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Estonian e-government secure ecosystem - Hannes Astok

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Presentazione di Hannes Astok, Deputy Director e-Governance Academy, al convegno "Blockchain e fiducia digitale" (Torino, 26 giugno 2019) organizzato dal CSI Piemonte

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Estonian e-government secure ecosystem - Hannes Astok

  1. 1. Estonian e-government secure ecosystem Hannes Astok Deputy Director, Strategy & Development +372 5091366 Hannes.Astok@ega.ee
  2. 2. Hannes Astok • 2011 - eGovernment expert, Deputy Director, e-Governance Academy • 2007-2011 – Member of the Estonian Parliament • 2005 - Programme Director, Municipal and Regional eGovernance, e- Governance Academy • 1998-2005 Deputy Mayor, Tartu City Government
  3. 3. Building and Developing Open Digital Societies Since 2002 e-Governance Academy
  4. 4. e-Governance Academy • An independent and mission-based: non-profit, non-governmental, non-academic. • Jointly brought into existence by UNDP, Open Society Institute and Estonian Government.
  5. 5. eGA’sreach 130+ countries, 200+ organisations 5500+ participants in training events
  6. 6. Estonia at glance
  7. 7. Estonia • Population: 1.257 million • Area: 45,200 km2 • Population density: 31 inhabitants per km2 • Urban population: 69% • Rural population: 31% • Birth rate: 10,68 per 1 000 residents • Mortality rate: 11,70 per 1 000 residents • Capital city: Tallinn, 430,000 residents • GDP per capita: 19,704 USD (2017) • Overall adults literacy: 100%
  8. 8. Oneofthe1stphotosof Estonians,endof19th Century
  9. 9. EdwardvanLõngus2016
  10. 10. Analog and digital elements of e-Government ANALOG ELEMENTS Legislation & regulations Sustainable organization Change management Political will DIGITAL ELEMENTS Digital databases Interoperability Digital Identity Document exchange Services portal Cyber security Sectoral solutions
  11. 11. Where is the bottleneck?
  12. 12. Strong Digital Identity Portal & Secure Data Exchange Digital Data Accessible
  13. 13. Online versus Offline Service Time spent on e- service (min) Time spent on offline service (min) Time savings (min) Establishing a company 30 510 480 VAT declaration 7 68 61 Tax declaration 10 78 68 i-Voting 6 44 38 In minutes. Source: e-Estonia.com
  14. 14. Strong Digital Identity Portal & Secure Data Exchange Digital Data Accessible
  15. 15. Digital Databases- Digital Data Accessible
  16. 16. • Unique numeric identifiers for citizens, businesses, real estate, land parcels, etc. • Unique numeric identifiers are used across the government for all transactions • Once only. Citizens never have to provide the same information twice. • No duplicated data in the databases Principles
  17. 17. • Central registry of databases metadata and online services • Clear data ownership • Data is owned by the citizen • Each authority is responsible for own database quality Principles 2
  18. 18. Unique ID Number everywhere
  19. 19. Strong Digital Identity Portal & Secure Data Exchange Digital Data Accessible
  20. 20. Secure Data Exchange: Governmental interoperability
  21. 21. Governmental Secure Data Exchange Solution X-Road in Estonia
  22. 22. • Backbone of the Estonian government • 17 years of active duty, no downtime from 2002 • 2600+services • 1600+ interfaced information systems • 1100+ connected institutions and enterprises • 985 million transactions per year (2018) Dashboard: https://www.x-tee.ee/factsheets/EE/#eng
  23. 23. X-Road Population Register Adapter Server Security Server Vehicle Register Adapter Server Security Server Other Register Adapter Server Security Server Energy Adapter Server Security Server Telecom Adapter Server Security Server Banks Adapter Server Security Server X - GIS Adapter Server Security Server Document Exchange Centre Adapter Server Security Server e-ID Citizen view Enterpriser view Public servant view PORTALS e-Health, e-Police, e-Tax Board, e-School, m-Parking, etc. Admin System of State Information System Adapter Server Security ServerSecurity Server TRUST SERVICES Certification OCSP Timestamping Central Server 2 Help Desk Central Monitoring Central Server 1 Security Server Internet Network
  24. 24. Principles • Decentralized architecture • No single point of failure • Personal data protection • Logging and timestamping of the transactions • Legal value of the request and answer
  25. 25. Before paying out pensions Pension Authority 500,000 pension and subsidy payments/month Civic Registry Request: Are they alive? (sending ID-numbers) Automated response: Those 799 passed away (response as ID numbers) Time-stamped+digitally signed X-Road
  26. 26. Strong Digital Identity Portal & Secure Data Exchange Digital Data Accessible
  27. 27. Strong Digital identity
  28. 28. Peter Steiner, The New Yorker, 5th July 1993
  29. 29. Digital ID and Digital Signature Since 2002 Active ID-cards: 1 202 003 Active Mobil-ID: 213 257 Active Smart-ID : 422 782 Transactions yesterday: 1 739 232 Transactions last month: 35 505 233 Source: https://www.id.ee/?lang=en , 9 April 2019
  30. 30. ID-card since 2002 Two certificates on the chip: 1st for identification 2nd for digital signature 1st national document Public e-services (e-Tax, e-Prescriptions etc) Applying for driver license, social benefits E-elections Signing documents Accessing grades and curriculum @ school Bank transactions Register a new business Customer identification card, Bus ticket
  31. 31. mID in SIM card Doesn’t need software installed on PC Doesn’t need web browser support Works on any handset Can be supported by any operator Two certificates on the SIM card: 1st for identification 2nd for digital signature
  32. 32. mID since 2007 All same services as eID Trusted by the Government 213 000+ users (04/2019) Over 40 M transaction in a year 30 transaction per user/month 500+ e-Services
  33. 33. SmartID SIM-less mID from 2017 App in smartphone Requires smartphone + connectivity Fast, reliable, no cost for user 422,000 users in Estonia (04/2019 1,9 M users in Baltics (04/2019) QSCD (Qualified Signature Creation Device) Nov 2018 Certified by TÜViT (Germany)
  34. 34. Efficiency Digital signatures save 20 minutes per transaction World Bank World Development Report 2016
  35. 35. Any benefits from eID and digital signature? 5 working days saved by every citizen who is using eID It is 2% of working time It is 2% of GDP (2% of GDP goes for defense) 26.06.19
  36. 36. 2006: 0,5 million digital signatures 1 million digital autenthications 2010: 19,2 million digital signatures 33,7 million digital autenthications 2012: 31,9 million digital signatures 49,9 million digital autenthications 2016: 79 million digital signatures 102 million digital autenthications Up to today: 730 million digital signatures Statistics
  37. 37. Up to today: 730 million digital signatures People and companies have saved more than 1,46 billion € (2 € per signature) Actual savings may be greater: http://eturundus.eu/digital-signature/ http://eturundus.eu/digital-document/ Cost-Profit Calculators
  38. 38. Strong Digital Identity Portal & Secure Data Exchange Digital Data Accessible
  39. 39. Governmental service portal www.eesti.ee (Eesti=Estonia)
  40. 40. 13 April 2010 www.ega.ee
  41. 41. Strong Digital Identity Portal & Secure Data Exchange Digital Data Accessible
  42. 42. Strong Digital Identity Portal & Secure Data Exchange Digital Data Accessible E-services of the Ministries Agencies Municipalities
  43. 43. Cyber security • Complex issue: mixture of digital and analog elements • Roles and responsibilities in the government • Technical measures • Behavior of officials • Awareness of the citizens
  44. 44. Key analog elements • Legislation & Regulations • Supportive organization • Change management • Political will
  45. 45. Future of the online governance
  46. 46. EstoniaEstonia
  47. 47. EstoniaEstonia Mr. Hannes Astok, your driving license will expire. Can we mail you new? Government Yes No
  48. 48. EstoniaEstonia Thank you! Your new driving license will be mailed to your home address. OK
  49. 49. The future government is Proactive Online 24/7 Intuitive
  50. 50. Thank you! Hannes Astok www.ega.ee +372 5091366 Hannes.Astok@ega.ee

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