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Effects of Farmers-Herdsmen Conflict on Arable Crop Farmers' Livelihoods

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The SDGs consist of 17 goals and 169 affiliated targets that provide an opportunity to combine development goals and focus on all countries (National Bureau of Statistics and UNDP, 2016)

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Effects of Farmers-Herdsmen Conflict on Arable Crop Farmers' Livelihoods

  1. 1. EFFECTS OF FARMERS-HERDMEN CONFLICT ON ARABLE CROP FARMERS’ LIVELIHOODS IN IMEKO-AFON LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, OGUN STATE BY FAKOYA, Olugbenga Emmanuel Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun state, Nigeria
  2. 2. Introduction  The SDGs consist of 17 goals and 169 affiliated targets that provide an opportunity to combine development goals and focus on all countries (National Bureau of Statistics and UNDP, 2016)  Goal 16 of the sustainable development goal is to ‘promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels’  One major problem confronting world peace today is the manifestation of conflicts in different dimensions across the globe. From Europe to America, Africa to Asia, conflicts are common phenomena
  3. 3. Introduction contd…  Conflicts between farmers and normadic cattle herders have been a common feature of economic livelihood in west Africa (Tonah, 2006)  Farmers-herdsmen conflicts are mainly attributable to resource control and divergent value systems in the country  The movement of pastoralist from one area of the country to another is usually caused by the increasing demand for fresh grazing grounds especially during draught period, when the pastoralists move southwards because of the availability of pasture  In most cases, the pastoralists do encounter problems with the local people because farmers’ crops were being destroyed by their cattle (Olaleye et al, 2010)
  4. 4. Objectives of the study • Ascertain the perceived causes of conflict between crop farmers and herdsmen • Identify the constraints encountered by the farmers and herdsmen in the study area • Determine the economics effects of famers-herdsmen conflicts on the rural dwellers livelihood • Determine the intervention mechanism used in the resolution of such conflicts
  5. 5. Research Methodology  The study was carried out in Ogun State, in the southern farming zone in Nigeria. Imeko Afon Local Government Area of Ogun state was used for the research study  The population of the study comprises the farmers in Imeko Afon Local Government Area of Ogun State  Simple random sampling was used to select farmers 80 farmers out of 434 registered farmers with OGADEP in imeko, ilara and iwoye communities  The data for the study were collected through a well-structured questionnaire and analyzed using frequency counts, mean, SD and Pearsons’ Product Momunt Correlation
  6. 6. Result and discussions : Perceived causes of conflicts between farmers and herdsmen Statements Major Minor Not a Cause Rank Frequency (Percentage) Frequency (Percentage) Frequency (Percentage) Contamination of stream by cattle. 27(33.75%) 29(36.25%) 24(30%) 6th Overgrazing of fallow land. 17(21.25%) 17(21.25%) 46(57.5%) 8th Disregard for traditional rules and regulation. 38(47.5%) 28(35%) 14(17.5%) 1 Sexual harassment of women. 33(41.25%) 32(40%) 15(18.75%) 4th Harassment of herdsmen by villagers. 7(8.75%) 11(13.75%) 62(77.5%) 10th Indiscriminate defecation by cattle on road. 18(22.5%) 27(33.75) 35(43.75%) 7th Theft of cattle. 9(11.25%) 9(11.25%) 62(77.5%) 9th Stray cattle. 63(78.75%) 12(15%) 5(6.25%) 2nd Indiscriminate bush burning. 63(78.75%) 12(15%) 5(6.25%) 1st Disregard for traditional authorities 33(41.25%) 28(35%) 19(23.75%) 5th
  7. 7. Constraint Encountered as a Result of Farmer-Herdsmen Conflicts STATEMENT MAJOR MINOR NOT A CONSTRAINT Mean (rank) Frequency (Percentage) Frequency (Percentage) Frequency (Percentage) Abandoning of farm as a result of the conflict. 63(78.75%) 8(10%) 9(11.25%) 4th Occupation changes as a result of the conflict. 52(65%) 21(26.25%) 7(8.75%) 6th Extra cost to buy food crop? 68(85%) 11(13.75) 1(1.25%) 2th Harvesting early as a result of conflict? 53(66.25%) 22(27.5%) 5(6.25%) 5th Disposing your stock/ animal as a result of conflicts. 4(5%) 13(16.25%) 63(78.75%) 10th Staying late on farm as a result of conflict? 26(32.5%) 22(27.5%) 32(40%) 8th Migrating and shift from one area/town as a result of conflict. 67(83.75%) 10(12.5%) 3(3.75%) 3th Rise in price of agricultural produce (farm produce ) 72(90.0%) 8(10.0%) 0(0%) 1st Rise in price of meat. 22(27.5%) 27(33.75%) 31(38.75%) 9th Insecurity of life and properties. 52(65%) 16(20%) 12(15%) 7th
  8. 8. Effect of Farmer to herdsmen conflicts on Crop Farmers Livelihood outcome Statements SA A U D SD Mean: 43.8750 F (%) F (%) F (%) F (%) F (%) Loss of lives. 46(57.5%) 12(15%) 3(3.75%) 19(23.75%) 0(0%) Loss of house and properties. 31(38.75%) 18(22.5%) 7(8.75%) 22(27.5%) 2(2.5%) Loss of production/shortage of production. 48(60%) 26(32.5%) 1(1.25%) 5(6.25%) 0(0%) Displacement of farmers. 49(61.25%) 25(31.25%) 3(3.75%) 2(2.5%) 1(1.25%) Reduction of income and output by farmers. 58(72.5%) 20(25%) 1(1.25%) 1(1.25%) 0(0%) Reduction of income and output by herdsmen. 13(16.25%) 2(2.5%) 12(15%) 24(30%) 29(36.25%) Low food security 37(46.25%) 37(46.25%) 3(3.75%) 2(2.5%) 1(1.25%) Low community organization. 20(25%) 22(27.5%) 12(15%) 24(30.0%) 2(2.5%)
  9. 9. Intervention Mechanism Used for Conflicts Resolution Statement Yes No Frequency (percentages) Frequency (percentages) Do you get help from police? 39(48.75%) 41(51.25%) Do you get help from traditional ruler? 48(60%) 32(40%) Do you get help from tribal leaders? 44(55.0%) 36(45.0%) Do you get help from relation and friend? 67(83.75) 13(16.25%) Do you get help from any political leader? 12(15.0%) 68(85.0%) Do you get help from government through insurance policy? 5(6.25%) 75(93.75%) Do you get help from vigilante? 66(82.5%) 14(17.5%) Do you protect yourself 76(95%) 4(5%)
  10. 10. Correlation Coefficient between Perceive Causes Of The Conflict Between Farmer-Herdsmen And The Economic Effect Of Farmer- Herdsmen Conflicts on Rural Farmers Livelihood. Statements R-value p-value Decision perceive causes of conflicts 0.360 0.001 S Economic effect of farmer-herdsmen conflict on farmers livelihood 0.360 0.001 S
  11. 11. Conclusion and recommendations This research work was able to identify various causes of conflicts between farmers and herdsmen This research highlighted the major economic effect of farmer- herdsmen conflicts on the farmer livelihood and this were effect on community safety, social network security occupational functioning, wellbeing and satisfaction, personal safety and health security It was therefore recommended that government at all level should design peace building framework that will address conflict between farmers and herdsmen.
  12. 12. References • Adebayo OO, Olaniyi OA (2008). Factors associated with pastoral and crop farmers conflict in derived savanna zone of Oyo State, Nigeria. J. Hum. Econ. 23:71-74. • • Abba GS, Usman AT (2008). Farmer – pastoralist conflict in West Africa, exploring the causes and consequences. Inform. Soc. Justice 1-2:163-184. • • Adekunle A, Adisa RS (2010). An empirical phenomenological psychological study of farmer-herdsmen conflicts in North – Central • Nigeria. J. Altern. Persp. Soc. Sci. 2(1):1-27. • Adetula VAO (2007). “Development, Conflict and Peace Building in Africa”, in Best, S.G. (ed.) (2007) Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies in West Africa. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Ltd. • Abbass MI (2009). No retreat, no surrender: Conflict for survival between Fulani pastoralists and farmers in Northern Nigeria. Eur. Sci. J. 8(1):1-22. •
  13. 13. Appreciation THANK YOU FOR LISTENING

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