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Gender Mainstreaming and Leadership in Tertiary Institutions

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Since its endorsement in 1995, the level of the adoption of gender mainstreaming in the leadership positions remains an issue among stakeholders. Lack of women representation in leadership positions has been attributed

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Gender Mainstreaming and Leadership in Tertiary Institutions

  1. 1. GENDER MAINSTREAMING AND LEADERSHIP IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN SOUTH WEST, NIGERIA: ANY HOPE FOR GENDER EQUALITY? PRESENTED BY HELEN BODUNDE Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  The concept of and advocacy for Gender Mainstreaming for national development have been a debate since its endorsement by United Nations in 1995.  It is strategy as a tool for the advancement of gender equality at the global, regional and country levels has been the focus of researchers.  It has become a tool for achieving equal rights of men and women to opportunities and development.
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  Since its endorsement in 1995, the level of the adoption of gender mainstreaming in the leadership positions remains an issue among stakeholders.  Lack of women representation in leadership positions has been attributed to the non-implementation of gender mainstreaming in organizations.  To this end, this paper evaluated the level of the adoption of gender mainstreaming in the leadership positions across tertiary institutions in Nigeria.
  4. 4. THE CONCEPT OF GENDER  Gender refers to social attributes, relationships and opportunities associated with being male and female.  Gender system is established in all cultures and societies through socialization process.  It is done in a way that gender becomes stereotypical.  Gender approaches focus on the systems that determine gender roles, their access to and control over resources, and decision making potentials.
  5. 5. THE CONCEPT OF GENDER EQUALITY  Gender equality denotes equal right, responsibilities and opportunities between men and women; boys and girls.  It implies availability of human rights, responsibilities and opportunities, perception, interests and needs in the society without recourse to sex roles.  The interests, needs and priorities of both male and female are recognized and considered for all opportunities and responsibilities.
  6. 6. THE CONCEPT OF GENDER MAINSTREAMING  Gender mainstreaming (GM) is the approach, strategy or means of engendering equal participation of men and women in all areas of human life.  It is concerned with gender perspectives as critical to achieving the goal of gender equality from policy development to implementation and evaluation.  The aim of GM is to provide a policy for sustainable contribution to equality between men and women
  7. 7. BACKGROUND ON GENDER  In the world, women seem to be more disadvantaged across cultures.  The level of disadvantage varies from one country to another based on cultural, historical, social and religious factors.  These factors lead to gender stereotypic determine the level of women participation in leadership positions.
  8. 8. BACKGROUND ON GENDER  In a bid to improve women’ position, UN member states endorsed GM at the 1995 United Nations’ fourth World Conference in Beijing .  In 2000, the UN General Assembly had an assessment meeting on the implementation of the Beijing agreement.  It identified GM as a good tool for driving Gender Equality  It has been observed that using GM will lead to changes in the structure of the mainstream
  9. 9. BACKGROUND ON GENDER  It therefore reconfirmed the importance of GM and advocated its incorporation into policy-making at workplace
  10. 10. LEADERSHIP IN WORKPLACE  Male dominance in organizational set up in more prevalent in our society  This affects the way issues are addressed and solutions proffered.  Evidence of mixed working relationship between men and women often produce better result.
  11. 11. LEADERSHIP IN WORKPLACE  In tertiary institutions, women have higher participation and completion rates in tertiary education compared to men.  They are increasingly out-numbering men in education achievement.  Studies show gender as a major factor in better leadership while few describe gender as a non-issue.  Due to evidence based diversity, nations are increasing women involvement in leadership positions.
  12. 12. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The objectives of the study are to:  examine the adoption of gender mainstreaming in leadership positions in tertiary institutions in South west of Nigeria  examine the adoption of gender mainstreaming in leadership positions across the tertiary institutions(University, polytechnics, Colleges of education) in South west, Nigeria  determine the level of adoption of gender mainstreaming in leadership positions between private and public tertiary institutions of the region.
  13. 13. RESEARCH QUESTIONS The research is set out to answer the following questions:  What is the level of adoption of gender mainstreaming in leadership position in the tertiary institutions in South West, Nigeria?  What is the level of adoption of gender mainstreaming in leadership positions across the tertiary institutions in South west, Nigeria  Do the private or public tertiary institutions consider gender mainstreaming in leadership positions?
  14. 14. HYPOTHESES TESTING Two hypothesis were tested  There is no significant difference in the adoption of gender mainstreaming in leadership positions across the tertiary institutions  There is no significant difference in gender mainstreaming in private and public tertiary institutions in South west.
  15. 15. •SAMPLE SIZE •SAMPLE FRAME •STUDY AREA SOUTH WEST NIGERIA 80 TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS 20 PUBLIC AND 10 PRIVATE TERTIARY INSTITUIONS QUESTIONNAIRE WEBSITES PERSONAL INTERVIEW METHODOLOGY
  16. 16. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Leadership Positions Male Female Vice chancellor 25(83.3) 5(16.7) Deputy Vice Chancellor 39(90.6) 9(9.4) Registrar 23(76.7) 7(23.3) Bursar 26(86.7) 4(13.3) Librarian 20(69.9) 10(33.3) Dean 160(84.3) 25(15.6) Head of Department 504(79.7) 128(20.2) Directors of Centre 222(71.1) 90(28.8) Directors of Committee 96(78.0) 27(21.9) TABLE 1: GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN LEADERSHIP POSITIONS IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN SOUTH WEST, NIGERIA
  17. 17. Variable Frequency Percentage Available 4 13.3 Not Available 26 86.7 Functionality Functioning 2 6.7 Not functioning 28 93.3 TABLE 2: AVAILABILITY AND FUNCTIONALITY OF GENDER MAINSTREAMING POLICY
  18. 18. Table 3: Gender Mainstreaming according to three cadres of tertiary institutions Institutions VC/RECTOR /PROVOST DVC/DEPUT Y REGISTRA R LIBRARIA N BURSAR DEAN HOD CENTRE COMM University Male Female 22(95.4) 1(4.5) 25(73.5) 9(26.4) 16(64.0) 9(36.0) 27(72.9) 10(27.1) 18(85.7) 3(14.2) 98(84.4) 18(15.6) 365(82. 2) 79(17.7 ) 175(69.7 ) 76(30.2) 28(75.6) 9(24.3) Polytechnic Male Female 2(50.0) 2(50.0) 2(50.0) 2(50.0) 14(100) nil 2(50.0) 2(50.0) 4(100.0) nil 18(84.4) 1(5.26) 63(87.5 ) 11(12.5 ) 13(86.60 2(13.30 21(80.76 ) 5(10.23) Col. Of Edu. Male Female 2(50.0) 2(50.0) 4(100.0) nil 4(100.0) nil 2(50.0) 2(50.0) 4(100.0) nil 20(76.9) 6(23.1) 76(65.5 ) 40(34.4 ) 34(73.0) 12(27.0) 47(78.3) 13(21.6) Source: Field survey, 2016
  19. 19. Table 4: Gender Mainstreaming according to school types Institutions VC/RECTOR DVC/DEPUT Y REGISTRAR LIBRARIA N BURSAR DEAN HOD CENTRE COMM Public Male Female 16(80.0) 4(20.0) 22(78.5) 6(21.4) 16(72.8) 6(27.2) 26(74.3) 9(25.7) 17(85.0) 3(15.00 95(82.6) 20(17.4) 412(78. 2) 114(21. 6) 186(72.3 ) 71(27.6) 81(80.2) 20(19.8) Private Male Female 9(90.0) 1(10.0) 12(80.0) 3(20.0) 7(63.6) 4(36.3) 7(77.7) 3(22.3) 9(100.0) nil 40(88.8) 5(11.1) 92(86.7) 14(12.3) 36(65.4) 19(34.6) 15(68.1) 7(31.8)
  20. 20. HYPOTHESES TESTING HYPOTHEIS ONE: ANOVA result showing the test of no significant difference in gender mainstreaming in leadership positions across the cadres of selected institutions Variables Sum of squares Df Mean square F value P-values Decision Between group 997.234 2 498.617 0.387 0.683 NS Within group 33468.560 26 1282.253 Total 34465.797 28
  21. 21. Interpretation  There is no significant difference in the level of adoption of gender mainstreaming in leadership positions across the cadres of selected institutions  School cadre does not play a role in the level of adoption.  Null hypothesis accepted
  22. 22. INTERPRETATION  This result shows that eighteen years after the affirmation of the importance of gender mainstreaming in gender equality, gender blindness pervades many of the tertiary institutions who are supposed to be stakeholders, well positioned to power and drive the policy.
  23. 23. HYPOTHESES TESTING HYPOTHEIS TWO: t-test result showing the test of significant difference of gender mainstreaming of leadership position between private and public tertiary institutions Variables N Mean Std Deviation Std Error Mean t-value P-Value Decision Gender Mainstreaming Private 10 28.40 13.10 4.142 -2.045 0.02 Significant Public 20 54.90 39.608 8.897
  24. 24. INTERPRETATION  The result shows that the public tertiary institutions show a higher level of adoption of gender mainstreaming in leadership positions than the private institutions.
  25. 25. Conclusion  Many of the institutions do not have GMP, which may have contributed to its low adoption  there are no set out guidelines for appointment to leadership positions, employments, admission of students and other special needs of the two groups.  the public tertiary institutions show higher adoption than the private counterpart.
  26. 26. Conclusion Contd. a lot to be done by all the stakeholders- educational institutions: primary to tertiary levels, public and private; government: local, state, national ( presidency national and state assemblies in implementing and enforcing laws;  and non-governmental organizations(as major driving tools).
  27. 27. Recommendations a)Efforts need to put in place to work towards increasing gender participation in workplace through: • awareness raising and sensitization on GM and GE •an annual evaluation should be done in educational institutions, governance and civil service by creditable evaluators from institutions, NGO and Government •organization of gender study groups
  28. 28. •consisting of male and female in all establishments as pressure groups towards formulation and implementation of GMP •Coordinating group at state, regional and national levels should be encouraged b) Both male and female in position of authorities should work towards having representation from both groups for equity and fulfilling the unity of opposites.

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