3. dynamics of the water and migration-based local livelihoods, tonle sap lake


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3rd Mekong Forum on Water, Food & Energy. Presentation from Sessions 4 & 6: M-POWER Solutions for Mekong Region Governance

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3. dynamics of the water and migration-based local livelihoods, tonle sap lake

  1. 1. Structures: •Study objectives •Studied areas •Main findings •Conclusion and recommendations Development Policies for Lake Settlements: Dynamics of the Water- and Migration-based Local Livelihoods, Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia Borin Un
  2. 2. Research Objectives The overarching objective of this study is to identify how the government’s Lake development policies impact water- and migration-based local livelihoods and to identify what policy gaps and opportunities for the Lake settlements
  3. 3. Studied areas and target villages Prek Trob in Aek Phnom district, Battambang Pursat Phtas Kor in Kandieng district Kampong Thom Kampongkor Krom, Kampong Svay district
  4. 4. Fishery of the management and the around Tonle ChallengesManagement Policyof fishery Impacts on Local Livelihoods Sap The govt. fishery management policy has not led to sustainable management, conservation and development of fisheries resources around TSL. • Decrease quality of fisheries to serve livelihoods of subsistent fishers and farmers (food insecurity, decreased income and increased risks) • Fishing areas are dominated by illegal fishers( medium scale fishers) • There is an increased tension in access to fisheries resources
  5. 5. Agriculture management of fishery around Tonle Challenges of thepolicy, water management, and the Impacts on Local Livelihoods Sap The agriculture and water management policy of the govt. have not strengthened local livelihoods due to: • • • • • • • Lack of irrigation, poor farming techniques due to no extension, high input cost, low capitals, high interest rate, low output price due to weak market land encroachment to due land privatization inappropriate water investment by private sector, Tension access to water between large scale and smallholder farmers • Increase risks for doing agriculture for smallholder farmers • Increase debt in farmers due to failure or loss in doing agriculture
  6. 6. Emergence of migration-based livelihoods Tonle Challenges of the management of fishery around and governmentSap migration policy In the studied villages, there are no concrete livelihoods development activities to address the emergence of migration as a multi-local livelihoods strategy. The Migration of communities around Tonle Sap Lake is relatively little known, researched, and considered by the government policies
  7. 7. CONCLUSION The development policies for the Lake settlements: •have not resolved vulnerabilities of fishing and farming livelihoods in studied communities such as fisheries decline and the impacts of agricultural intensification, soil degradation, and growing landlessness •have not empowered local communities to resolve the tension of fishing-farming livelihoods •have not measured migration-based local livelihoods There is still an assumption by the govt. policies that livelihoods around the Lake could be sustained by a single source of livelihoods: fishing, farming, or fishing-farming livelihoods
  8. 8. RECOMMENDATIONS • Integrate policies on agriculture, fisheries, water management and migration and make it be better understood and be prioritized as a way to respond to emergence of multi-local livelihoods driven around Tonle Sap Lake • Promote participatory development by integrating the environmental policies and livelihoods development policies into the CDP and the CIP.
  9. 9. Thank you for your attention!
  10. 10. Thank you for your attention!