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ORDBMS e NoSQL nel trattamento dei dati geografici parte seconda. 30 Sett. 2015

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ORDBMS e NoSQL nel trattamento dei dati geografici parte seconda - Roberto Demontis (CRS4) Cagliari, 30 Settembre 2015

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ORDBMS e NoSQL nel trattamento dei dati geografici parte seconda. 30 Sett. 2015

  1. 1. PARTE SECONDA ORDBMS e NoSQL nel trattamento dei dati geografici Cagliari 30 Settembre 2015
  2. 2. RDBMS: Sistema di gestione di database con modello di dati relazionale ORDBMS: Sistema per la gestione di insiemi di dati simile ad un DBMS relazionale ma con un modello dei dati orientato agli oggetti, cioè oggetti, classi, ereditarietà, polimorfismo sono supportati direttamente nello schema del database e nel linguaggio di interrogazione. (SQL:1999) (O)RDBMS Cagliari 30 Settembre 2015
  3. 3. Cagliari 30 Settembre 2015http://db-engines.com/en/ranking
  4. 4. Cagliari 30 Settembre 2015
  5. 5. MYSQL Spatial: ● https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.0/en/using-spatial-data.html ● https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.0/en/spatial-extensions.html Oracle Spatial: ● http://docs.oracle.com/cd/B28359_01/appdev.111/b28400/sdo_intro.htm#i881614 DB2 Spatial: ● http://www-03.ibm.com/software/products/en/db2spaext Sql Server: ● https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb933876%28v=sql.105%29.aspx Postgis: ● http://postgis.net/ ●http://postgis.net/docs/manual-2.1/ (O)RDBMS Cagliari 30 Settembre 2015
  6. 6. Una breve sessione su phpPgAdmin..... http://gisepi.crs4.it/phppgadmin/ Login: 'studente' Password: '123pass456' Postgis Cagliari 30 Settembre 2015
  7. 7. Gis computing Cagliari 30 Settembre 2015 workflow, risorse (disco, memoria, core), grid computing, cloud computing
  8. 8. … e non ti hanno ancora detto dove piazzeranno le trivelle Pare che i dati dei profili utente siano il nuovo petrolio...
  9. 9. get more data ● Internet of things, reti di sensori, social, sequenze temporali, profilazione, business intelligence → analisi e gestione di big data → modello del dato flessibile → numero accessi e performance ...quale è il ruolo del gis in questo contesto?
  10. 10. Dimensione dei dati ● I dati e la loro geolocazione
  11. 11. Flessibilità e modello dei dati vincoli, chiavi esterne, indici, gestione dati etc.. Nei (O)RDBMS la gestione del modello dei dati è “rigida” (e.g verifiche di coerenza) anche se modificabile. Flessibilità
  12. 12. Scalabilità
  13. 13. La Scalabilità è il vero tallone d'achille dei (O)RDBMS. Le possibili soluzioni per BIG-data quali database distribuiti o partizionamento non hanno portato soluzioni convincenti. Esempio: I punti di accesso distribuiti territorialmente nelle infrastrutture dei social (numero utenti → numero accessi e dimensione dati ) → molti utenti, molti accessi, big data le soluzioni NoSQL diventano una necessità in diversi campi Scalabilità
  14. 14. NoSQL or Not only SQL or Not Relational or... SparkSQL http://blogs.esri.com/esri/arcgis/2013/08/16/st_geometry-aggregate-functions-for-hive-in-spatial-framework-for-hadoop/
  15. 15. Struttura a nodi, comunicazione asincrona. ● Un insiemi di nodi definisce un cluster ● Meccanismo di interrogazione map - reduce ● Indici primario su chiave – valore ● Limite nel dato atomico ( singolo attributo, documento, cella etc..) 20 Mb Flessibilità del modello dei dati (cambiamenti “a caldo” garantito senza interruzioni servizio) Scalabilità NoSQL
  16. 16. ● Ancora giovane: pochi strumenti accessori GIS ● Utilizzo risorse: gestire una struttura con vari nodi e quindi dotare di core, memoria e disco ciascun nodo → su basi di dati non big il costo / efficenza è a favore dei (O)RDBMS ● Indicizzazione secondaria sui dati spaziali da migliorare ● I NoSQL non risolvono tutto da soli: è neccessario realizzare sovra-strutture ad hoc per la gestione delle query NoSQL
  17. 17. Tipo 1) modello del dato chiave-valore (Key- Values) il valore è un oggetto del tutto trasparente per il sistema, cioè non è possibile fare query sui valori ma solo sulle chiavi. Tipo 2) gestisce database orientati ai documenti (Document database) sono simili a tabelle hash con un unico campo di identificazione e valori che possono essere di qualunque tipo. I documenti (XML, JSON, BSON, etc.) possono contenere strutture nidificate. Supportano indici secondari, replicazione e interrogazioni ad hoc. Tipi di motori NoSQL
  18. 18. Tipo 3) gestisce database orientati alle colonne (Column-oriented) organizzano i dati per colonne, le righe possono avere associate diverse colonne e tutte accessibili attraverso una chiave di riga. le righe non hanno necessariamente le stesse colonne e le colonne possono essere aggiunte alle righe in qualsiasi momento senza doverle aggiungere alle altre righe della stessa famiglia. Tipi di motori NoSQL
  19. 19. Tipo 4) gestisce database a grafo (Graph database) rappresentano un caso particolare di database orientati ai documenti in cui i documenti rappresentano sia i nodi che le relazioni che interconnettono i nodi. Questi database sono utili per risolvere i problemi di memorizzazione e gestione di dati interconnessi. Tipi di motori NoSQL
  20. 20. CouchDB https://github.com/couchbase/geocouch/ MongoDB http://www.slideshare.net/nknize/rtree-spatial-indexing-with-mongodb-mongodc http://docs.mongodb.org/manual/applications/geospatial-indexes/ http://mongogis.org/ NoSQL orientati ai documenti
  21. 21. Couchbase http://docs.couchbase.com/admin/admin/Views/views-geospatial.html Amazon DynameDB https://github.com/awslabs/dynamodb-geo NoSQL orientati ai documenti
  22. 22. Hbase (Hadoop) http://www.slideshare.net/Hadoop_Summit/grailer-hochmuth-june27515pmroom212v3 http://www.slideshare.net/hhdd2005/hgrid-a-data-model-for-large-geospatial-data-sets-in-hbase?related=1 Gis hadoop: https://github.com/Esri/gis-tools-for-hadoop Spatial hadoop: http://spatialhadoop.cs.umn.edu/ NoSQL orientati alle colonne
  23. 23. AllegroGraph http://franz.com/agraph/allegrograph/ http://franz.com/agraph/support/documentation/current/sparql-geo.html Neo4j Spatial https://github.com/neo4j-contrib/spatial NoSQL graphDB
  24. 24. ...MongoDB - GeoJSON objects … shell - Legacy coordinate pairs http://mongly.openmymind.net/geo/index
  25. 25. Domande?

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