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What policies would attract health professionals to rural areas?  Evidence from South Africa, Thailand and Kenya Duane Blaauw Centre for Health Policy, South Africa Delivering Effective Health Care for All Monday 29th March, 2010
Possible interventions to attract health workers to under-served areas? Grobler et al  (2009)
Evidence of policy effectiveness? Cochrane review (2009) found no rigorous controlled studies  Need more rigorous evaluations of impact Methodological challenges RCTs may not be possible RCTs may not be sufficient Interim solutions? Longitudinal HR databases Modelling of stated preference data
Study methods Discrete choice experiment (DCE) with nursing graduates in South Africa, Thailand & Kenya DCE Design DCE Analysis Used statistical model to investigate: Rural uptake for different policy combinations Cost-effectiveness of different interventions
DCE design Labelled design Two choices Annual Salary 6 different rural policy interventions 16 choice sets
Different country preferences
Impact of single interventions
Impact of packages of interventions
Cost-effectiveness of interventions (ZA)
Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios Early study leave + 20% rural allowance ICER: R 590,988 Early study leave + car + 10% rural allowance ICER: R 517,831 MORE COST-EFFECTIVE Early study leave + car ICER: R 313,096 Early study leave ICER: R 250,065 Base cost ICER: R 238,324
Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios ICER: R 590,988 ICER: R 558,983 ICER: R 318,519 ICER: R 252,608 Base cost: R 213,170 Base cost ICER: R 238,324
Implications for policy and practice Policymakers in LMICs should make more use of modelling data to inform the design of HR policies.  There are no generic HR solutions. HR policies need to be tailored to individual country contexts.  A combination of financial and non-financial HR strategies is required.  Non-financial interventions can be as effective as salary increases and are more cost-effective.  Changing student selection is a very cost-effective strategy to increase health professionals in under-served areas.
Partners Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi KethiMullei, Sandra Mudhune, Jackie Wafula, Catherine Goodman, Mike English Centre for Health Policy, Johannesburg Duane Blaauw, Ermin Erasmus International Health Policy Program, Bangkok NonglakPagaiya, ThinakornNoree, VirojTangcharoensathien London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine MyleneLagarde

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What policies would attract health professionals to rural areas?

  • 1. What policies would attract health professionals to rural areas? Evidence from South Africa, Thailand and Kenya Duane Blaauw Centre for Health Policy, South Africa Delivering Effective Health Care for All Monday 29th March, 2010
  • 2. Possible interventions to attract health workers to under-served areas? Grobler et al (2009)
  • 3. Evidence of policy effectiveness? Cochrane review (2009) found no rigorous controlled studies Need more rigorous evaluations of impact Methodological challenges RCTs may not be possible RCTs may not be sufficient Interim solutions? Longitudinal HR databases Modelling of stated preference data
  • 4. Study methods Discrete choice experiment (DCE) with nursing graduates in South Africa, Thailand & Kenya DCE Design DCE Analysis Used statistical model to investigate: Rural uptake for different policy combinations Cost-effectiveness of different interventions
  • 5. DCE design Labelled design Two choices Annual Salary 6 different rural policy interventions 16 choice sets
  • 7. Impact of single interventions
  • 8. Impact of packages of interventions
  • 10. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios Early study leave + 20% rural allowance ICER: R 590,988 Early study leave + car + 10% rural allowance ICER: R 517,831 MORE COST-EFFECTIVE Early study leave + car ICER: R 313,096 Early study leave ICER: R 250,065 Base cost ICER: R 238,324
  • 11. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios ICER: R 590,988 ICER: R 558,983 ICER: R 318,519 ICER: R 252,608 Base cost: R 213,170 Base cost ICER: R 238,324
  • 12. Implications for policy and practice Policymakers in LMICs should make more use of modelling data to inform the design of HR policies. There are no generic HR solutions. HR policies need to be tailored to individual country contexts. A combination of financial and non-financial HR strategies is required. Non-financial interventions can be as effective as salary increases and are more cost-effective. Changing student selection is a very cost-effective strategy to increase health professionals in under-served areas.
  • 13. Partners Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi KethiMullei, Sandra Mudhune, Jackie Wafula, Catherine Goodman, Mike English Centre for Health Policy, Johannesburg Duane Blaauw, Ermin Erasmus International Health Policy Program, Bangkok NonglakPagaiya, ThinakornNoree, VirojTangcharoensathien London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine MyleneLagarde