Success or failure perspectives from hydropower resettlement


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3rd Mekong Forum on Water, Food & Energy 2013. Presentation from Session 10: Private sector policies for contributing to environmental and social sustainability

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Success or failure perspectives from hydropower resettlement

  1. 1. Session 10: Private sector policies for contributing to environmental  and social sustainability Successful or failure ? Perspective from Hydropower Resettlement SHI Guoqing, Professor Member of Governance Committee of IHA Director of National Research Center for Resettlement (NRCR) Hohai University, Nanjing, CHINA Email: +86-13305183575
  2. 2. Session 10- Questions:      Many dam developers in the Mekong have social and environmental policies; many have implemented successful social and environmental policies and strategies. What can different dam developers learn from each other in the implementation of these policies, and why do they make sense to pursue?
  3. 3. Why we talk about Social Sustainability linked with Hydropower ?   Hydropower= Dam/hydropower plant +Resettlement +Other impacts and mitigate measures (social, env., etc.) Involuntary resettlement and social sustainability     are key issue of hydropower development are worldwide challenges should be sustainable and successful should accompany advanced sustainable hydropower
  4. 4. What are successful or failure in resettlement caused by hydropower? Successful  Better off  Most affect households have reached the aim “income restoration and recovering of living standard”   Failure Worse off Most affect households have NOT reached the aim “income restoration and recovering of living standard”
  5. 5. China:Dam-induced Resettlement    Dam-induced resettlement: 20 millions resettlars in 1950-2012 Many failure project cases before 1985 Many successful projects and good model after 1985      Danjiangkou Dam: 382,000 APs ( phase 1,1958-1962 ) 350,000 (phase 2, 2009-2011) APs Shuikou Dam: 80,000 APs (WB funded, 1980s-90s) Xiaolongdi Dam: 200,000 APs (WB funded, 1994-2004) Three Gorges Dam: 1.3 millions APs (Domestic since 1993) Langcang-Mekong River Basin: Jinghong etc.
  6. 6. Successful Model -funded by World Bank Shuikou Dam Project—80,000 APs in 1980s-1990s
  7. 7. • One of the state key projects--flood control, power, and irrigation in Yellow River, Funded by World Bank • Impact scope of the land requisition involves provinces, 8 counties 29 townships, 174 villages, 200,000 APs mainly rural people, 134,000 ha cultivatable land •Budget: Project’s-- 3.5 Billion USD, resettlement--1Billion •Finished resettlars’ relocation in 2004
  8. 8. Successful Model 3 Three Gorges Dam Project-1.3 millions APs Budget (price in May 1993) 10.2 Billions USD, Resettlement Budget 5 Billions USD 1993-2009
  9. 9. Three Gorges Dam -rural, urban and enterprises resettlement      1.3 millions APs, 44% rural farmers and 56% urban citizen, in 2 provinces and 21 Country/districts 1,629 enterprises and 11 towns, 2 cities affected 200,000 rural APs relocated with long distant in 11 coast or downstream provinces, others relocated within Country resettlement budget 5 billions USD, 44.6% of dam project budget (12 billions USD) estimated in the price in May 1993 All APs have been relocated before June 2009 smoothly
  10. 10. Successful model: Danjiangkou Dam in 2002-2013 350,000 affected people relocated in 2009-2011 South to North Water Diversion Project of ChinaThe largest water diversion project in the World: 50 years,5 millions M³,500 Billions RMB(650 Billions USD)
  11. 11. Danjiangkou Dam- Resettlement Villages/ 2011 House space per person in 10 villages (pre- vs post-) Guanggou Village photos:
  12. 12. Danjiangkou Dam IR- Guanggou Village photo in 2011 School teachers (pre- vs post-) in 10 villages
  13. 13. What are good-practices in resettlement ? Jinghong Hydropower Case Study: Deliver better living conditions for resettlars  House     Better quality Larger space Higher value Community facilities        Water supply Electricity supply Roads Clinics School Market TV…  Housing    Replacement price as fundamental Assistant for poor families Community facilities rehabilitation   good location selected by local government and satisfied by APs public facilities rebuilt in better standards, cost by project and local government
  14. 14. Before After
  15. 15. Before After
  16. 16. Clinics in the resettlement village
  17. 17. Public facilities-school, road, bridge
  18. 18. What are good practices in resettlement (affected community and livelihoods) ?  Restoration and development of sustainable livelihoods of affected people       Land for land as the first priority option for rural farmers Help to generate multi income sources Deliver the post-resettlement support fund for livelihoods Deliver micro credit support Deliver technique skills and training Create non-farming jobs and deliver employment services
  19. 19. Livelihoods
  20. 20. What are reasons for failure? Lessoned from many projects Policies:  Lack of good policies-national, local, project  Lack of policies implementation  The policies can NOT be operational  There are significant gap between IR policies ,RAP, RIP and implementation  Low rates in compensation and reconstruction and rehabilitation standards  Not disclosure to and well knew by ACs and AHs  Lack of political wills to develop the good policies
  21. 21. What are reasons for failure? Planning:  Lack of operational standard and technique guidelines  Lack of good SES results in detail and based on participatory approach (should be joint-team work)  The physical survey results are NOT disclosure, and NOT accepted by AHs, and NOT confirmed by stakeholders  The RAP/RIP can NOT be operational, and not agreed by all key stakeholders (AHs, ACs, Government, Developer)  The resettlement schemes in areas, places, alternatives of community and housing, are NOT accepted by AHs  Consultants’ RAP only, but No ownership by AHs, ACs and government and developer  Lack of consultation process for key decision-making with AHs, ACs and local government
  22. 22. What are reasons for failure? Implementation:  Lack of implementation team with full time and skilled staff, capacity, budget  Lack of local governmental and institution’s responsibility taken in place and engagement  Lack of clear tasks, procedure and responsibility define and distribution between developer, different level governments, consulting firms, ACs and AHs  There are significant gap in implementation against the IR policies ,RAP and RIP  Lack of participation, consultation, and grievance system  Lack of internal and external monitoring, supervision, auditing and compliance check system
  23. 23. Conclusion: Key factors for successful resettlement            Good resettlement policies and legislation system Good governance and institution system Good RP (resettlement plan) prepared with participation approach and consultation process Good detail designs Good RIP and its implementation Independent monitoring and supervision mechanism Participation of APs Consultation and grievance process Self- organization and self-management of ACs High attention the special impacts in social, culture and traditional livelihoods and develop mitigation measures for affected indigenous people or ethnic minority Capacity building through research, training and education
  24. 24. Conclusion: Key factors for successful resettlement   Integrate all responsibility under one roof (Resettlement Bureau) with the assistant and support by other government agencies and consulting firm Integrate all resettlement activities (implementation policy, survey, planning, design, expropriation, displacement, reconstruction, relocation, income restoration, implementation administration, monitoring, supervision, etc) in one workplan
  25. 25. Conclusion: Key factors for successful resettlement   Good Governance in public wills, policies, institution, decision making, responsibility, mechanism in the resettlement cycle (planning and implementation and postsupport) Capacity building in policy, survey, planning, implementation, management, participation, consultation, transparence, supervision, monitoring, auditing, ensuring, research and education etc.
  26. 26. Conclusion: Key factors for successful resettlement Highlight to  Procedures: RPO-Cut-off dates-SESRP/FSR-RIP-RI-RIR-PRS  Take various approaches to implement Development-oriented Resettlement to restore or improve the income and livelihood of APs  Active participation, consultation and information disclosure with ACs and APs  EMSEES (External Monitoring, Supervision, Auditing and Ensuring System)
  27. 27. Resettlement     Not only a challenge work Is “Resettlement Engineering” Is a Science (across multiple-subjects) Is a Discipline It has the Master and Ph. D Program in “Resettlement Science and Management” in Hohai University in China since 2004
  28. 28. Possible results of good practices      Affected people want to be resettled From Involuntary resettlement to Voluntary resettlement Turn risks to opportunities through resettlement Affected people shares benefits of hydropower development rather than be impoverished Increase social sustainability and social friendship of hydropower development
  29. 29. NRCR National Research Center for Resettlement The first and the only one national research institute, The first research institute all over the world specialized in development-caused R&R. The first institute has Ph.D and master program in Resettlement Science and Management in the world Director: Prof. Guoqing SHI Vice Director: Prof. Shaojun CHEN Prof. Wenxue YU Full-time Staff: 16 persons (7 professors, 13 PhD.) Part-time Staff: 23 persons (18 professors, 17 PhD.) Ph.D students: 35 persons, Master students: 80 persons
  30. 30. Thanks for your attention !