Species Relationships <ul><li>Feeding relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Autotrophs Vs Heterotrophs </li></ul><ul><li>Autotro...
Carnivores and Scavengers <ul><li>Heterotrophs which eat other heterotrophs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carnivore= meat eaters <...
herbivores <ul><li>Herbivores eat plants  </li></ul>
Omnivores & decomposers <ul><li>Omnivores- eat both </li></ul><ul><li>Examples= humans & bears </li></ul><ul><li>Fungus is...
Detritivores <ul><li>Detritivores  eat “garbage” of ecosystem – organisms that have recently dies, fallen leaves and branc...
Relationships for survival <ul><li>Symbiosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ living together” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relations...
Commensalism <ul><li>One species benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barnacles on a ...
Predators vs prey <ul><li>One organisms hunts another for food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predators- hunt for food </li></ul></...
Predator- Prey <ul><li>Hunter </li></ul><ul><li>Lions </li></ul><ul><li>Insect eating birds </li></ul><ul><li>Benefit from...
Predator & prey  <ul><li>When the # of prey increases the # of predators will increase too because there is more food to s...
Predator vs prey <ul><li>Fox hunts can kills rabbit </li></ul>
Mutualism <ul><li>A symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ants and acacia tree </li><...
Mutualism <ul><li>Lichens  </li></ul><ul><li>An alga and a fungus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>depend on each other and cannot li...
Parasitism <ul><li>When one organism harms another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A symbiotic relationship in which one organism de...
Parasite  vs  Host <ul><li>Feeds on host </li></ul><ul><li>Live on body of host </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on host for life...
Parasites <ul><li>Sheep Tick  </li></ul><ul><li>Carnivorous, feeding on the blood of various species of birds, reptiles, a...
Summary of symbiotic relationships Relationship Description Harmful vs helpful Example Predator & prey One animal eats ano...
Competition <ul><li>Results from  niche overlap  (use of the same limited resource by two or more species) </li></ul><ul><...
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Lesson 2.2. ecology

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Lesson 2.2. ecology

  1. 1. Species Relationships <ul><li>Feeding relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Autotrophs Vs Heterotrophs </li></ul><ul><li>Autotrophs are=things that make their own food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples- plants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs= eat others** for food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples- monkeys & humans </li></ul></ul>&quot;I MUST BE A HETEROTROPH I CAN'T MAKE THESE !!&quot;
  2. 2. Carnivores and Scavengers <ul><li>Heterotrophs which eat other heterotrophs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carnivore= meat eaters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples= lion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some animals do not kill their own food they are called scavengers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They play a beneficial role in ecosystem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean up dead animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples= turkey vulture </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. herbivores <ul><li>Herbivores eat plants </li></ul>
  4. 4. Omnivores & decomposers <ul><li>Omnivores- eat both </li></ul><ul><li>Examples= humans & bears </li></ul><ul><li>Fungus is an example of decomposer. </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposers break down and absorb nutrients from dead organisms. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Detritivores <ul><li>Detritivores eat “garbage” of ecosystem – organisms that have recently dies, fallen leaves and branches, animal wastes (vulture, bacteria and fungi - decomposers) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Relationships for survival <ul><li>Symbiosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ living together” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship in which there is a close and permanent association between organisms of a different species </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commensalism </li></ul><ul><li>The predator-prey relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Mutualism </li></ul><ul><li>Parasitism </li></ul>
  7. 7. Commensalism <ul><li>One species benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barnacles on a whale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not harm or help whale </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Barnacles benefit because constant moving water source </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Predators vs prey <ul><li>One organisms hunts another for food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predators- hunt for food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prey- organism that predator eats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predators can be the prey of larger animals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population sizes are linked </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If # of prey grows or shrinks # of supported predators does the same </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Predator- Prey <ul><li>Hunter </li></ul><ul><li>Lions </li></ul><ul><li>Insect eating birds </li></ul><ul><li>Benefit from relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Hunted </li></ul><ul><li>Zebra </li></ul><ul><li>Insects </li></ul><ul><li>Die from relationship </li></ul>
  10. 10. Predator & prey <ul><li>When the # of prey increases the # of predators will increase too because there is more food to support them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates a cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The larger the animal the larger the life cycle vs smaller animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Live longer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduce slower </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The changing population size of the prey species controls the population size of the predator species </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Predator vs prey <ul><li>Fox hunts can kills rabbit </li></ul>
  12. 12. Mutualism <ul><li>A symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ants and acacia tree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flowers and insects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lichen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: pollination – bees, butterflies, bats, and birds carry pollen to other plants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  13. 13. Mutualism <ul><li>Lichens </li></ul><ul><li>An alga and a fungus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>depend on each other and cannot live independently. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Through photosynthesis, the alga produces the food the lichen requires, while the fungus absorbs vital nutrients and water for it. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Parasitism <ul><li>When one organism harms another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A symbiotic relationship in which one organism derives benefit at the expense of others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parasite and host… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How come parasites only harm not kill host? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Parasite vs Host <ul><li>Feeds on host </li></ul><ul><li>Live on body of host </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on host for life processes </li></ul><ul><li>Thrive in crowded areas </li></ul><ul><li>Are a density-dependent limiting factor </li></ul><ul><li>Is feed on </li></ul><ul><li>Larger the host the more parasites it can support </li></ul><ul><li>May become ill or die from parasite </li></ul>
  16. 16. Parasites <ul><li>Sheep Tick </li></ul><ul><li>Carnivorous, feeding on the blood of various species of birds, reptiles, and mammals, including human beings. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Summary of symbiotic relationships Relationship Description Harmful vs helpful Example Predator & prey One animal eats another One is helped one is killed Cat eating a mouse Parasitism One animals feeds off another One is helped one is drained of resources or killed Tick living off a deer Commensalism One species benefits from another One is helped one is not phased Barnacles and a whale Mutualism Both rely on each other Both are helped Flower and insect
  18. 18. Competition <ul><li>Results from niche overlap (use of the same limited resource by two or more species) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some animals will fight to the death for their resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some plants species release toxins into the soil that prevent other species from growing nearby, restricting the space of the other species </li></ul></ul>

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