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5/03/14	
  

BECERA, 2014

Building reciprocity
in unequal relations
Michel Vandenbroeck
Department of Social Welfare Stud...
5/03/14	
  

1.  What do we mean by that (in curricula)
2.  What can it mean in practice (an experiment)
3. What can it me...
5/03/14	
  

“If a child does not have a strong grasp of English language,
practitioners must explore the child’s skills i...
5/03/14	
  

“The manager of the day-care facility shall include the parent board in
the preparation, evaluation and follo...
5/03/14	
  

“a two-way process of
knowledge and
information flowing freely
both ways” (2006)

“Parents and communities sho...
5/03/14	
  

Can the subaltern speak ? (Spivak)
Because it’s my first time that I am a mum and they have a lot of experienc...
5/03/14	
  

“Je ne cherche pas à dire que tout est
mauvais, mais que tout est dangereux,
ce qui n’est pas exactement la m...
5/03/14	
  

“Je ne cherche pas à dire que tout est
mauvais, mais que tout est dangereux,
ce qui n’est pas exactement la m...
5/03/14	
  

In the day care centre they are against it, because she’s very
young and … they don’t train the babies until ...
5/03/14	
  

In the day care centre they are against it, because she’s very
young and … they don’t train the babies until ...
5/03/14	
  

A Brussels experiment
Ethnic minorities are majority below 3 years. 
From newcomers to general accessibility
...
5/03/14	
  

Nationaliteit (voorrang allocht)
Werknemer
Voltijdse opvang
Regelmaat van opvang
Inwoner van de gemeente
(Toe...
5/03/14	
  

Parents search on average 9 months before need
Minority (M = 10,26) > Native (M = 6,52)
Higher education (M =...
5/03/14	
  

Conclusions
Comprehensive policies on macro and micro levels
13 recommendations"
based on lit study and good ...
5/03/14	
  

Policy level!
1. Public funding!
100%	
  

2. Integration of
90%	
  
education & care!
80%	
  
70%	
  

Provi...
5/03/14	
  

Policy level!

Provision level!

Parental level!

1. Public funding!

6. Democratic
decision making!

12. Inv...
5/03/14	
  

ECEC as a place
Where everyone (incl children, parents and staff) can belong
Where everyone (incl children, p...
5/03/14	
  

The European Council asks the Member States to take necessary
measures to rapidly and significantly reduce ch...
5/03/14	
  

BECERA, 2014

Vandenbroeck, M., Roets, G., & Snoeck, A. (2009). Immigrant
mothers crossing borders: nomadic i...
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BECERA 2014 Michel Vandenbroeck Keynotes

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BECERA 2014 Michel Vandenbroeck Keynotes

  1. 1. 5/03/14   BECERA, 2014 Building reciprocity in unequal relations Michel Vandenbroeck Department of Social Welfare Studies Ghent University, Belgium “Partnership working between practitioners and with parents and/or carers”" (Statutory Framework for the Early Years Foundation Stage) 1  
  2. 2. 5/03/14   1.  What do we mean by that (in curricula) 2.  What can it mean in practice (an experiment) 3. What can it mean in policies (in literature) “The guardian is responsible for their child’s upbringing and development. The preschool should supplement the home by creating the best possible preconditions for ensuring that each child’s development is rich and varied. The preschool’s work with children should thus take place in close and confidential co-operation with the home. Parents should have the opportunity within the framework of the national goals to be involved and influence activities in the preschool” (Skolverket, 2011, p. 13). Swedish curriculum 2  
  3. 3. 5/03/14   “If a child does not have a strong grasp of English language, practitioners must explore the child’s skills in the home language with parents and/or carers, to establish whether there is cause for concern about language delay” (Department for Education, 2012, p. 6).   “When a child is aged between two and three, practitioners must review their progress, and provide parents and/or carers with a short written summary of their child’s development in the prime areas” (Department for Education, 2012, 10). EYFS “Fundamental to the Framework is a view of children’s lives as characterised by belonging, being and becoming. From before birth children are connected to family, community, culture and place. Their earliest development and learning takes place through these relationships, particularly within families, who are children’s first and most influential educators. As children participate in everyday life, they develop interests and construct their own identities and understandings of the world” (Australian Government, 2009, p. 7). Australian curriculum 3  
  4. 4. 5/03/14   “The manager of the day-care facility shall include the parent board in the preparation, evaluation and follow-up of the pedagogical curriculum. (…) Day-care facility employees shall be represented on the parent board. (…) The parent board of a day-care centre shall lay down the principles for the work of the day-care centre and for applying the budget framework of the day-care centre within the objectives and framework determined by the local council. (…) The parent board has a right of nomination and right to participate in the appointment of the manager of local-authority and independent daycare centres and of local-authority childminding. (...) The parent board has a right of nomination in connection with the hiring of employees” (Christensen, 2007, p. 4-6). Danish curriculum “Children’s learning and development are fostered if the well-being of their family and community is supported; if their family, culture, knowledge and community are respected; and if there is a strong connection and consistency among all the aspects of the child’s world” (Australia). “Providers must inform parents and/or carers of the name of the key person, and explain their role, when a child starts attending a setting.(…) The key person must seek to engage and support parents and/or carers in guiding their child’s development at home. They should also help families engage with more specialist support if appropriate” (England) 4  
  5. 5. 5/03/14   “a two-way process of knowledge and information flowing freely both ways” (2006) “Parents and communities should be regarded as partners working towards the same goal. Home learning environments and neighourhood matter for healthy child development and learning.” (2011) A Brussels experiment Ethnic minorities are majority below 3 years. From newcomers to general accessibility Qualitative evaluation @ year 1 Quantitative evaluation @ year 5 5  
  6. 6. 5/03/14   Can the subaltern speak ? (Spivak) Because it’s my first time that I am a mum and they have a lot of experience. I would have accepted their advice no matter what, honestly. (Neamat, Lebanon) Can the subaltern speak ? (Spivak) The child reflects its parents when it goes into society, into school. (Marie, DRCongo) 6  
  7. 7. 5/03/14   “Je ne cherche pas à dire que tout est mauvais, mais que tout est dangereux, ce qui n’est pas exactement la même chose que ce qui est mauvais. Si tout est dangereux, alors nous avons toujours quelque chose à faire.” Yeah my aunts, they had a lot of impact [laughs]. And it was really a good one, because it’s really nice when you are surrounded by people who already raised children and who know how to deal. It’s not how to deal, but they already know what to expect and what it should be done or not. Even though we say they have very ancient methods and I don’t know; whatever and maybe the modern methods they are better, but it’s really it gives you a lot of insight and a lot of things you think about… Ancient people, they always feel that children should eat a lot, and I don’t feel that they should eat a lot. (Neamat,Lebanon). They say they will never take their baby to the crèche. I say, I want to go to school, that is why I take my baby to the crèche, to get used to the people. And I want my baby to talk, to speak Dutch, that is why. (Fatmata, Siera Leone) 7  
  8. 8. 5/03/14   “Je ne cherche pas à dire que tout est mauvais, mais que tout est dangereux, ce qui n’est pas exactement la même chose que ce qui est mauvais. Si tout est dangereux, alors nous avons toujours quelque chose à faire.” I really love her [the professional] because also she looked me up some schools… I think that they are amazing because they give me the time and they always answer my question, detailed as much as they can (Neamat). In the day care centre they are against it, because she’s very young and … they don’t train the babies until they are two. Sometimes in the day care centre when she wakes up, they put her on the potty, but it’s always too late. Because the moment the child has to wake up, you have to take him, take his diaper and put it on the potty, you see. But in the day care centre for example a child… many children would wake up at the same time, so you have to deal with one child at the time. And until now she doesn’t know that she has to control her muscles, maybe she, I think that she can do it now. So she has to learn how to do it. So most of the time it’s too late, but they try to… I think even though they don’t agree with me, but they do it. And I think it’s amazing you know, because for them, err…, when you put a child of two years on a potty, there’s not a lot of responsibility. Because you don’t have to watch him. You don’t have to sit, and he has to finish and he will call you when he’s done. But with my daughter, she’s very young so someone has to keep an eye on her. And it is not really logic when you have 21 children. You see, so I think it’s amazing even if they don’t do it every day. The fact that they do it from time to time. I think it’s amazing, yeah. 8  
  9. 9. 5/03/14   In the day care centre they are against it, because she’s very young and … they don’t train the babies until they are two. Sometimes in the day care centre when she wakes up, they put her on the potty, but it’s always too late. Because the moment the child has to wake up, you have to take him, take his diaper and put it on the potty, you see. But in the day care centre for example a child… many children would wake up at the same time, so you have to deal with one child at the time. And until now she doesn’t know that she has to control her muscles, maybe she, I think that she can do it now. So she has to learn how to do it. So most of the time it’s too late, but they try to… I think even though they don’t agree with me, but they do it. And I think it’s amazing you know, because for them, err…, when you put a child of two years on a potty, there’s not a lot of responsibility. Because you don’t have to watch him. You don’t have to sit, and he has to finish and he will call you when he’s done. But with my daughter, she’s very young so someone has to keep an eye on her. And it is not really logic when you have 21 children. You see, so I think it’s amazing even if they don’t do it every day. The fact that they do it from time to time. I think it’s amazing, yeah. In the day care centre they are against it, because she’s very young and … they don’t train the babies until they are two. Sometimes in the day care centre when she wakes up, they put her on the potty, but it’s always too late. Because the moment the child has to wake up, you have to take him, take his diaper and put it on the potty, you see. But in the day care centre for example a child… many children would wake up at the same time, so you have to deal with one child at the time. And until now she doesn’t know that she has to control her muscles, maybe she, I think that she can do it now. So she has to learn how to do it. So most of the time it’s too late, but they try to… I think even though they don’t agree with me, but they do it. And I think it’s amazing you know, because for them, err…, when you put a child of two years on a potty, there’s not a lot of responsibility. Because you don’t have to watch him. You don’t have to sit, and he has to finish and he will call you when he’s done. But with my daughter, she’s very young so someone has to keep an eye on her. And it is not really logic when you have 21 children. You see, so I think it’s amazing even if they don’t do it every day. The fact that they do it from time to time. I think it’s amazing, yeah. 9  
  10. 10. 5/03/14   In the day care centre they are against it, because she’s very young and … they don’t train the babies until they are two. Sometimes in the day care centre when she wakes up, they put her on the potty, but it’s always too late. Because the moment the child has to wake up, you have to take him, take his diaper and put it on the potty, you see. But in the day care centre for example a child… many children would wake up at the same time, so you have to deal with one child at the time. And until now she doesn’t know that she has to control her muscles, maybe she, I think that she can do it now. So she has to learn how to do it. So most of the time it’s too late, but they try to… I think even though they don’t agree with me, but they do it. And I think it’s amazing you know, because for them, err…, when you put a child of two years on a potty, there’s not a lot of responsibility. Because you don’t have to watch him. You don’t have to sit, and he has to finish and he will call you when he’s done. But with my daughter, she’s very young so someone has to keep an eye on her. And it is not really logic when you have 21 children. You see, so I think it’s amazing even if they don’t do it every day. The fact that they do it from time to time. I think it’s amazing, yeah. Inserimento The slow and mutual adaptation of parents, children and professionals Starting with a question 10  
  11. 11. 5/03/14   A Brussels experiment Ethnic minorities are majority below 3 years. From newcomers to general accessibility Qualitative evaluation @ year 1 Quantitative evaluation @ year 5 T1   T1   IT1   IT1   Man   Policy   T1   T1   IT1   Man   Policy   T1   IT1   Man   T1   IT1   IT1   Man   Policy   Policy   A Brussels experiment Ethnic minorities are majority below 3 years. From newcomers to general accessibility Qualitative evaluation @ year 1 Quantitative evaluation @ year 5 11  
  12. 12. 5/03/14   Nationaliteit (voorrang allocht) Werknemer Voltijdse opvang Regelmaat van opvang Inwoner van de gemeente (Toekomstige) schoolkeuze Datum inschrijving Beide ouders werken Lage inkomens Ouder studeert Sociaal, pedagogisch wenselijk crisisopvang Eenoudergezin Broer en zus 0 0,5 1 1,5 2010 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5 2004 12  
  13. 13. 5/03/14   Parents search on average 9 months before need Minority (M = 10,26) > Native (M = 6,52) Higher education (M = 10,13) > Lower education (M = 5,33) % single parent families doubled % low-income families more than doubled % ethnic minority families increased but did not double But still not equal 13  
  14. 14. 5/03/14   Conclusions Comprehensive policies on macro and micro levels 13 recommendations" based on lit study and good practices Vandenbroeck, M.& Lazzari, A, (forthcoming ). Accessibility of Early Childhood Education and Care: A state of affairs. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal! Is it OK to be who YOU are? Children reproduce social prejudices (e.g. racism by omission). Policy level! Provision level! Parental level! 1. Public funding! 6. Democratic decision making! 12. Involvement! 2. Integration of education & care! 7. Analysis of priority 13. Accessible and criteria & access meaningful obstacles! information! 3. Population based entitlement in universal system! 8. Outreach! 4. Regulation of costs and fees! 9. Flexible opening hours matching local needs! 5. Quality monitoring 10. Diverse & research! workforce! 11. Inter-agency cooperation! 14  
  15. 15. 5/03/14   Policy level! 1. Public funding! 100%   2. Integration of 90%   education & care! 80%   70%   Provision level! Parental level! 6. Democratic decision making! 12. Involvement! 7. Analysis of priority 13. Accessible and criteria & access meaningful obstacles! information! 3. Population based 60%   entitlement in 50%   universal system! 40%   8. Outreach! 30%   4. Regulation of 20%   costs and fees! 9. Flexible opening hours matching local needs! 10%   0%   CZ   SK   PL   5. QualityRO   HU   BG   UK   GR   IE   AT  10. LT   LV   MT   DE   FI   CY   US   NL   monitoring AU   Diverse formal   & research! workforce! informal   LU   EE   ES   BE   IT   FR   SI   PT   NO   SE   IS   DK   11. Inter-agency cooperation! Policy level! 8 1. Public funding! PL Provision level! 6. Democratic decision making! Parental level! 12. Involvement! inequality ratio 6 Association between supply and inequality of Accessible and 2. Integration of 7. Analysis of priority 13. use (0-2 y) education & care! criteria & access meaningful SK BG obstacles! information! IE 8. Outreach! 4 3. Population based entitlement in universal system!AT HU 2 4. Regulation of CZ GR DE costs and fees! IT UK NL FI FR LV 9. Flexible opening BE SI ES CY hours matching local NO PT EE needs! LU SE 0 5. Quality monitoring 10. Diverse 0 20 40 & research! workforce! % places in public or subsidized care facilities (as a share of all children 0-2) DK 60 11. Inter-agency cooperation! 15  
  16. 16. 5/03/14   Policy level! Provision level! Parental level! 1. Public funding! 6. Democratic decision making! 12. Involvement! 2. Integration of education & care! 7. Analysis of priority 13. Accessible and criteria & access meaningful obstacles! information! 3. Population based entitlement in universal system! 8. Outreach! 4. Regulation of costs and fees! 9. Flexible opening hours matching local needs! 5. Quality monitoring 10. Diverse & research! workforce! 11. Inter-agency cooperation! ECEC as a place Where everyone (incl children, parents and staff) can belong Is it OK to be who YOU are? Children reproduce social prejudices (e.g. racism by omission). 16  
  17. 17. 5/03/14   ECEC as a place Where everyone (incl children, parents and staff) can belong Where everyone (incl children, parents and staff) can foster multiple identities Is it OK to be who YOU are? Children reproduce social prejudices (e.g. racism by omission). ECEC as a place Where everyone (incl children, parents and staff) can belong Where everyone (incl children, parents and staff) can foster multiple identities Where discrimination is actively addressed Is it OK to be who YOU are? Children reproduce social prejudices (e.g. racism by omission). 17  
  18. 18. 5/03/14   The European Council asks the Member States to take necessary measures to rapidly and significantly reduce child poverty, giving all children equal opportunities, regardless of their social background. (Council of European Union, 2006, p. 24). Parental engagement is essential to the success of pre-primary education and, in the case of the disadvantaged, this can be encouraged through dedicated parental education and outreach programmes. (EC Communication on Efficiency and Equity in European Education and Training Systems , 2006, p. 5) The Communication therefore advocates for a more systemic and integrated approach to ECEC services at local, regional and national level, for the involvement of all relevant stakeholders – in particular, families – and for closer cross-sectoral collaboration between different policy domains such as education, culture, social affairs, employment, health and justice. (Council of the European Union, 2011, p.5). 18  
  19. 19. 5/03/14   BECERA, 2014 Vandenbroeck, M., Roets, G., & Snoeck, A. (2009). Immigrant mothers crossing borders: nomadic identities and multiple belongings in early childhood education. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 17(2), 203-216.   Vandenbroeck, M, Geens, N, & Berten, H. (2014). The impact of policy measures and coaching on availability and accessibility of early child care: A longitudinal study. International Journal of Social Welfare, 23, 69-79. Special thanks to Jeroen Janssens for the study of international curricula Regine De Loose for the graphics VBJK for the images of Inflammable Fingers 19  

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