Environmental solutions in hydro power machines Jürgen Schuol, Jason Foust, Daniel Christ  Phnom Penh, 2011-12-07
Voith Group and Voith Hydro Group Division <ul><ul><li>Voith: family-owned from its onset in 1867 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Hydro Power Successes in Sustainability <ul><li>We support the development of hydro power with a keen sense of responsibil...
Sustainability Topics
Fish Friendly Turbines Bonneville Dam (USA)
Overview of damage mechanisms for fish <ul><li>Third option (after spilling and fish collection) is to allow fish to pass ...
Fish Passage Development <ul><li>In the early 1990’s, the US Department of Energy launched the Advanced Hydro Turbine Syst...
Reference Minimum Gap Runner (MGR): e.g.  Bonneville – USA <ul><li>The project includes replacement Kaplan turbines design...
<ul><li>Turbine runner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger to meet fish passage criteria (shear, min pressure, pressure change ra...
Fish Survivability  <ul><ul><li>Graph shows survivability considering blade strike for an ~20 cm fish </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Auto-Venting Turbines Conowingo Dam (USA)
Turbine Aeration for Water Quality Enhancement: Motivation <ul><ul><li>Warmer temperatures can cause thermal stratificatio...
Overview of Aeration Techniques:  Auto-Venting Turbines (AVT) <ul><li>In order to improve tailrace dissolved oxygen levels...
Turbine Aeration for Water Quality Enhancement: Conclusions <ul><li>Distributed aeration is most effective for  0.8 ≤ Q/Qo...
Protective Coating Systems
In hydro power plants located on rivers originating from mountainous regions (e.g. Mekong), hydro-abrasive erosion is a kn...
Hydro-abrasive Erosion: Risks and Solutions <ul><li>Hydro-abrasive erosion increases the economical risk of a hydro power ...
Protective coatings <ul><ul><li>Hard Coating  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbides in a metallic matrix (WC + Co/Cr) </li><...
Voith Hydro Coating Systems Combined Approach <ul><li>Partial hard coating </li></ul>Diaturb 532 (Hard coating) Softurb 80...
Summary
Possible Sustainability Profile - without and with Voith Hydro environmental solutions Level 3: basic good practice Level ...
Contact: Dr. Jürgen Schuol Manager Environmental Engineering Voith Hydro Holding GmbH & Co. KG Tel. +49 7321 37 9214 [emai...
 
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Environmental solutions in hydropower machines

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By Jurgen Schuol, Jason Foust and Daniel Christ

Presented at the Mekong Forum on Water, Food and Energy
Phnom Penh, Cambodia
December 7-9, 2011
Session 2a: Water engineering

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Environmental solutions in hydropower machines

  1. 1. Environmental solutions in hydro power machines Jürgen Schuol, Jason Foust, Daniel Christ Phnom Penh, 2011-12-07
  2. 2. Voith Group and Voith Hydro Group Division <ul><ul><li>Voith: family-owned from its onset in 1867 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Four divisions: Hydro, Paper, Turbo, and Industrial Services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Worldwide presence for our customers (> 50 countries) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FY 2009/10: Sales 5,191 Mio. €, Employees 39,132 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voith Hydro: products and services of large and small hydro plants - turbines, generators, pumps and automation </li></ul></ul>Itaipu (Brazil) Three Gorges, San Xia (China) Kops II (Austria) Revelstoke (USA)
  3. 3. Hydro Power Successes in Sustainability <ul><li>We support the development of hydro power with a keen sense of responsibility, environmentally and socially. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance assessment tool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to produce a sustainability profile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for all types of hydro power projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in four major life cycle stages </li></ul></ul>http://www.hydrosustainability.org/
  4. 4. Sustainability Topics
  5. 5. Fish Friendly Turbines Bonneville Dam (USA)
  6. 6. Overview of damage mechanisms for fish <ul><li>Third option (after spilling and fish collection) is to allow fish to pass through turbines. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Fish Passage Development <ul><li>In the early 1990’s, the US Department of Energy launched the Advanced Hydro Turbine System (AHTS) program. The program was subdivided into two main areas of focus: </li></ul><ul><li>- larger axial flow applications </li></ul><ul><li>- smaller radial flow applications </li></ul>Conventional Radial Conventional Axial
  8. 8. Reference Minimum Gap Runner (MGR): e.g. Bonneville – USA <ul><li>The project includes replacement Kaplan turbines designed to enhance fish survival. </li></ul>MGR Design Existing Design
  9. 9. <ul><li>Turbine runner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger to meet fish passage criteria (shear, min pressure, pressure change rates) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slower rotational speed and reduced number of turbine blades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6” diameter nose thickness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimized stay vane to wicket gate alignment to minimize gap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced number of stay vanes and wicket gates to minimize strike </li></ul></ul>Alden Turbine Development <ul><ul><li>Expected fish survival > 98% </li></ul></ul>~13 mm gap
  10. 10. Fish Survivability <ul><ul><li>Graph shows survivability considering blade strike for an ~20 cm fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Survivability rates assume all turbines can meet secondary fish survivability criteria (minimum pressures, pressure change rate, shear) </li></ul></ul>Power, [MW] Head, [m]
  11. 11. Auto-Venting Turbines Conowingo Dam (USA)
  12. 12. Turbine Aeration for Water Quality Enhancement: Motivation <ul><ul><li>Warmer temperatures can cause thermal stratification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reservoir separates into layers, preventing natural mixing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in turbine discharges can harm fish and other aquatic life </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Overview of Aeration Techniques: Auto-Venting Turbines (AVT) <ul><li>In order to improve tailrace dissolved oxygen levels, air or oxygen gas can be introduced into the water passing through turbine. </li></ul><ul><li>3 primary AVT methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central aeration (blue) – air injected through deflector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peripheral (yellow) – air injected through continuous slot in discharge ring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed aeration (green) – air injected through hollow blade </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Turbine Aeration for Water Quality Enhancement: Conclusions <ul><li>Distributed aeration is most effective for 0.8 ≤ Q/Qopt ≤ 1.2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>largest potential for air flow and DO uptake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lowest impact on turbine efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If distributed not available, peripheral next alternative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for Q/Qopt ≥ 0.8, air flows, DO uptakes and efficiency impacts more favorable than central </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Central aeration third choice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>effective for Q/Qopt < 0.8 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AVT combinations can be used to maximize uptake while minimizing performance impacts </li></ul>
  15. 15. Protective Coating Systems
  16. 16. In hydro power plants located on rivers originating from mountainous regions (e.g. Mekong), hydro-abrasive erosion is a known phenomenon, but often lack of awareness!
  17. 17. Hydro-abrasive Erosion: Risks and Solutions <ul><li>Hydro-abrasive erosion increases the economical risk of a hydro power project due to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance and repairs at short intervals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of productive time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different approaches for sediment management: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil works (e.g. desilting chambers, flushing facilities) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructive means (e.g. type of machine, speed, hydraulic layout) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protective coatings </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Protective coatings <ul><ul><li>Hard Coating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbides in a metallic matrix (WC + Co/Cr) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application by HVOF process </li></ul></ul>Diaturb 532 Softurb 80 <ul><ul><li>Soft Coating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polyurethane based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application by painting or spraying </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Voith Hydro Coating Systems Combined Approach <ul><li>Partial hard coating </li></ul>Diaturb 532 (Hard coating) Softurb 80 (Soft coating) <ul><li>Wearing rings (F) </li></ul><ul><li>Facing plates (F, K) </li></ul><ul><li>Guide vane end sides (F, K) </li></ul><ul><li>Guide vane closing edges (F, K) </li></ul><ul><li>Pelton equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow Francis water passages </li></ul><ul><li>Coatings applied on site </li></ul><ul><li>Runners (F, K) </li></ul><ul><li>Guide vanes (F, K) </li></ul><ul><li>Other (e.g. shaft ) </li></ul>F ... Francis K ... Kaplan Combination Soft coating on top
  20. 20. Summary
  21. 21. Possible Sustainability Profile - without and with Voith Hydro environmental solutions Level 3: basic good practice Level 5: proven best-practice
  22. 22. Contact: Dr. Jürgen Schuol Manager Environmental Engineering Voith Hydro Holding GmbH & Co. KG Tel. +49 7321 37 9214 [email_address]

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