The Impacts of Dam Construction on Natural Resource Access and the Livelihoods of Project-Affected People
Title: The impacts of dam construction on naturalresource access and the livelihoods of project-affected people: a case study of Binh Dien and TaTrach dams in Thua Thien Hue Province, Viet Nam. Pham Thi Nhung
I. Introduction Objectives To provide a detailed picture of the impacts of displacement and resettlement policies associated with dam development on natural resources access (NRA) and the livelihoods of project-affected households. The study’s specific objectives- To review all Vietnamese compensation and displacement policies, and land policies.- To evaluate changing NRA and the negative or positive impacts of displacement and compensation policies on displaced households’ access to natural resources.- To evaluate livelihood changes, and the negative or positive impacts of displacement and compensation policies on displaced households’ livelihoods by focusing on income activities, incomes, assets, risks, and vulnerability.- To draw a relationship between NRA, the displacement and resettlement policies associated with dam construction and the livelihoods of affected households.
Binh Dien RA- 51 households (48 Catuhouseholds), population is 241 Ta Trach RA:people with 114 labors. -197 Kinh households- To resettle in Binh Thanh - To resettle in Binh Thanhcommune since 2006 due toconstrution Binh Dien Commune since 9/2005 duehydropower. to construction Ta Trach dam.-Poor rate is 23% before - Rate poor is 25% beforeresettlement and 49% in 2011 resettlement and 50% in-Total of its area is 35 ha. 2011. - Total area is 200ha (165 ha cultivated and building land , 35 ha of lake, rivulet and hollow land).
II. Key findings2.1Compensation policy Ta Trach project Binh Dien Project Average compensation level is 29.5 million vnd and one 68million vnd/hh house with value 60 million 1.5 million vnd/hh to displace and vnd/hh 0.3 million vnd/hh to reclaim; Support all of fee of household who move to others displacement and reclaim (not RA) was supported 3 million vnd; household who have wounded soldier, revolutionary martyr, the heroes was supported 1-3 million Vnd 30kg rice /person/month 21 kg during 6 months rice/person/month, during 12 months
Rate of money invests in components of resettlement program Ta Trach project Binh Dien project Total expense is 133billion Total expense is 8.5billion vnd (total 810households, 7 vnd (49 households, 1 RA) RAs). whereas: 2% Compensation 7% Livelihood support Infrastructure 41% 45% Other 55% 42% 6% 2% Source: reports of Binh Dien and Binh Thanh resettlement programs
2.2 Changing of natural resources access2.2.1 Changing of land accessChart 3: Changing rate of household have land use certificate (LUC) 120 (Percentage, N=125) 100 100 86.4 86.4 80 60 40 20 20 20 0 0 0 0 0 building land forest land garden land before resettlement 2006 2011 (Source: Survey household 2012)
Chart 4: Change of efficiency of land use Change efficiency of garden Change of efficiency of forest land use ( million vnd/ha) land use20 ( millon vnd/ha/year) 2518 17.9 22.216 20 20.51412 1510 8.8 Ta Trach 11 Ta Trach 8 Binh Dien 10 7.3 7.3 Binh Dien 6 7.37 5 4 5 4.7 2 0 0 Before 2006 2011 Before 2011 resettlement resettlement Source: Household survey , 2012
Diagram 1: Impact of resettlement program on land access
Surface water source in RASurface water source in old place
Diagram 2 : Impact of resettlement program on access to CPR
3.3 Change and impacts of resettlement program on livelihoodChart 5: Rate of participated household on income activities ( Percent, N=125) Source: household survey, 2012
Chart 6: Income structure of household Source: household survey, 2012
Chart 6: Change of important level of assets with livelihood of HH Ta Trach Binh Dien(Source: Group discussion 2012)