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EZENANDU, PATRICIA. E (PhD)
 Reading is an important skill in the acquisition of lifelong
learning needed to achieve sustainable development.
 Quality and accessible education remains the only way
to achieve sustainable development.
 In the past few years, part of the objectives of the
MDGs was to retrain teachers for quality education.
 Today, attention has shifted to SDGs, with focus on
evaluating how far the MDGs initiative has fared.
 Hence, this paper focuses on the evaluation of English
language Teachers’ Awareness and use of
Comprehension Instructional strategies in Reading
comprehension pedagogy.
 Comprehension is not just about the end product but
most importantly, it is about the process involved in the
reading act (Fountas and Pinnel, 1996; 156)
 Ability to comprehend requires the application of all the
elements of the reading process to create meaning from
what is read; the core essence of reading is to derive
meaning from the text.
 Reading therefore goes beyond merely knowing how to
read; readers should derive meaning from what is read,
utilize such to solve personal or group problems for
sustainable development to be achieved.
 Available research has consistently shown that students’
poor performance in reading comprehension is
attributed to poor pedagogical practices among teachers.
 Exposing learners to explicit instruction in reading
comprehension strategies is part of this pedagogical
practices required of teachers ,even as students learn
subject-specific content through authentic reading
tasks.
 Strategy simply means a deliberate action taken or
performed by experienced or advanced readers to
comprehend the text read.
 A strategic reader automatically and routinely
applies combines effective and appropriate
strategies depending on reading goals; reading tasks
and strategic processing abilities.
 The strategic reader is aware of his or her
comprehension effectiveness in relation to reading
goals and applies a set of strategies appropriately to
enhance the comprehension of difficult tasks.
There are different models of strategies designed
to promote students’ reading comprehension
skills:
 Reciprocal Teaching (Palinscar and Brown, 1984);
(questioning, clarifying, summarizing, predicting,
direct teaching and teacher modelling)
 Concept-oriented Reading Instruction (Guthrie,
2003; Guthrie, Anderson, Alao & Rinehart, 1999)
(activating background knowledge, questioning,
summarising, organising information graphically
and structuring stories, guided practice and
teacher modelling).
 Transactional Strategy Instruction (Pressley, 1998)
(predictions, activating prior knowledge, asking questions,
making clarification, visualisation, summarising, thinking
aloud, making connections, direct teaching, teacher modelling)
 Intensive Reading Process (Hedgcock & Ferris 2009)
surveying the text, making predictions, asking questions,
introducing key vocabulary; to confirm or reject the prediction;
summarising and responding, thinking critically, and reading-
writing connections.

 There are 3 phases to the application of these
strategies: pre, during and post reading phases.
 Research has shown that the more complex the text
becomes, the more strategic readers activate their
repertoire of strategies and implement them.
Readers who use strategies comprehend texts better
than those who do not (Abidin, 2012:197).
 However, it is not very explicit whether teachers and
students apply them to help bridge the gap between
reading ability and level of text comprehension,
especially in Nigerian schools.
 What is the extent of English Language Teachers’
awareness of reading comprehension instructional
strategies?
 To what extent do English Language teachers’ apply
reading comprehension instructional strategies in
teaching reading comprehension?
 The study adopted the structured survey questionnaire
designed to elicit information on English language
teachers’ level of awareness and application of reading
comprehension instructional strategies in reading
comprehension lessons in secondary schools.
 Purposive sampling technique was used to select 25
secondary schools from Abeokuta metropolis( Public
and Private); and to select 75 teachers across the schools
depending on the number of teachers in each school.
 The findings were contrary to expectations. It
was surprising to find that:
 An Average of 80% of the teachers surveyed were
aware of reading comprehension instructional
strategies.
 They equally claimed to apply these comprehension
strategies in their reading instruction.
Most Specially, it was found that these strategies
were popular among the teachers:
 Activation of background knowledge (86.7%) with
a mean value of 3.44.
 Getting meaning from context, 86.7% (3.43),
 Previewing the text (76%; 3.12);
 Connecting reading to creative writing activities
(73.3% :3.08)
 Making predictions (77.3%;3.2)
 Therefore, it is concluded that:
 Teachers cannot give what they do not have. They
need to be well grounded themselves in the
knowledge and use of these strategies if they are to
transfer them to their students.
 Reading ineffectiveness include: lack of proper
teacher training, lack of exposure to comprehension
strategies instruction, lack of adequate research base
on the effect of strategy instruction on and learners’
academic achievement
 Ineffective method of teaching reading.
 Teachers in training should be constantly exposed to
reading strategy instruction.
 More attention should be given to a more robust reading
programme in primary and secondary schools.
 Adequate grade level reading resources should be
developed and made available to learners accordingly.
FOR LISTINIG
 This is a minimally invasive test that does not
require speculum examination
 It detects presence of Placenta alpha
microglobulin-1-biomarker in the amniotic
fluid
 Injection of Indigo carmine dye(1ml in 9ml
sterile saline) into the amniotic fluid under
ultrasound guidance.
 Its followed by leakage of blue colored fluid
per vaginum
 Teachers in training should be constantly
exposed to reading strategy instruction.
 More attention should be given to a more
robust reading programme in primary and
secondary schools.
 The reading curriculum should be expanded
into a full course of study in the Colleges of
Education and the Universities.
 Adequate grade level reading resources should
be developed and made available to learners
accordingly.
 Monitor for signs of clinical chorioamnionitis
 Prophylactic Erythromycin
 Corticosteroids(for fetal lung maturity) IM
Dexamethasone 12mg 2 dose 12hourly
 IV magnesium sulfate (reduce risk of severe
neurologic dysfunction)
 Tocolytics to prevent beginning of labor
 Aim expectant management until 34weeks
 Monitor for signs of clinical chorioamnionitis
 Clindamycin/Penicillin
 Watch and wait for 24hours (60-80% of women
go into labor naturally), or consider induction
of labor
 IOL and delivery recommended if greater than
24hours
 It’s a bacterial infection of the fetal membranes
which can be life threatening to both mother
and fetus
 Signs of infection include high temperature and
fever, maternal tachycardia, fetal tachycardia,
foul smelling amniotic fluid, uterine
tenderness.
 If infection is suspected, artificial induction of
labor is started at any gestational age and
broad antibiotics are given
 Caesarean section is considered for fetal
emergencies
 Postpartum endometritis
 Risk of caesarean delivery
 Chorioamnionitis in prolonged PROM
 Infection
 Placenta abruptio
 Premature birth
 Neonatal death
 Respiratory distress syndrome
 Neonatal sepsis
 Neurologic injury
 Pulmonary hypoplasia
 Necrotizing enterocolitis
 Cord compression
 PROM is defined as rupture of membranes before
the onset of labor
 Diagnosis is usually from maternal history and
sterile speculum examination
 PPROM is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity
and mortality and is associated with
approximately 30% of preterm deliveries
 Management depends on gestational age, fetal
presentation and other complicating factors
 Cunningham, F.Gary,, et al (2014) Williams Obstetrics.
24th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.
 Samantha, M.P, (2012) NMS Obstetrics and
Gynaecology. 7th edition. Philadephia: Lipincott
Williams and Wikins. s
 McPhee, S. J., Papadakis, M.A., & Rabow, M.W (2014).
Current medical diagnosis & treatment 2014. 53rd
edition New York: McGraw-Hill Medical
 Adeleke, O.A, (2017) Principles of Obstetrics and
Gynaecology. 2nd edition. Ogbomosho: PtoC Global
Services.
Evaluation of Second Language Teachers’ Awareness and Application of Reading Comprehension Instructional Strategies

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Evaluation of Second Language Teachers’ Awareness and Application of Reading Comprehension Instructional Strategies

  • 2.  Reading is an important skill in the acquisition of lifelong learning needed to achieve sustainable development.  Quality and accessible education remains the only way to achieve sustainable development.  In the past few years, part of the objectives of the MDGs was to retrain teachers for quality education.  Today, attention has shifted to SDGs, with focus on evaluating how far the MDGs initiative has fared.  Hence, this paper focuses on the evaluation of English language Teachers’ Awareness and use of Comprehension Instructional strategies in Reading comprehension pedagogy.
  • 3.  Comprehension is not just about the end product but most importantly, it is about the process involved in the reading act (Fountas and Pinnel, 1996; 156)  Ability to comprehend requires the application of all the elements of the reading process to create meaning from what is read; the core essence of reading is to derive meaning from the text.  Reading therefore goes beyond merely knowing how to read; readers should derive meaning from what is read, utilize such to solve personal or group problems for sustainable development to be achieved.
  • 4.  Available research has consistently shown that students’ poor performance in reading comprehension is attributed to poor pedagogical practices among teachers.  Exposing learners to explicit instruction in reading comprehension strategies is part of this pedagogical practices required of teachers ,even as students learn subject-specific content through authentic reading tasks.  Strategy simply means a deliberate action taken or performed by experienced or advanced readers to comprehend the text read.
  • 5.  A strategic reader automatically and routinely applies combines effective and appropriate strategies depending on reading goals; reading tasks and strategic processing abilities.  The strategic reader is aware of his or her comprehension effectiveness in relation to reading goals and applies a set of strategies appropriately to enhance the comprehension of difficult tasks.
  • 6. There are different models of strategies designed to promote students’ reading comprehension skills:  Reciprocal Teaching (Palinscar and Brown, 1984); (questioning, clarifying, summarizing, predicting, direct teaching and teacher modelling)  Concept-oriented Reading Instruction (Guthrie, 2003; Guthrie, Anderson, Alao & Rinehart, 1999) (activating background knowledge, questioning, summarising, organising information graphically and structuring stories, guided practice and teacher modelling).
  • 7.  Transactional Strategy Instruction (Pressley, 1998) (predictions, activating prior knowledge, asking questions, making clarification, visualisation, summarising, thinking aloud, making connections, direct teaching, teacher modelling)  Intensive Reading Process (Hedgcock & Ferris 2009) surveying the text, making predictions, asking questions, introducing key vocabulary; to confirm or reject the prediction; summarising and responding, thinking critically, and reading- writing connections. 
  • 8.  There are 3 phases to the application of these strategies: pre, during and post reading phases.  Research has shown that the more complex the text becomes, the more strategic readers activate their repertoire of strategies and implement them. Readers who use strategies comprehend texts better than those who do not (Abidin, 2012:197).  However, it is not very explicit whether teachers and students apply them to help bridge the gap between reading ability and level of text comprehension, especially in Nigerian schools.
  • 9.  What is the extent of English Language Teachers’ awareness of reading comprehension instructional strategies?  To what extent do English Language teachers’ apply reading comprehension instructional strategies in teaching reading comprehension?
  • 10.  The study adopted the structured survey questionnaire designed to elicit information on English language teachers’ level of awareness and application of reading comprehension instructional strategies in reading comprehension lessons in secondary schools.  Purposive sampling technique was used to select 25 secondary schools from Abeokuta metropolis( Public and Private); and to select 75 teachers across the schools depending on the number of teachers in each school.
  • 11.  The findings were contrary to expectations. It was surprising to find that:  An Average of 80% of the teachers surveyed were aware of reading comprehension instructional strategies.  They equally claimed to apply these comprehension strategies in their reading instruction.
  • 12. Most Specially, it was found that these strategies were popular among the teachers:  Activation of background knowledge (86.7%) with a mean value of 3.44.  Getting meaning from context, 86.7% (3.43),  Previewing the text (76%; 3.12);  Connecting reading to creative writing activities (73.3% :3.08)  Making predictions (77.3%;3.2)
  • 13.  Therefore, it is concluded that:  Teachers cannot give what they do not have. They need to be well grounded themselves in the knowledge and use of these strategies if they are to transfer them to their students.  Reading ineffectiveness include: lack of proper teacher training, lack of exposure to comprehension strategies instruction, lack of adequate research base on the effect of strategy instruction on and learners’ academic achievement  Ineffective method of teaching reading.
  • 14.  Teachers in training should be constantly exposed to reading strategy instruction.  More attention should be given to a more robust reading programme in primary and secondary schools.  Adequate grade level reading resources should be developed and made available to learners accordingly.
  • 16.  This is a minimally invasive test that does not require speculum examination  It detects presence of Placenta alpha microglobulin-1-biomarker in the amniotic fluid
  • 17.  Injection of Indigo carmine dye(1ml in 9ml sterile saline) into the amniotic fluid under ultrasound guidance.  Its followed by leakage of blue colored fluid per vaginum
  • 18.  Teachers in training should be constantly exposed to reading strategy instruction.  More attention should be given to a more robust reading programme in primary and secondary schools.  The reading curriculum should be expanded into a full course of study in the Colleges of Education and the Universities.  Adequate grade level reading resources should be developed and made available to learners accordingly.
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23.  Monitor for signs of clinical chorioamnionitis  Prophylactic Erythromycin  Corticosteroids(for fetal lung maturity) IM Dexamethasone 12mg 2 dose 12hourly  IV magnesium sulfate (reduce risk of severe neurologic dysfunction)  Tocolytics to prevent beginning of labor  Aim expectant management until 34weeks
  • 24.  Monitor for signs of clinical chorioamnionitis  Clindamycin/Penicillin  Watch and wait for 24hours (60-80% of women go into labor naturally), or consider induction of labor  IOL and delivery recommended if greater than 24hours
  • 25.  It’s a bacterial infection of the fetal membranes which can be life threatening to both mother and fetus  Signs of infection include high temperature and fever, maternal tachycardia, fetal tachycardia, foul smelling amniotic fluid, uterine tenderness.  If infection is suspected, artificial induction of labor is started at any gestational age and broad antibiotics are given  Caesarean section is considered for fetal emergencies
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28.  Postpartum endometritis  Risk of caesarean delivery  Chorioamnionitis in prolonged PROM  Infection  Placenta abruptio
  • 29.  Premature birth  Neonatal death  Respiratory distress syndrome  Neonatal sepsis  Neurologic injury  Pulmonary hypoplasia  Necrotizing enterocolitis  Cord compression
  • 30.  PROM is defined as rupture of membranes before the onset of labor  Diagnosis is usually from maternal history and sterile speculum examination  PPROM is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality and is associated with approximately 30% of preterm deliveries  Management depends on gestational age, fetal presentation and other complicating factors
  • 31.  Cunningham, F.Gary,, et al (2014) Williams Obstetrics. 24th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.  Samantha, M.P, (2012) NMS Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 7th edition. Philadephia: Lipincott Williams and Wikins. s  McPhee, S. J., Papadakis, M.A., & Rabow, M.W (2014). Current medical diagnosis & treatment 2014. 53rd edition New York: McGraw-Hill Medical  Adeleke, O.A, (2017) Principles of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2nd edition. Ogbomosho: PtoC Global Services.

Editor's Notes

  1. Figure 1
  2. Vol 2 Chapter 7 of Gynaecology and Obstetrics CD-ROM by Brian M. Mercer