How hydropower operations can
accommodate local livelihoods?
Presenter: Guillaume Lacombe

Synthesis of results from two i...
Key messages
• Livelihoods constrained by several factors:
– Steep slopes, protected areas, travelling cost

• Altering da...
Case of the Nam Gnouang storage reservoir

Keosaenkham

Nam Gnouang Dam

Typical cross section
Seasonal
variations of
floo...
We use a Decision Support System (DSS) tool to
answer the following questions:
1. How affected communities can best use la...
A suite of modeling and simulation tools
Land use planning & analysis system (LUPAS)
To explore cost-effective options of ...
HEC-ResSim

Lowering reservoir water level to allow dry season vegetable growing
(eggplant, chili and green vegetable)
A1 ...
Seasonally-exposed land analysis

1 Exposure period

2 Slope suitability

3 Physical access

Least

Least

Most suitable

...
(land-use planning and analysis system)

$1,800

$1,700

$3,600

Community

Household

LUPAS

$2,300
Year 1

$2,300
$4,000...
Conclusion

• Uncertain future/expected fish decline &
limited land and water resources→ need for
diversification in off-f...
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How hydropower operations can accommodate local livelihoods

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3rd Mekong Forum on Water, Food & Energy. Presentation from Session 15: Better dams for food and livelihoods.

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How hydropower operations can accommodate local livelihoods

  1. 1. How hydropower operations can accommodate local livelihoods? Presenter: Guillaume Lacombe Synthesis of results from two interlinked studies: Evaluating Land and Water Resources available to communities living around reservoirs in the Mekong Basin: case of the Nam Gnouang reservoir in Lao PDR Kam SP, Teoh SJ, Metzger L, Hoanh CT, Reis J, McCartney M, Lacombe G Adjusting hydropower dam operation to complement livelihood strategies in the Lower Mekong Basin Reis J, Culver T, Lacombe G, Hoanh CT, Keophoxay A, Douangsavanh S, Teoh SJ, Kam SP, Sellamuttu SS Third Mekong Forum on Water Food and Energy 19-21 November 2013 - Hanoi, Vietnam
  2. 2. Key messages • Livelihoods constrained by several factors: – Steep slopes, protected areas, travelling cost • Altering dam operations to complement livelihoods is not realistic in the studied site • Better to adapt to new hydrological reality that prioritizes generation of hydro-electricity – constructed wetlands for fisheries and irrigation • Today’s livelihood sustained by lacustrine fisheries. And tomorrow ? Off-farm activities?
  3. 3. Case of the Nam Gnouang storage reservoir Keosaenkham Nam Gnouang Dam Typical cross section Seasonal variations of flooded area: 15 – 105 km2
  4. 4. We use a Decision Support System (DSS) tool to answer the following questions: 1. How affected communities can best use land and water resources under new resettlement conditions ? 2. Can reservoir operation rules accommodate livelihood needs while preserving hydropower generation ? a) Recession agriculture on seasonally-exposed garden in draw-down areas of reservoir b) Fish resources enhanced with constructed wetlands  Modeling, simulations and optimization to explore options
  5. 5. A suite of modeling and simulation tools Land use planning & analysis system (LUPAS) To explore cost-effective options of livelihood activities based on available land and labor resources Examine the interaction between reservoir operation & livelihood opportunities Reservoir model (HEC-ResSim) To simulate & optimize dam operation (water level variations and hydropower production) GIS modelling To evaluate accessibility to land resources supporting livelihoods (spatial analysis and mapping support)
  6. 6. HEC-ResSim Lowering reservoir water level to allow dry season vegetable growing (eggplant, chili and green vegetable) A1 and A2 lower overall hydropower generation by 3% and 8%, respectively, allowing crop production in limited area. Agricultural gains result in significant loss of power production. Constructed wetlands for fisheries and small-scale irrigation Connected or adjacent to reservoir. They would - provide benefit to fishermen (full ponds year-round), potentially enhancing fishing livelihoods, - Provide water irrigation, even during dry years, for vegetable garden closest to village
  7. 7. Seasonally-exposed land analysis 1 Exposure period 2 Slope suitability 3 Physical access Least Least Most suitable Most suitable 30% 50% Water body 20% Weighted linear combination of factors Water body GIS modelling Overall suitability for recession agriculture KSK
  8. 8. (land-use planning and analysis system) $1,800 $1,700 $3,600 Community Household LUPAS $2,300 Year 1 $2,300 $4,000 Year 2 When fish available, shoreline farming has little effect on net gain, Expected fish decline (eutrophication): need for farm productions diversification, Pilot program (irrigated gardens) allows flexibility in livelihoods and increases net gain, Sharing resources is the most important factor for increasing the overall net gain. Year 5
  9. 9. Conclusion • Uncertain future/expected fish decline & limited land and water resources→ need for diversification in off-farm activities, • Important to consider replications of this study in areas with larger affected population

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