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Assessing Information on Migration Behaviour

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Assessing the role of information as a correlate of migration behaviour amongst Nigerian returnee and potential migrants en route Europe

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Assessing Information on Migration Behaviour

  1. 1. Presentation by D. Tola Winjobi (PhD) ASSESSING INFORMATION ON MIGRATION BEHAVIOUR
  2. 2. ASSESSING INFORMATION ON MIGRATION BEHAVIOUR • Assessing the role of information as a correlate of migration behaviour amongst Nigerian returnee and potential migrants en route Europe • being a Paper presentation at INSTACON 29th -31st October, 2019
  3. 3. PRESENTATION OUTLINE 1. Introduction to the project: Irregular migration amongst youth funded by EU 2. Study focus: irregular migration not necessarily human trafficking: returnee vs potential migrants 3. Project objectives 4. Conceptual Framework of the study 5. Migration courses and causes
  4. 4. PRESENTATION OUTLINE (contd 6. Migration determinants: Pull & Push factors 7.Methodology 8. Presentation of results 9. Suggestions/Recommendations 10. Any question?
  5. 5. EU PROJECT ON IRREGULAR MIGRATION • Introduction to the project: Irregular migration amongst youth funded by EU • The focus was on Nigerian migrants (youth) and the challenges facing them enroute Europe via deserts and country of transition • Multiple actions: poster, sms, motorcade, docudrama, street theatre etc • Presentation of outcome in UN House Abuja
  6. 6. STUDY FOCUS • The focus of this study: irregular migration not necessarily human trafficking: returnee vs potential migrants. ‘irregular migrants” = "undocumented immigrants" = "unauthorized immigrants" = "illegalized immigrant" = foreign nationals who reside in a country illegally.[6] Focus is on the actions of the state, which actively denies people legal status.[7] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illegal_immigration
  7. 7. IRREGULAR MIGRATION Illegal immigration is the migration of people across national borders in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country.There have been campaigns to discourage the use of the term 'illegal immigrant' in many countries since 2007, generally based on the argument that the act of immigration may be illegal in some cases, but the people themselves are not illegal.
  8. 8. Project objectives • The general objective of the study was to determine the role that information plays in migration behavior as it affects both the returnees and potential migrants in Nigeria en route Europe so as to shape migration policies.
  9. 9. Specific objectives • To appraise the level of understanding of migrants on the dangers associated with irregular migration en route the desert and the Mediterranean Sea; • To gauge the opinions of the returnees on rights violation and whether they would still migrate based on the information they now have and; • To assess best migration policy practice in relation to some selected European countries and Nigeria so as to determine information provision on migration.
  10. 10. Conceptual Framework
  11. 11. Determinants of Migration Push factors Pull factors Extraneous factors poverty progressive academics corruption/sleaze at all levels natural disasters: fire, erosion, flood, tremor, quakes, slide, desertification clement weather/favourable climate environmental pollution unemployment job opportunity lack of industrial harmony and or incessant strike actions violence against women and children: circumcision, rape, incest etc better healthcare facilities bad economy lack of functioning social amenities abundance of social amenities economic recession poor workers’ salaries decent job security weak nation’s currency increased crime rate peace and tranquility broken down infrastructure bad-governance good governance dysfunctional political system absence of social safety net safety net fractured social relationship political instability and social unrest demand for prostitution availability of other aspects of the sex industry sectarian and religious conflicts demand for cheap labor thriving human trafficking business persecution and threats of death/ethnic cleansing or bloodshed affordable shelter ethnic suspicion and rivalry lack of religious freedom freedom of religion/worship Fulanization and ruganization agenda insecurity: armed robbery, banditry, kidnapping anti-youth policies marital problem marriage policy demolition/homelessness perverse corporations needing cheap labour lack of opportunity for a better life misinformation Xenophobic attack polygamy Discrimination porous borders
  12. 12. CAUSES OF IRREGULAR MIGRATION in NIgeria • Nigerian socio-economic condition ossifies youth employment (poverty, hunger,) • Ethno-religious violence (Jos, Bauchi, Benue Maiduguri, Damaturu, Yola – Herdsmen and Boko Haram mayhem) • Gender-based discrimination (sex preference, less education for girls) • Porous borders/corrupt border officials
  13. 13. CAUSES (contd) • Grounded infrastructure: bad road networks, epileptic power supply, educational institutions in shambles, health facilities in decay etc • Misplaced priority/continuity of governments: different policies; MPs allowance vs minimum wage (N18,000); additional federal universities vs starving of existing • Lack of political will and commitment to enforce existing legislation
  14. 14. AFRICAN ROUTES TO EURopE •
  15. 15. ROUTES TO EUROPE
  16. 16. Methodology • The subjects were drawn from 120 potential and returnee migrants who were involved in the major project titled: Irregular Migration – Filling the information gap. • Sixty of the subjects volunteered to participate in both focus group discussions and interview schedule that followed.
  17. 17. Methodology (Contd.) Questions were generated from the following issues, among others: *participants’ intention to migrate and why, * reasons for voluntary or forced return, * means and routes of migration, *level of participants’ desperation to migrate, *risks associated with travelling without valid documents, *and their knowledge about migration.
  18. 18. Methodology (Conld.) Sixty copies of the questionnaire were administered on the respondents and 54 of them returned their copies while six of them were void therefore not useful in data analysis. 28 (51%) of the 54 respondents that returned their questionnaire were potential migrants while 26 (49%) were returnees as presented in figure 2 below.
  19. 19. MIGRATION STATUS OF RESPONDENTS Figure 4: Respondents as returnees or potential migrants 28 26 Returnee Mgrnts 49% Potential Migrnts 51%
  20. 20. Table 2: Respondents by qualification and occupation N=54 Qualification Occupation Sch. Cert Under graduate ND HND BA PG Artis an Civil Servants CSOs Unem ployed Self- employed No 10 9 7 9 14 5 4 10 5 25 10 % 18.5 16.6 13 16.6 26 9.25 7.40 9.25 9.25 46.2 18.51
  21. 21. Table 3: Intending migrants, means, knowledge and information # = 54 No Question Affirmativ e Response Negative Respons e # Yes % # No % 1 Do you intend to travel out of Nigeria in the future? 51 94.4 3 5.6 2 Are you ready to spend any amount of money to assist you to travel out of Nigeria? 29 54 20 37 3 If you travelled through invalid documentation and you were caught, would you try your luck again? 9 16.7 45 83. 3 4 Can you confidently say that you have enough information about the country you are going? 26 48 28 52
  22. 22. Table 5: By what routes did you travel out Nigeria, if you have travelled before? RESPONSE Overland Sea Air sea and air Never PERCENTAGE 37 % (20) 1.85% (1) 9.25% (5) 11% (6) 51% (28)
  23. 23. Table 7: Respondents’ decision to migrate by road and sea based on information acquired Q: Would you still like to migrate based on the information you now acquired? Migrant Potential #=28 Returnee #=26 54 Potential+Returnee Response Yes No Yes No Yes No N 8 20 8 18 16 38 % 28.57 71.4 30.76 69.23 29.62 70.37
  24. 24. Table 8: Correlation analysis of information, decision to travel among returnees and potential migrants N=54 Variable CorrelationCoefficient p-value Returnees’ decision to migrate again and informationreceived 0.97 0.008 Potential migrants’ decision to migrate and informationreceived 0.56 0.001
  25. 25. discussions According to the result presented in table 8 above, the correlation coefficient between the returnees’ decision to migrate and information received is 0.97. This is a very high correlation. Also the sign of correlation is positive (+).
  26. 26. Discussions (contd.) The coefficient is also found to be statistically significant at the 1% level. On the other hand, the potential migrants’ decision to migrate and information received are positively signed also, though expectedly. The correlation coefficient is as high as 0.56.
  27. 27. Discussions (conld.) The coefficient is also found to be statistically significant (p-value 0.001). In this study, significant relationships were found between information received and decision to migrate by potential (r=.56, p-value 0.001) and returnee migrants(r=0.97, p-value 0.008).
  28. 28. Table 9: Problems peculiar to irregular migrants generally and specific problems peculiar to returnee migrants General problems: irregular migrants Specific problems: returnees Arrest and detention Anti-social behaviour: addiction, pilfering Asphyxia in the desert Betrayal and disappointment Attacks by wild animals Child abuse Death in the desert or execution Divorce/permanent separation Deportation Destitution/homelessness Extortion by local security operatives Hunger, starvation, sickness etc Inclement weather condition Irregular remittance/Non remittance Indecent meal: eating junks and drinking urine Loss of dignity and self-esteem Lack of food and water Loss of personal effects Road/sea catastrophes Parental neglect Sexploitation (sexual exploitation) Prostitution Swindling by natives Shame Unfounded fear and trepidation Stigma Xenophobic attacks Suicidal acts
  29. 29. RECOMMENDATIONS Nigerian governments should enact youth-friendly policies, and create employment opportunity for our teeming youths to enable them exhibit their respective potentials instead of becoming brain drain to their own country. Government should also provide an enabling environment for the private sector in particular youth-oriented entrepreneurs by enacting development-oriented policies that support productive activities that would grow Nigeria’s economy.
  30. 30. RECOMMENDATIONS (contd.) Authorities should monitor the activities of dubious immigration service providers and bring the culprits to book. CSOs and agencies that are working in the area of migration should brace up to provide undiluted information in the area of migration process to potential migrants so as to allow for informed decision to travel and curtail the menace of irregular migration.
  31. 31. RECOMMENDATIONS (contd.) According to Goals 1, 6 and 7 of the SDGs, that government should direct its policies towards poverty eradication for all and towards service delivery especially in providing functioning social amenities such as safe and affordable water and affordable, reliable, and modern power supply in order to encourage conducive home environment and to reduce the menace of irregular migration.
  32. 32. RECOMMENDATIONS (contd.) Realising 2030 Agenda and achieving the SDGs would be a mirage if governments neglect these five Ps which are the bases of development. In similar vein, the implementation of all the 17 goals is dependent on factoring in the three dimensions of sustainable development – social, economic and environmental elements. SDGs would not be realized by 2030 if these three dimensions are relegated in our plans, policies, and programmes.
  33. 33. RECOMMENDATIONS (conld.) While American migration policies are no longer enviable (no thanks to Trump’s recent anti-migrant policy), the European countries should enact immigration policies that wear human rights face. Britain and Germany, for example, could learn the best migration policy from France and Italy whose policies are less hash and more favourable to the migrants than that of other European countries.
  34. 34. CONCLUSIONS The current Nigerian socio-economic condition has made migrants particularly vulnerable while seemingly better opportunities in the global north have shaped the migration behaviour across the globe. Some governments of the destination countries have stepped up the enforcement of migration laws in ways that can infringe on migrants’ rights. Examples are Libya and Italy who have made a bilateral treaty affecting the rights of migrants.
  35. 35. CONCLUSION Bye and large, information plays a vital role in migration behavior and in final decision to migrate or not. The right information at the disposal of potential migrants would go a long way in making an informed decision which would invariably enhance individuals’ socio-economic capacity and make them self-actualize for the benefit of the society.
  36. 36. THANK YOU! D. Tola Winjobi (Ph.D) CAFSO-WRAG for Development tola.winjobi@cscsdev.org tolawinjobi58@yahoo.com +234 8082008222 +234 8030618326 www.cafsowrag4development.org

Assessing the role of information as a correlate of migration behaviour amongst Nigerian returnee and potential migrants en route Europe

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