Ecological Engineering: a way to integrate urban drainage, resource-based sanitation, biogas and food security

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By Jean Lacoursiere and Lena Vought, Kristianstad University, Sweden

Presented at the Mekong Forum on Water, Food and Energy
Phnom Penh, Cambodia
December 7-9, 2011
Session 2a: Water engineering

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Ecological Engineering: a way to integrate urban drainage, resource-based sanitation, biogas and food security

  1. 1. Ecological Engineering: a way to integrateurban drainage, resource-based sanitation,biogas and food security “ EcoWarrior…or sound economical investment of a developing economy” Jean O. Lacoursière & Lena B.-M. Vought Man & Biosphere Health research group Kristianstad University, Sweden
  2. 2. KristianstadUniversitySwedenEcological Engineering: a way to integrateurban drainage, resource-based sanitation,biogas and food security 1) illustrate the problem(s)… lessons learned 2) bring-in the Nexus (Bonn Conference, 16-18 Nov. 2011) 3) highlight opportunities for cross-sectorial solutions Jean O. Lacoursière & Lena B.-M. Vought Man & Biosphere Health research group Kristianstad University, Sweden
  3. 3. KristianstadUniversitySweden “the application of ecological and engineering principles in developing solutions that integrate human society with its natural environment for the benefit of both” (Mitsch 1996)Ecological Engineering: a way to integrateurban drainage, resource-based sanitation,biogas and food security 1) illustrate the problem(s)… lessons learned 2) bring-in the Nexus (Bonn Conference, 16-18 Nov. 2011) 3) highlight opportunities for cross-sectorial solutions Jean O. Lacoursière & Lena B.-M. Vought Man & Biosphere Health research group Kristianstad University, Sweden
  4. 4. Kristianstad University Sweden1) illustrate the problem(s): urban drainage and water resources protection… e.g. Vientiane Capital City (Lao PDR) February 1990, initiation of “Wetland Units” in Lao PDR, Vietnam and Thailand (Interim Mekong Committee)… Lao team used urban wetlands as training sites… so we have been able to follow the changes since then.
  5. 5. Kristianstad University Sweden1) illustrate the problem(s): urban drainage and water resources protection… e.g. Vientiane Capital City (Lao PDR) from 1999… Flood-protection = drainage network channelized (no plants no sediment) but before, aquatic plants + sediment = natural water treatmentHong Thong channel to Nong Chan,Vientiane (Lao PDR) 1990 2009
  6. 6. Kristianstad University Sweden That Luang Marsh – Houay Mak Hiao River system (ca. 54 km to Mekong River) How far has the urban pollution reached (length of impact zone) ? 0 5 10 kmmassive lostof “natural “where aquatic ecosystem recovers from pollution“filtration Impact Zone end (ca. 18km)capacity” ca. 30% of distance to Mekong River(aquatic plants,sediment andlong transit time)drop inefficiency ofsewage sitetreatment(septic thanks,soak pits, etc…)
  7. 7. Kristianstad University Sweden1) illustrate the problem(s) … cross-sectorial challenges “my solution within myClimate Changes Natural Resources responsibility area” “extremes” & Environment approach  water quality Public Work  biodiversity & habitat water supply & … sanitation stormwater & flood protection… Agriculture Food Security  safe food  soil Phosphorous-peak … water mineral scarcity fertilizer supply
  8. 8. For the Mekong Region ? Kristianstad University Sweden2) bring-in the Nexus www.water-energy-food.org WASTE AS A RESOURCE… in multi-use systems  Cross-sectoral management can boost overall resource use efficiency;  In multi-use systems in particular, waste and by-products can be turned into a resource for other products and services, e.g. in green agriculture, wastewater energy integration or multi-use reservoirs.
  9. 9. Kristianstad University Sweden part of the GREEN ECONOMY…3) highlight opportunities… strategic (multi-goals) development “your problem is myClimate Changes Natural Resources solution / my problem & Environment is your solution”  reduced risk approach Public Workseptic tanks/DEWATS sludge Agriculture Food Security  safe & “steady” 150 Consumption water supply 125 million tons Energy (reuse) 100 75 15 billion  BIOGAS  organic fertilizer & 50 USD city busses / soil conditioning 25 0 garbage trucks global mineral global fertilizer fertilizer equivalent in consumption wastewater
  10. 10. Energy: Biogas   Cleaner water: Food: Irrigation Nutrients Fishing Soil conditioner  Biodiversity Urine separation – P recycling Channels Wetlands Septic tanks / DEWATS Water Sensitive Urban Drainage System (WSUDs)
  11. 11. KristianstadUniversitySweden “the application of ecological and engineering principles in developing solutions that integrate human society with its natural environment for the benefit of both” (Mitsch 1996)Ecological Engineering: a way to integrateurban drainage, resource-based sanitation,biogas and food security “ EcoWarrior ?…or sound economical investment of a strategically developing green economy ?” For the Mekong Region ?
  12. 12. “the application of ecological and engineering principles indeveloping solutions that integrate human society with itsnatural environment for the benefit of both” (Mitsch 1996)

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