Mitosis Mechanics of Cell Division
Limits to Cell Growth <ul><li>Two main reasons why cells need to divide rather than  GROW  indefinitely </li></ul><ul><li>...
2. Exchange of Materials <ul><li>Larger cells have more trouble moving  NUTRIENTS  and waste across the cell membrane and ...
Chromosomes <ul><li>Pass  GENETIC  information from one generation of cells to the next </li></ul><ul><li>Are made of DNA ...
Chromosomes <ul><li>Consist of 2 identical “sister”  CHROMATIDS </li></ul><ul><li>Attached at the centromere </li></ul><ul...
 
Interphase Mitosis The Life of a Cell (M phase)
Interphase <ul><li>Cell Growth & DNA Replication </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is in chromatin form </li></ul>
Prophase 1 st  Phase (PACK) <ul><li>Chromatin condenses (PACKS) into  chromosomes  </li></ul><ul><li>Centrioles separate <...
Prophase
Metaphase- 2 nd  Phase (MIDDLE) <ul><li>Chromosomes line up across the  center  (middle) of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Chr...
Metaphase
Anaphase - 3 rd  Phase (APART) <ul><li>Sister chromatids separate (move apart) into individual  chromosomes </li></ul><ul>...
Anaphase
Telophase-  Final  Stage (TWO) <ul><li>Chromosomes gather at opposite ends of the cell and lose their shape </li></ul><ul>...
Telophase
Cytokinesis <ul><li>Occurs with  Telophase </li></ul><ul><li>Each daughter cell has an identical set of chromosomes </li><...
In short… <ul><li>Chromosomes  P ACK   in  P rophase </li></ul><ul><li>They line up in the  M IDDLE  in  M etaphase </li><...
Remember PMAT <ul><li>PACK </li></ul><ul><li>MIDDLE </li></ul><ul><li>APART </li></ul><ul><li>TWO </li></ul>
Division Control - Cells have internal & external regulators    that control cell division - Cancer cells do not respond t...
Unit 9, lesson 1 cell cycle mitosis
Unit 9, lesson 1 cell cycle mitosis
Unit 9, lesson 1 cell cycle mitosis
Unit 9, lesson 1 cell cycle mitosis
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Unit 9, lesson 1 cell cycle mitosis

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Unit 9, lesson 1 cell cycle mitosis

  1. 1. Mitosis Mechanics of Cell Division
  2. 2. Limits to Cell Growth <ul><li>Two main reasons why cells need to divide rather than GROW indefinitely </li></ul><ul><li>1. DNA Overload: Larger cells place more demand on its DNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA in small cells is able to meet the cells NEEDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think of a city- large cities can’t be run by one small town hall- it has to be split up to be managed effectively. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. 2. Exchange of Materials <ul><li>Larger cells have more trouble moving NUTRIENTS and waste across the cell membrane and through the cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>The RATE OF MOVEMENT of food, water, nutrients, and waste exchange depends on the surface area of the cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May lead to the cell not getting food and water into the cell and waste out </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Chromosomes <ul><li>Pass GENETIC information from one generation of cells to the next </li></ul><ul><li>Are made of DNA & PROTEINS </li></ul><ul><li>Different cells types have different NUMBERS of chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Are ONLY visible during division </li></ul>
  5. 5. Chromosomes <ul><li>Consist of 2 identical “sister” CHROMATIDS </li></ul><ul><li>Attached at the centromere </li></ul><ul><li>Human body cells have 46 chromosomes </li></ul>centromere Sister chromatid
  6. 7. Interphase Mitosis The Life of a Cell (M phase)
  7. 8. Interphase <ul><li>Cell Growth & DNA Replication </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is in chromatin form </li></ul>
  8. 9. Prophase 1 st Phase (PACK) <ul><li>Chromatin condenses (PACKS) into chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Centrioles separate </li></ul><ul><li>Spindle begins to form- microtubule structure helps to separate chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear envelope disappears </li></ul>
  9. 10. Prophase
  10. 11. Metaphase- 2 nd Phase (MIDDLE) <ul><li>Chromosomes line up across the center (middle) of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosomes attach to the spindle fiber at its centromere </li></ul>
  11. 12. Metaphase
  12. 13. Anaphase - 3 rd Phase (APART) <ul><li>Sister chromatids separate (move apart) into individual chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Spindle fibers pull the chromosomes to opposite sides of the cell </li></ul>
  13. 14. Anaphase
  14. 15. Telophase- Final Stage (TWO) <ul><li>Chromosomes gather at opposite ends of the cell and lose their shape </li></ul><ul><li>Two new nuclear membranes form </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleolus reforms (darkens) </li></ul>
  15. 16. Telophase
  16. 17. Cytokinesis <ul><li>Occurs with Telophase </li></ul><ul><li>Each daughter cell has an identical set of chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>The cytoplasm pinches in half in animal cells- called a cleavage furrow </li></ul><ul><li>In plants, a plate forms midway between the two nuclei and helps form the cell wall. </li></ul>
  17. 18. In short… <ul><li>Chromosomes P ACK in P rophase </li></ul><ul><li>They line up in the M IDDLE in M etaphase </li></ul><ul><li>Sister chromatids (each half of the chromosome) move A PART in A naphase </li></ul><ul><li>T wo new cells are formed in T elophase when cytokinesis occurs. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Remember PMAT <ul><li>PACK </li></ul><ul><li>MIDDLE </li></ul><ul><li>APART </li></ul><ul><li>TWO </li></ul>
  19. 20. Division Control - Cells have internal & external regulators that control cell division - Cancer cells do not respond to the regulators so they have uncontrolled cell growth and form tumors * benign tumors * malignant tumors (metastasize)

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