Making proteins <ul><li>You have already seen how we use DNA to make RNA now we are going to turn that RNA into Proteins <...
The basics <ul><li>DNA     RNA     Protein  </li></ul><ul><li>(the sequence) </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus     Nucleus    ...
What we know… <ul><li>Proteins are made out of amino acids </li></ul>
Fun Facts you should know! <ul><li>The genetic code is in DNA </li></ul><ul><li>There are 20 different amino acids </li></...
You should know how to read this. If you can not pick up the phone and call me so I can walk you through it!
Translation From RNA to Protein  <ul><li>Translation- occurs in the ribosome (organelle)  </li></ul><ul><li>Process of rea...
Making proteins <ul><li>All you have to do it make sure that your DNA strand is transcribed into mRNA. Like this </li></ul...
Now you have your mRNA <ul><li>mRNA  UGG AUG CGC CCC GUA UAA GGC </li></ul><ul><li>2. Look for the start codon. Remember t...
You now know where to start <ul><li>3. Now that you know where to start move down the mRNA strand and read the next codon ...
Move down the chain to your next codon <ul><li>UGG AUG  CGC  CCC  GUA UAA GGC </li></ul><ul><li>CCC codes for proline </li...
Move down the chain to your next codon <ul><li>UGG AUG  CGC  CCC  GUA  UAA GGC </li></ul><ul><li>GUA codes for Valine </li...
Move down the chain to your next codon <ul><li>UGG AUG  CGC  CCC GUA   UAA  GGC </li></ul><ul><li>UAA codes for STOP </li>...
The last codon you coded <ul><li>told you to stop so you are done coding until you see another start in the codons. </li><...
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Lesson 3 module 8 how proteins are made 1

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Lesson 3 module 8 how proteins are made 1

  1. 1. Making proteins <ul><li>You have already seen how we use DNA to make RNA now we are going to turn that RNA into Proteins </li></ul>
  2. 2. The basics <ul><li>DNA  RNA  Protein </li></ul><ul><li>(the sequence) </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus  Nucleus  Ribosome </li></ul><ul><li>(the locations) </li></ul>
  3. 3. What we know… <ul><li>Proteins are made out of amino acids </li></ul>
  4. 4. Fun Facts you should know! <ul><li>The genetic code is in DNA </li></ul><ul><li>There are 20 different amino acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The come from 4 different types of bases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adenine A </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uracil U </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cytosine C </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guanine G </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Each set of three nitrogen bases represents an amino acid is known as a codon </li></ul><ul><li>Codons code for amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>There are 64 possible combinations of codons. 61 code for amino acids. The three left are stop codons. </li></ul>
  5. 5. You should know how to read this. If you can not pick up the phone and call me so I can walk you through it!
  6. 6. Translation From RNA to Protein <ul><li>Translation- occurs in the ribosome (organelle) </li></ul><ul><li>Process of reading codons, laying amino acids in chains, making proteins </li></ul><ul><li>tRNA- Brings amino acids to the ribosome's so they can assemble into proteins </li></ul>
  7. 7. Making proteins <ul><li>All you have to do it make sure that your DNA strand is transcribed into mRNA. Like this </li></ul><ul><li>Original DNA Strand </li></ul><ul><li>ACC TAC GCG GGG CAT ATT CCG </li></ul><ul><li>Transcribed mRNA Strand </li></ul><ul><li>UGG AUG CGC CCC GUA UAA GGC </li></ul>
  8. 8. Now you have your mRNA <ul><li>mRNA UGG AUG CGC CCC GUA UAA GGC </li></ul><ul><li>2. Look for the start codon. Remember this is AUG </li></ul><ul><li>UGG AUG CGC CCC GUA UAA GGC </li></ul><ul><li>(ignore the stuff before AUG we do not care about it) </li></ul>
  9. 9. You now know where to start <ul><li>3. Now that you know where to start move down the mRNA strand and read the next codon </li></ul><ul><li>UGG AUG CGC CCC GUA UAA GGC </li></ul><ul><li>CGC codes for arginine, so add the amino acid arginine to your growing amino acid chain </li></ul><ul><li>Your chain looks like this now </li></ul><ul><li>Start  Arginine </li></ul>
  10. 10. Move down the chain to your next codon <ul><li>UGG AUG CGC CCC GUA UAA GGC </li></ul><ul><li>CCC codes for proline </li></ul><ul><li>Add proline to your chain </li></ul><ul><li>Start  Arginine  proline </li></ul>
  11. 11. Move down the chain to your next codon <ul><li>UGG AUG CGC CCC GUA UAA GGC </li></ul><ul><li>GUA codes for Valine </li></ul><ul><li>Add valine to your chain </li></ul><ul><li>Start  Arginine  proline  Valine </li></ul>
  12. 12. Move down the chain to your next codon <ul><li>UGG AUG CGC CCC GUA UAA GGC </li></ul><ul><li>UAA codes for STOP </li></ul><ul><li>Add STOP to your chain </li></ul><ul><li>Start  Arginine  proline  Valine  Stop </li></ul>
  13. 13. The last codon you coded <ul><li>told you to stop so you are done coding until you see another start in the codons. </li></ul>

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