet.  Peering agreements are the carrier interconnection agreements that allow carriers to exchange traffic bound for one another's customers; they are most common in the core of the Internet and are the true creators of value of the Internet.
  23. 23. ISP interconnections Source: ENISA report
  24. 24. A Layered Approach to the Internet Model The link layer or network interface layer provides a bidirectional communication channel between two devices connected directly to each other. The network layer or the internet layer forwards packets to their destination IP address. The transport layer provides a host-to-host communication channel to send and receive data. Applications create user data and exchange data with other applications. Example of applications are the web or email. Internet Link
  25. 25. But You May Heard About “Layer 8” Problems
  26. 26. Well, Two Layered Approaches from Different Views “Layer 2” “Layer 3” “Layer 7” “Layer 4” *Layer 8 is used to refer to "user" or "political" layer on top of the OSI model. The OSI model is a 7-layer model 
  27. 27. 001101011000101010111010101010101010101111011101011101100000110110101010 10101010101010111000110001010100100010001110010101010101010101011001101 011000101010111010101010101010101111011101011101100000110110101010101010 10101010111000110001010100100010001110010101010101010101011001101011000 101010111010101010101010101111011101011101100000110110101010101010101010 10111000110001010100100010001110010101010101010101011011101001000010110 110100010101110100001111011000100100011000000110101100010101011101010101 010101010111101110101110110000011011010101010101010101010111000110001010 10010001000111001010101010101010101100110101100010101011101010101010101 010111101110101110110000011011010101010101010101010111000110001010100100 01000111001010101010101010101100110101100010101011101010101010101010111 10111010111011000001101101010101010101010101011100011000101010010001000 111001010101010101010101101110100100001011011010001010111010000111101100 010010001100000011010110001010101110101010101010101011110111010111011000 00110110101010101010101010101110001100010101001000100011100101010101010 101010110011010110001010101110101010101010101011110111010111011000001101 10101010101010101010101110001100010101001000100011100101010101010101010 110011010110001010101110101010101010101011110111010111011000001101101010 10101010101010101110001100010101001000100011100101010101010101010110111 010010000101101101000101011101000011110110001001000110000010101010111101 11010111011000001101101010101010101010101011100011000101010010001000111 Data Encapsulation Application data Transport data Transport header Internet header Internet data Frame data Frame header Frame footer
  28. 28. 001101011000101010111010101010101010101111011101011101100000110110101010 10101010101010111000110001010100100010001110010101010101010101011001101 011000101010111010101010101010101111011101011101100000110110101010101010 10101010111000110001010100100010001110010101010101010101011001101011000 101010111010101010101010101111011101011101100000110110101010101010101010 10111000110001010100100010001110010101010101010101011011101001000010110 110100010101110100001111011000100100011000000110101100010101011101010101 010101010111101110101110110000011011010101010101010101010111000110001010 10010001000111001010101010101010101100110101100010101011101010101010101 010111101110101110110000011011010101010101010101010111000110001010100100 01000111001010101010101010101100110101100010101011101010101010101010111 10111010111011000001101101010101010101010101011100011000101010010001000 111001010101010101010101101110100100001011011010001010111010000111101100 010010001100000011010110001010101110101010101010101011110111010111011000 00110110101010101010101010101110001100010101001000100011100101010101010 101010110011010110001010101110101010101010101011110111010111011000001101 10101010101010101010101110001100010101001000100011100101010101010101010 110011010110001010101110101010101010101011110111010111011000001101101010 10101010101010101110001100010101001000100011100101010101010101010110111 010010000101101101000101011101000011110110001001000110000010101010111101 11010111011000001101101010101010101010101011100011000101010010001000111 Binary: Zeros and Ones  A bit is a zero (0) or a one (1).  Octets, also known as bytes, are groups of 8 bits.  From binary to decimal:  00000000  0  11111111  1+2+4+8+16+32+64+128 = 255  01010101  1+4+16+64=85 00000001  0  20 = 1 00000010  1  21 = 2 00000100  2  22 = 4 00001000  3  23 = 8 00010000  4  24 = 16 00100000  5  25 = 32 01000000  6  26 = 64 10000000  7  27 = 128
  29. 29. IP Addresses  When the internet protocol was created, the idea was to let the big servers and supercomputers communicate amongst them.  No personal computers, laptops or mobile phones existed by then.  No one anticipated the huge amount of devices connected to the internet we have today.  A number of bits had to be reserved for the IP addresses.  That’s why 32 bits, for 4,294,967,296 (232) unique IP addresses, seemed more than enough.  These 32 bits (in binary) are represented as 4 numbers in decimal between 0 (all zeros) and 255 (all ones), separated by dots. For instance, 10.0.254.1:  This representation of IP address is known as IPv4 00001010 00000000 11111110 00000001 10. 0. 254. 1
  30. 30. IP Addresses  With more and more devices connected to the internet, only 4,294,967,296 addresses were not enough.  IPv6 was born to solve this problem.  Instead of 32 bits, IPv6 uses 128 bits  2128  340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 unique IPv6 addresses .  These 128 bits (in binary) are represented as 8 groups of 4 hexadecimal numbers between 0 (all zeros) and F (all ones), separated by colons. Groups of “zeros” can be abbreviated. For instance 2001:DB8::1  IPv4 and IPv6 are not designed to be interoperable, but there are transition and co-existence mechanisms to let us use them both. 00100000 00000001 00001101 10111000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 2001 DB8: 0000: 0000: 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000001 0000: 0000: 0000: 1
  31. 31. 001101011000101010111010101010101010101111011101011101100000110110101010 10101010101010111000110001010100100010001110010101010101010101011001101 011000101010111010101010101010101111011101011101100000110110101010101010 10101010111000110001010100100010001110010101010101010101011001101011000 101010111010101010101010101111011101011101100000110110101010101010101010 10111000110001010100100010001110010101010101010101011011101001000010110 110100010101110100001111011000100100011000000110101100010101011101010101 010101010111101110101110110000011011010101010101010101010111000110001010 10010001000111001010101010101010101100110101100010101011101010101010101 010111101110101110110000011011010101010101010101010111000110001010100100 01000111001010101010101010101100110101100010101011101010101010101010111 10111010111011000001101101010101010101010101011100011000101010010001000 111001010101010101010101101110100100001011011010001010111010000111101100 010010001100000011010110001010101110101010101010101011110111010111011000 00110110101010101010101010101110001100010101001000100011100101010101010 101010110011010110001010101110101010101010101011110111010111011000001101 10101010101010101010101110001100010101001000100011100101010101010101010 110011010110001010101110101010101010101011110111010111011000001101101010 10101010101010101110001100010101001000100011100101010101010101010110111 010010000101101101000101011101000011110110001001000110000010101010111101 11010111011000001101101010101010101010101011100011000101010010001000111 Binary: Zeros and Ones  From binary to hexadecimal:  0000 0000 = 00  1111 1111 = FF  0101 0101 = 55 (but it would be 85 in decimal!) 0000 = 0 0001 = 1 0010 = 2 0011 = 3 0100 = 4 0101 = 5 0110 = 6 0111 = 7 1000 = 8 1001 = 9 1010 = A 1011 = B 1100 = C 1101 = D 1110 = E 1111 = F
  32. 32. Data Flow Example Router RouterHost Host Laptop Wifi router Server Enterprise-grade router
  33. 33. Routing Principles  Routers collectively determine the path that packets have to travel through to reach their destination by exchanging messages advertising their ability to reach adjacent networks.  It is a fundamental function of the Internet since it allows inter- networking and its carried out by routers located inside the networks.  Routing is always performed on a best-effort basis
  34. 34. Data Flow Example Application Application Transport Transport Internet Internet Link Link Internet Link Internet Link … Process to process communication Wifi Satellite … Host to host communication Fiber
  35. 35. Application Data Flow Example: HTTP Application Application GET / HTTP/1.1 User-agent: curl/7.1 Host: www.csuc.cat Accept: */* Web page elements (pages, images, scripts). Web client Web server
  36. 36. Routing Principles  Routing is the action of forwarding packets originated in one network to its final destination which most of the times is another network.  Each router has an internal routing table used to forward packets based on their destination IP address.  Routing packets across networks is possible because each of the individual networks that compose the Internet is identified by a unique Autonomous System (AS) number and a block of IP addresses.  Each block of IP addresses is represented by a network and a mask indicating the number of bits that can vary inside the IP range.  For instance, for Anella Científica: • AS: AS13041 • IP address range 84.88.0.0/15 or 84.88.0.0 255.254.0.0, meaning the first 15 bits in the range are fixed and the next 17 can change (from 84.88.0.0 to 84.89.255.255)
  37. 37. Routing Principles Router Router Router AS3: 10.0.0.0/24 AS2: 10.0.2.0/24 AS1: 10.0.1.0/24 a b Destination Interface Metric 10.0.0.0/24 a 10 10.0.1.0/24 b 10 Destination Interface Metric 10.0.0.0/24 a 10 10.0.2.0/24 b 10 Destination Interface Metric 10.0.1.0/24 a 10 10.0.2.0/24 b 10 a b a b
  38. 38. Routing Principles Router Router AS3: 10.0.0.0/24 AS2: 10.0.2.0/24 AS1: 10.0.1.0/24 b Destination Interface Metric 10.0.0.0/24 a 10 10.0.1.0/24 b 10 Destination Interface Metric 10.0.0.0/24 b 10 10.0.2.0/24 b 10 Destination Interface Metric 10.0.1.0/24 b 10 10.0.2.0/24 b 10 a b b Router
  39. 39. Network interconnection • Network interconnection in the Internet cannot take place between all networks in a full mesh because of geographical and scalability issues. • A successful model for network interconnection is to use Internet exchange points (IX or IXPs).
  40. 40. Agenda  Introduction  The History of the Internet  Some Technical Concepts: • Technical Definitions • Internet Principles • Internet Topology • A Layered Approach to the Internet Model • Routing Principles  Internet Exchanges (IX)  The DNS  Who controls the internet?  Useful and Available Tools  Credits & References
  41. 41. ISP interconnections Source: ENISA report
  42. 42. What is an Internet Exchange?  A Neutral Internet Exchange (or Internet eXchange Point, IXP) is a meeting point, a shared infrastructure that allows different networks (Internet Services and Content providers, Carriers,…) to exchange traffic between them through exchange agreements.  This exchanging of regional, national and/or international IP traffic is generally known as “peering”.  The purpose of a Neutral Internet Exchange is to allow the direct interconnection of networks.  Internet Exchanges improve the cost, latency, bandwidth, routing efficiency and fault tolerance.  Internet exchanges increase the reliability and robustness of interconnections by increasing the numbers of direct routes between ISPs.  CATNIX is the IXP in Catalonia.
  43. 43. Connections without an Internet Exchange Provider 1 Provider 2 Provider 3 Provider 4 Connections: 2 neighbours: 1 3 neighbours: 3 4 neighbours: 6 ... 100 neighbours: 4,950 … N neighbours: Nx(N-1)/2
  44. 44. Connections with an Internet Exchange Provider 1 Provider 2 Provider 3 Provider 4 Connections: 100 neighbors: 100 N neighbors: N One connection – shared platform – many peers
  45. 45. How the Internet Works  The routing protocol in the Internet is BGP (Border Gateway Protocol).  Any network (ISP, Academic Networks, Operator,..) needs an AS (Autonomous System), assigned by a Regional Internet Registry, to speak BGP.  Peers “peer” at IXPs using BGP.  IXP are places where the only restriction for the interconnection of networks and resources is the capacity of your port/s!! Port or interface
  46. 46. The Internet Revealed It’s all about peering
  47. 47. Routing Explained: Hot Potato Redundant Transit Providers User (“Eyeballs”) Server (“Content”) Red ISP Redundant Transit Providers Internet Exchange Point West Internet Exchange Point East Green ISP Packets from the user are routed by Red ISP via IXP West Green ISP backhauls from distant IXP and delivers to customer
  48. 48. Routing Explained: Hot Potato Redundant Transit Providers User (“Eyeballs”) Server (“Content”) Red ISP Redundant Transit Providers Internet Exchange Point West Internet Exchange Point East Green ISP Packets from the server are routed by Green ISP via IXP East Red ISP backhauls from distant IXP and delivers to customer
  49. 49. Routing Explained: Hot Potato Redundant Transit Providers User (“Eyeballs”) Server (“Content”) Red ISP Redundant Transit Providers Internet Exchange Point West Internet Exchange Point East Green ISP Symmetry: Each network is responsible for its own costs
  50. 50. Simple Tools: Ping and Traceroute  Ping and traceroute give us an idea of the latency in the network. #ping 8.8.8.8 Tue Oct 16 21:51:44.775 CEST Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 8.8.8.8, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 8/8/10 ms
  51. 51. Some facts about IXPs in Europe According to the last Euro-IX report from 2016: • There are 225 internet exchanges in Europe, distributed in 49 countries. • Russia is the country with more IXP: 30 • Germany is the country with more traffic exchanged via IX. According to the 2015 report, there are more than 5,000 present AS; 900 of them peer at 2 or more IXP. The biggest IXP in the world are • AMSIX (Amsterdam): 796 ASN • DE-CIX (Frankfurt): 691 ASN • LINX (London): 646 ASN Euro-ix.net
  52. 52. Agenda  Introduction  The History of the Internet  Some Technical Concepts: • Technical Definitions • Internet Principles • Internet Topology • A Layered Approach to the Internet Model • Routing Principles  Internet Exchanges (IX)  The DNS  Who controls the internet?  Useful and Available Tools  Credits & References
  53. 53. The Domain Name System  A hierarchical distributed naming system for any resource connected to the Internet.  As a telephone address book holds the number of telephone subscribers, the DNS system associates a domain name to a numerical IP addresses (www.csuc.cat >> 84.88.27.7)  The DNS distributes the responsibility of assigning domain names and mapping domain names to avoid a unique single central database  It provides a common namespace for the Internet.
  54. 54. DNS is basic to make the internet work DNS usually works and nobody cares about it… …but when it doesn’t work, nothing works!
  55. 55. DNS works as a single distributed database arpa in-addr 84 88 84 88 com google www mail cat csuc www catnix www speedtest uk co google www
  56. 56. How does the DNS work? DNS root User’s DNS www.csuc.cat? .cat? csuc.cat? www.csuc.cat? DNS TLD .cat DNS domain csuc.cat 84.88.27.7 Authoritative Resolver
  57. 57. Root servers and TLDs  Root servers contain a database with the list of servers for each TLD (Top Level Domain).  There are 13 different root servers (from A-root to M-root).  DNS servers cache answers to avoid asking root servers for every query.
  58. 58. DNS replicas  13 root DNS servers in the world (10 in the USA).  Each one of them is managed by a different entity.  Some of these entities manage several replicas of the information distributed around the world using anycast.  They peer at Internet Exchanges.  Benefits of the replicas: • They improve the response time of the DNS queries • They improve security, no single point of failure in case of a DoS attack.  CATNIX has replicas of the F-root, E-root, J-root, K-root and L-root servers.
  59. 59. Root Servers Around the World http://www.root-servers.org As of 2018-10-15, the root server system consists of 918 instances operated by the 12 independent root server operators.
  60. 60. Each Root Server, Many Servers Root server Operated by How many? A Verisign Inc 8 B Information Sciences Institute 2 C Cogent Communications 10 D University of Maryland 141 E NASA Ames Research Center 194 F Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. 190 G U.S. DOD Network Information Center 6 H U.S. Army Research Lab 2 I Netnod 68 J Verisign, Inc. 164 K RIPE NCC 64 L ICANN 162 M WIDE Project 9
  61. 61. Why are There so Many Root Servers? Anycast  Identical replicas of existing servers.  With the same IP address.  Exactly the same data.  And everyone “speaks” with the nearest one using standard routing.  The servers are closer to the users.
  62. 62. DNS services at CSUC ccTLD .es Root F gTLD .cat Root J gTLD .com gTLD .net VeriSignISC Puntcat nic.es Root L ICANN Resolvers Anella Científica RIPE NCC Institutions’ Secondaries and reverses Root K Institutions’ Primary servers CSUC 2005 2010 20152012 2005 1995 1993
  63. 63. Closest root servers http://www.root-servers.org
  64. 64. Each TLD, Many Servers TLD Operat per Quants (IPv4)? cat Fundació puntCAT 7 es Esnic 7 com Verisign, Inc. 13 net Verisign, Inc. 13 org Public Internet Registry 6 edu Educause 13
  65. 65. Agenda  Introduction  The History of the Internet  Some Technical Concepts: • Technical Definitions • Internet Principles • Internet Topology • A Layered Approach to the Internet Model • Routing Principles  Internet Exchanges (IX)  The DNS  Who controls the internet?  Useful and Available Tools  Credits & References
  66. 66. Who makes the rules?
  67. 67. THE INTERNET ECOSYSTEM
  68. 68. The Internet Ecosystem  The “Internet Ecosystem” is a term used to describe the organizations and communities that help the Internet work and evolve.  These organizations share common values for the open development of the Internet.  The Internet Ecosystem term implies that the rapid and continued development and adoption of Internet technologies can be attributed to the involvement of a broad range of actors; open, transparent, and collaborative processes; and the use of products and infrastructure with dispersed ownership and control.  The model relies on processes and products that are local, bottom-up and accessible to users around the world.
  69. 69. Internet Protocols  IETF: the Internet Engineering Task Force meets in person three times each year, and operates continuously online, to collectively define the open protocols (the languages) by which Internet users transparently communicate with each other.  Request for Comments (RFCs) are publications of the IETF describing methods, behaviours, research, or innovations applicable to the working of the Internet and Internet-connected systems. Some RFCs will become standards.
  70. 70. Unique identifiers  IANA: the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority is the root of the delegation hierarchy which maintains uniqueness in domain names, IP addresses, autonomous system numbers, and protocol identifiers. The IANA’s operations are defined by the IAB via IETF RFC standards documents. The IANA delegates specific functions to resource-specific registries.  ICANN: the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers is the community-driven organisation that hosts the IANA function.  The IAB Internet Architecture Board is chartered as a committee of the IETF and as an advisory body of the Internet Society (ISOC). Its responsibilities include architectural oversight of IIETF activities , internet standards process oversight and appeal, and the appointment of the RFC Editor. The IAB is also responsible for the IETF protocol pàrameter registries.
  71. 71. IP Addresses and ASNs  RIRs: the five Regional Internet Registries manage, distribute, and register Internet number resources (IPv4 and IPv6 addresses and Autonomous System Numbers) within their respective regions. • AfriNIC: the African Network Information Center. • APNIC: the Asia-Pacific Network Information Center • ARIN: the American Registry for Internet Numbers. • LACNIC: the Latin American and Caribbean Network Information Center. • RIPE NCC: Réseaux IP Européens Network Coordination Centre.
  72. 72. Geographical Scope for Each RIR https://www.ripe.net/participate/internet-governance/internet-technical-community/the-rir-system
  73. 73. The Internet Society  The Internet Society (ISOC) promotes the evolution and growth of the global internet. Through members chapters and partners, they are the hub of the largest international network of people and organizations that work with the internet.  ISOC Chapters localize ISOC’s core values and promote the Internet for their local communities.  ISOC Individual Members show commitment to ISOC’s vision.  ISOC Organization Members support and contribute to ISOC and understnd the need to take action collectively to ensure the internet remains open, accessible, trusted and secure.
  74. 74. Network Operation Groups  Network Operations Groups (NOGs) are local or regional informal groups that discuss matters of mutual interest (knowledge sharing, capacity building and policy dialogue), usually through a combination of mailing lists and annual conferences.  Although these groups have no formal power, they are often influential in the overall process of running the Internet in their region.  For instance: • AfNOG: the African Network Operators Group • ESNOG: Spain Network Operatos Group • MENOG: the Middle East Network Operations Group • NANOG: the North American Network Operations Group
  75. 75. Internet Exchange Operators  Internet Exchanges create a local ecosystem around the internet in their areas. Their users meet once or twice a year and share information about the operations at the exchange.  They are informal fora to establish peerings.  Internet Exchange Operators also have regional meetings to discuss technical issues, procedures, best practices, legal questions, etc. Some examples are LAC-IX, Euro-IX, AF-IX, AP-IX.
  76. 76. DNS providers  DNS Root Servers operators reliably publish the content of the root zone. This file containing the root zone is literally the root of the hierarchical distributed database.  Country-Code Top-Level Domains (ccTLDs) are operated according to local policies that are normally adapted to the country or territory involved.  Generic Top-Level Domains (gTLDs) operated sponsored or unsponsored, according to ICANN policies.  DNS servers operators for domains like catnix.net operate the “tree branches” of the hierarchical system.
  77. 77. Security Teams  A CSIRT (Computer Security Incident Response Team or CERT(Computer Emergency Response Team) is a team of experts that: • responds to computer incidents • coordinates their resolution • notifies its constituents • exchanges information with others and • assists constituents with the mitigation of the incident.  CSIRT exist in a variety of different organisations, both in the public and private sector, with a variety of different mandates, authorities and even names.  They coordinate in case of security incidents and there is a de facto trust relationship among them
  78. 78. Research and Education Networks  A Research and Education Network is a non-profit Internet service provider dedicated to supporting the needs of the research and education communities.  It has a high-speed backbone network.  It offers dedicated channels for individual research projects.  Research and Education Networks are usually the places where new Internet protocols and architectures are introduced before their public deployment: • Protocols: IPv6 and multicast. • Architecture: Client/Server and Cloud Computing.  The management model is heterogeneous depending on the region, country, etc.  Anella Científica (managed by CSUC) is the Regional Research and Education Network in Catalonia, connected to the Spanish RedIRIS.
  79. 79. Regional Networks in Spain & Year of Creation 2003 1993 2008 2005 2006 2004 1996 1989 1993
  80. 80. Regional Networks in Spain & Year of Creation 2003 1993 2008 2005 2006 2004 1996 1989 1993
  81. 81. Géant, global connectivity
  82. 82. And many more  ANSI: American National Standards Institute  CCNSO: Country Code Names Supporting Organisation  CIGI: Global Commission on Internet Governance  ETSI: European Telecommunications Standards Institute  Identity Commons  IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers  IGF: Internet Governance Forum  ISO: the International Organization for Standardization  ITU: International Telecommunication Union  Kantara Initiative (formerly Liberty Alliance)  OASIS: Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards  Open source communities  W3C: World Wide Web Consortium  …and, of course, all the users!
  83. 83. Agenda  Introduction  The History of the Internet  Some Technical Concepts: • Technical Definitions • Internet Principles • Internet Topology • A Layered Approach to the Internet Model • Routing Principles  Internet Exchanges (IX)  The DNS  Who controls the internet?  Useful and Available Tools  Credits & References
  84. 84. Tools: ping and traceroute  Ping, traceroute and similar tools like mtr or visualroute can give us an idea of the latency in the network. #ping 8.8.8.8 Tue Oct 16 21:51:44.775 CEST Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 8.8.8.8, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 8/8/10 ms
  85. 85. Tools: mtr mtr www.acens.es
  86. 86. Tools: mtr mtr www.freewebhosting.com Some sites won’t let you ping them.
  87. 87. Tools: the RIRs Databases & whois https://www.ripe.net/participate/internet-governance/internet-technical-community/the-rir-system
  88. 88. Tools: the RIRs Databases & whois  RIRs maintain databases with their assigned resources and routing information.  They provide tools to understand the network.  Their databases can be queried via their websites or with tools like “whois”.  They give us very useful information about the network!  Try https://whois.ripe.net, or https://whois.<regitrar>.net (registrar=afrinic, apnic, arin, lacnic, ripe)
  89. 89. Tools: the RIRs Databases & whois
  90. 90. Tools: the RIRs Databases & whois
  91. 91. Tools: the RIRs Databases & whois
  92. 92. Tools: the RIRs Databases & whois
  93. 93. Tools: the RIRs Databases & whois
  94. 94. Tools: peeringdb  PeeringDB (https://www.peeringdb.com) has information about nearly 14,000 networks and nearly 700 Internet Exchanges in the world.  It’s a de facto standard for technicians
  95. 95. Tools: peeringdb (https://www.peeringdb.com)
  96. 96. Tools: RIPEstats & the Routing information service (RIPE NCC)  https://stat.ripe.net  RIS is a RIPE NCC project that collects and stores Internet routing data from several IXPs around the globe.
  97. 97. Tools: looking-glasses  They are publicly accessible servers that allow us to query the routers in an IXP, ISP, REN (http://lg.catnix.net):
  98. 98. Tools: public route servers  They are publicly accessible routers that are open to connections and queries.  They let you see the different views a provider has of a network.  You just have to “telnet” them: Tip: http://www.traceroute.org/ provides information about traceroute sites, looking-glasses, route servers, etc
  99. 99. Tools: route servers
  100. 100. Speedtest  A simple way to check connectivity and latency for end-users.  Users are able to share the results via social networks. Restricted http://www.catnix.net/speedtest
  101. 101. RIPE Atlas  Distributed measurement tool to check internet connections around the world.  It uses basic pings i traceroutes  It gives information about: • Latency • Accessibility • Closest DNS server • Round-Trip Time (RTT)  Maps available at: http://atlas.ripe.net/contrib/maps_index.html
  102. 102. How can you see the DNS root servers from Anella Científica?  From the RIPE Atlas Anchor node at CSUC you can check the response time of all the DNS root servers. https://atlas.ripe.net/results/maps/comparative-dns-root-rtt/  They can also be checked via the Atlas probes at Anella Científica (#659) and CATNIX (#13880). https://atlas.ripe.net/results/maps/
  103. 103. DNSMON  Detailed information about the quality of service for root servers and TLDs.  https://atlas.ripe.net/dnsmon/group/root
  104. 104. RIPEstat  http://stat.ripe.net
  105. 105. M-lab measuremnent network  Global measurement network created by Measurement Lab.  The Measurement Lab ecosystem includes all kind of tools to test the network connection, quality and neutrality.  The CATNIX pod can be used as the destination for these tests.  The tests only run when users decide to run them.  All the measurement tools are open source.  All the data collected by M-Lab pods are open, public and available. Restricted • Neubot • NDT • NPAD • OONI • Paris Traceroute • SideStream • …
  106. 106. Example: NDT  NDT (Network Diagnostic Tool) is similar to speedtest but more technical.  It is a part of M-lab. Restricted http://www.catnix.net/en/ndt
  107. 107. DNScheck  Other on-line tools to check domains: • http://dnsviz.net/ • http://www.dnssec-tools.org/ • http://www.opendnssec.org/ • http://dnssec-debugger.verisignlabs.com/ • http://dnscheck.pingdom.com/ • http://www.dnsstuff.com/ • …
  108. 108. Agenda  Introduction  The History of the Internet  Some Technical Concepts: • Technical Definitions • Internet Principles • Internet Topology • A Layered Approach to the Internet Model • Routing Principles  Internet Exchanges (IX)  The DNS  Who controls the internet?  Useful and Available Tools  Credits & References
  109. 109. Credits & References  Internet infrastructure for researchers and policy-makers, Gaël Hernández, PCH (Many thanks, Gaël!)  Books: • Cómo creamos internet, Andreu Veà • Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins of the Internet, Katie Hafner • The innovators, Walter Isaacson  Documentary: • Nerds 2.0.1: A Brief History of the Internet - a.k.a. Glory of the Geeks  Websites: • https://www.internetsociety.org/ • https://www.euro-ix.net/ • https://stat.ripe.net • https://whois.ripe.net
  110. 110. Credits & References  Images: • Sajidur89 - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=30158656, • 1906 Kungliga Telegrafverkets apparater (Royal Telegraph Administration apparatus) at Project Runeberg :1896_ '1896 /0004. :1896] • Edited version of http://runeberg.org/teleapp/0004.htmlen:Image:1896_phone.jpg, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=694784 • https://clinetworking.wordpress.com/2018/06/09/1-1-compare-and-contrast- osi-and-tcp-ip-models/
  111. 111. Thanks for your attention! Questions? mariaisabel.gandia@csuc.cat

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