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Src ctpl-idrc paper-summaries

  1. 1. Strategic Opportunities in Caribbean Migration: Brain Circulation, Diasporic Tourism and Investment Research Paper Summaries This multi-country, multi-participant case study-based research project focuses on strategic opportunities in Caribbean migration and its trade and development implications. The focus is on the impact of two dimensions of mobile populations on the region: 1. Brain circulation - the return migration of professionals and other skilled labour; and, 2. Diasporic tourism - the travel and tourism impact of diasporic communities. Brain Circulation and Investment Research Papers Title: Patterns of CARICOM return migration and brain circulation: Case study of Caribbean-born nurses Authors: Chantal Blouin and Priyanka Debenath Summary: There is a large literature on migration of health professionals and brain drain more generally. However, there is much less research on brain circulation, and even fewer publications on migration of health professionals from the Caribbean. Given the significant outflows of health professionals from the region, this paper examines findings provided by the existing literature on the migration of Caribbean health professionals and the existing data on the major destination countries of these migrants, with the ultimate goal of providing recommendations on how the data gathered can be improved, and the missing gaps of knowledge filled. The authors conducted a review of the literature available on brain circulation of health professionals, assembled existing data on migration and brain circulation of Caribbean nurses and reviewed existing policy frameworks for managing migration and facilitating brain circulation. This report highlights a number of findings relevant to devising strategies for the region to maximize the positive development impact of migration while minimizing the negative consequences. Title: The Role of Caribbean Diasporas in Regional Science, Technology and Innovation. Author: Jason Jackson Summary: This paper addresses the key guiding question of the IDRC project: “How can source countries exploit the benefits of brain circulation?” by concentrating on the role diasporas as conduits of tacit knowledge and technology. This research primarily engages with recent literature on the ‘new’ industrial policy that emphasizes the role of the movement of skilled persons and focused, strategic interactions between governments and the private sector. As such it focuses on the potential benefits of institutional mechanisms of engaging with the diaspora by government and This project is funded by Canada’s International Development Research Centre,
  2. 2. home country private sector as a means of facilitating transformation of the region’s productive sector. The analysis focuses on the diasporic relationship between Jamaica and the US. Title: Brain Circulation and the Financial Service Industry: Canada and the Caribbean as a Case Study Authors: Dominic Davis, Monique Moreau and Phil Rourke Summary: Among the research findings on brain circulation, there is a lack of both an examination of the financial services industry as a case study and a general application of some of the conclusions from these studies to this industry. This gap is particularly evident for regions such as the Caribbean where the financial services industry is seen as a sector of relative strength and potential growth. This paper will attempt to address this research gap, focusing specifically on brain circulation and the financial services industry in the Caribbean, and the policy implications for national, regional and international decision-makers. The research will include a specific focus on brain circulation in the context of the evolution of Canadian-Caribbean bilateral relationship. This relationship has been chosen for the substantive historical investment of Canadian industry in the region, the relative position of Canadian banks and financial service providers in the Caribbean, the substantive economic impact and evolving nature of this industry, and its policy implications for both Canada and the Caribbean. The conclusions and recommendations will inform the broader study as well as the current Canada-CARICOM negotiations, specifically prospects for addressing key competitiveness and development issues in the financial services sector through these negotiations. Author: Indianna Minto-Coy Title: “Beyond Remittancing”: An Investigation of the Role of ICTs in Facilitating and Extending the Diaspora’s Contribution to the Caribbean Summary: Telecommunications is one of the areas in which Diasporas have impacted development across the Caribbean. However, coverage of these areas has not been even, with the mass of attention in research and policy focusing on remittancing. This is for good reason, given that this marks one of the longest and most visible forms of diasporic contribution. Among the least considered areas is that of telecommunications and more generally Information and Communications Technology (ICT), even while it has been accepted that important gains can be secured from increasing diasporic involvement in this area. As suggested in the title of this paper, ‘ICTs’ essentially facilitate communication, information sharing as well as networking across groups. Through ICTs the diaspora has the potential to help extend knowledge sharing, reduce the digital divide, encourage new forms of interaction while advancing its developmental impact in the economy, culture and politics of the Caribbean. ICTs, therefore, have both a bridging and bonding role connecting different groups and interests across space, time and sectors. ICTs are also a This project is funded by Canada’s International Development Research Centre,
  3. 3. tradable commodity offering the region and its diaspora additional opportunities for earnings and the distribution and collection of such earnings. They are useful tools in the continued effort to widen the exchange and engagement of the diaspora and the Caribbean. There is, therefore, need for an investigation of the ways in which ICTs more generally, can act as tools and media for more active and entrepreneurial engagement between the Caribbean and its diaspora community. This research assesses ways in which the diaspora’s relationship with the home country can be advanced via ICT. More specifically, this study aims to assess the ways in which ICT can help to facilitate and advance the diaspora’s contribution to the Caribbean and in turn, advance the region’s capacity and use of ICT for development. It is proposed that ICT be seen as both a means and an end in extending diasporic engagement in the Caribbean not only in the sense of helping in knowledge transfer and in the advancement and use of ICT for development, but also in consolidating and extending more traditional forms of diasporic engagement (e.g. remittancing, tourism and welfare assistance). Such processes are important in helping to redress some of the ill- effects of migration, moving the region towards a more constructive engagement based on brain circulation, brain gain and the development of a Caribbean brain bank. Diaspora Tourism and Investment Research Papers Author: Keith Nurse Title: Diaspora Tourism: The Case of Suriname Summary: This paper seeks to go beyond the remittances discourse and engage in a discussion on the importance of diasporic tourism, which has been a key driver of the region’s economic growth for the last decade. In fact the Surinamese Diaspora which represents only 2% of the Netherlands population is actually a very significant 72% of share of Suriname’s population, and by extension provides a considerable contribution to Suriname’s tourism industry. The paper examines the level of diasporic tourism engagement between the Suriname and its diaspora in the Netherlands. To aid the disaggregation of data available for analysis, an assessment of the terminology used to define the diaspora visitors and establish their own self-identification and classification, is key to this research. Also provided is an analysis of the political economy of the Caribbean regarding the competitiveness issues and development impact of diasporic tourism on both small and large regional enterprises. Finally, under examination will be a methodology for establishing and sustaining linkages for a pro- poor development strategy, examining the circular relationship between pro-poor tourism, diasporic communities, diaspora communities and destination countries. This project is funded by Canada’s International Development Research Centre,
  4. 4. Title: Transnational Migration and the Strategic Opportunities of Diasporic Tourism: The Case of the Dominican Republic. Author: Yanique Yume Summary: The expansive terrain of transnational networks and practices plays a critical role in mediating some of the effects of globalization. Aided by advances in communication and technological innovations, diasporic migrants not only articulate their dual citizenship and active political engagements; they also significantly contribute to the socio-economic development of their countries. While the circulatory migration that defines the transnational realities of Dominicans in the United States have been well documented, there has been less sustained scholastic engagement with mapping the strategic opportunities associated with specific transnational practices, such as diasporic tourism, which warrants new theoretical advances, lines of inquiry and policy initiatives. This paper takes as its lead this complexity of the migratory process as it maps the transnational flows from the Dominican Republic to New York. Particular attention will be paid to assessing the degree to which a diasporic presence in the United States has been facilitated by enduring social networks and family ties or new transnational strategies and institutions. Further analysis seeks to understand the range of practices migrants use to negotiate and assert their cultural, political and socio-economic place in their adopted homes. Also examined is the developmental impact of diasporic tourism within transnational communities and their countries of origin, given the importance of remittances to the tourism to the country, second only to remittances as the country’s leading sources of foreign currency. Title: Diaspora Tourism and its Developmental Potential: A Jamaican Perspective Author: Natasha Kay Mortley Summary: The paper begins with a discussion on the development potential of returning migrants, of which the diaspora tourist is a part, and reviews the literature on Diaspora tourism in developing countries, demonstrating how it is undervalued and why its significance should be appreciated in today’s global economy. An argument is made that in addition to economic benefits, there are also important socio cultural and political reasons why developing country governments need to encourage, support and invest in Diaspora tourism. Diaspora makes up a large part of the millions of tourists received by developing countries each year. Trough tourism, besides stimulating the local economy while they're visiting, diasporas support their home communities by buying nostalgic goods which typically are produced by micro- and small enterprises. Greater efforts can be made to promote diaspora tourism and to develop the capacity of the makers of nostalgic goods through value chain work. This project is funded by Canada’s International Development Research Centre,
  5. 5. Author: Sherma Roberts Title: Unearthing “new” Gold: An Exploratory Analysis of diaspora tourism flows between Toronto and Guyana. Summary: The global financial crisis has lead the Caribbean tourism industry to search for new products and markets. Diaspora tourism presents an opportunity to explore a new market niche in the face of increasing global competition, and changing consumer psychographics. This study examines the workings of diaspora tourism as it emanates from the global city of Toronto and impacts on the diasporic homeland of Guyana. The paper also gives consideration to the mechanisms and policy environment that are required to increase the diaspora tourism contributions and developmental benefits to their home country. This project is funded by Canada’s International Development Research Centre,