Water, energy and food sectors that have traditionally remained fairly separate. Some examples are found as. Each sector will need to face tough choices about the linkages between its supply of energy and the interconnected demands for water and food. For example, biofuels may offer a fast route for reducing carbon emissions, but it may also compete with food security.
Wind turbine in Vietnam uses a global technology firm GE to build and operate turbines for phase one of the Bac Lieu Wind Farm. The project, located on the southern edge of the Mekong Delta about 100 kilometres south of Can Tho, will have a generation capacity of 16 megawatts (MW) once it is completed early next year. This will be the first large-scale industrial energy project in the Bac Lieu province, said Cong Ly Company chairman To Hoai Dan.Climate change is a key driver of water systems and current focus is water sufficiency and climate adaptation. Whilst, energy systems driver climate change and current focus is energy sufficiency and climate adaptation
Energy dimension provides new insights into mitigation potential in the water sector, while water provide insights into how climate change adaptation will affect energy system
SEI recent work included the nexus issues in the Northeast Thailand Futures project that takes into account the development of transboundary water from Nam Ngum-Hueyluang, Lampao, Chi river diversion and Kong-Loei Chi Mun in NE ThailandHSB is part of Chi river basin and diversion water will be imported to the sub-catchmentTotal proposed irrigation area is about 0.9 million ha for the project and estimated water demand is about 13,750 MCM, accounting for 430 m3/sSource: http://www.mrcmekong.org/assets/Publications/Consultations/SEA-Hydropower/12.Thailand-Baseline-Assessment-Perspective28Jan.pdf
The Nexus is helping us to adopt a more holistic approach and to begin to understand the integrated functionality of landscapes. There is a need for cooperation, notably the need for trusted dialogues between communities, science, corporates and decisions-makers in order toenhance water, energy and food security in a green economy by increasing efficiency, reducing trade-offs, and building synergies across sectors.
Planning and Decision Support Tools to Improve Water, Energy and Food Nexus in the Mekong
Planning and Decision Support Tools toImprove Water, Energy and Food Nexus in the Mekong
Overview1. Status and Challenges in Mekong region2. Prospective development in Mekong region3. Opportunities to improve water, energy and food security4. Nexus related issues in the context of Mekong countries5. Past applications of decision support tools6. Potential applications of integrating WEAP&LEAP7. References
1. Status and challenges in Mekong1. Transforming the GMS connectivity or transport corridors2. Exploiting emerging opportunities in a reurgent and dynamic Asia3. Global warming and climate change: likely to aggravate pressure on resources; so add to the vulnerability of people and ecosystems.4. Potential negative effects of increased connectivity: biodiversity protection, natural disaster like flood and drought, migration5. Urbanization: likely to increase around 50% by 2015 (unhabitat.org)6. Poverty: percent of people living below the poverty line is 29% in Vietnam and 36% in Cambodia, for examples.7. Environmental degradation: due to unsustainable exploitation, lax regulations, rapid economic and demographic changes, urbanization
2. Prospective development in the Mekong1. Asian Highway and trans-Asia railway: Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam2. GMS transport corridor: Southern transport corridor from Phnom Penh to Ho Chi Minh highway, North-South economic corridor and East-West transport corridor3. Regional power transmission line: there will be more expanded throughout GMS by 2015-20204. GMS regional hydropower: generation capacity will increase quickly over the next decade, about 60 gigawatts (GMS-EOC, 2012); hydroelectric project in Xayaburi, Laos; Kamchay hydropower in Kampot, Cambodia5. Telecommunication backbone: services from Aranya prated, Thailand to Poypet, Cambodia and Nongkhai, Thailand to Vientiane, Laos.6. Flood control and water resource management7. Coordinating Mekong Tourism activities
3. Opportunities to improve water, energy and food security (1/2)• Water, Energy and Food (WEF) is connected and is a multi- dimensional issue, and hence requires multi-pronged approach• Nexus approach can potentially support a transition to sustainability, by reducing trade-offs and generating additional benefits that outweigh the transaction costs associated with stronger integration across sectors.• Such gains should appeal to national interest and encourage governments, the private sector and civil society to engage.
3. Opportunities to improve water, energy and food security (2/2)1. Increasing resource productivity2. Using waste as a resource in multi-use systems3. Stimulating development through economic incentives .4. Governance, institutions and policy coherence5. Benefiting from productive ecosystems6. Integrated poverty alleviation and green growth7. Capacity building and awareness raising
4. Nexus related issues in the Context of Mekong countries • Hydropower development • Development of biofuels • Irrigation Development • Sewerage Treatment • Agriculture structure • Energy for fertilizers • GHG mitigation, low carbon economy, renewable energy • Waste treatment Source: SEI, 2011. • Water purification • Etc.
5. Past applications of decision support tools WEAP (http://www.weap21.org/index.asp?action=205&all=1) - Water Productivity Assessment: Mekong River Basin approach (2005- 2008) - Water Poverty Modeling in the Mekong River Basin (2005-2008) - Establishing methodologies for water allocation in Bang Pakong River Basin LEAP - Energy saving potential in Vietnam: an analysis with LEAP model - Renewable energy utilization and CO2 mitigation in the power sector: a case study in selected GMS countries (http://rdo.psu.ac.th/sjstweb/journal/33-3/0125- 3395-33-3-305-313.pdf) - Cambodia’s initial national communication: under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate change (http://lowemissionsasia.org/sites/default/files/pdf_file/khmnc1.pdf)
Wind turbine in Vietnam’s Mekong Delta Hydropower in LaosSource: http://www.eco-business.com/features/wind-energy- Source: http://concept-bank.com/?page_id=629for-vietnams-mekong-delta/
Energy consumption Electricity generationSource: http://www.eco-business.com/features/wind-energy- Source: http://www.chaoprayanews.com/for-vietnams-mekong-delta/
WEAP Application in Northeast Thailand Schematic view of Huai Sai Bat River Basin, Thailand Results of Development Scenarios
Exploring Mekong Region Futures –nexus on food, water and energy investment NE Thailand Futures Study Objective: introduce multiple- objective oriented planning based on information on the food- energy-water nexus and climate change, land-use and migration, in order to create planning scenarios and the design of a reasonable policy and decision making options. Source: CSIRO, 2010
Bioenergy Development in Southeast Asia Studies reveal palm oil impacts in Southeast Asia, propose EU policy changes• Palm oil grown in tropical countries is one of the main sources of biodiesel.• Indonesia and Malaysia, which together produce 90% of the world’s palm oil.• A major driver of recent growth in palm oil production is the EU market for biofuels.• The EU’s Renewable Energy Directive A palm oil plantation in Indonesia, the world’s top producer. Flickr/Rainforest Action Network. (EU-RED) has set a target of meeting 10% of the European transport sector’s SEI research shows that as energy needs with renewable energy production has soared to meet by 2020 increase in the use of global demand, driven in part by the biodiesel, which accounts for over EU-RED, communities have been three-quarters of EU biofuels harmed. EU policies should be consumption. revised to ensure sustainability!
5. CONCLUSIONS• The Nexus is helping us to adopt a more holistic approach and to begin to understand the integrated functionality of landscapes.• There is a need for cooperation, notably the need for trusted dialogues between communities, science, corporates and decisions- makers• To enhance water, energy and food security in a green economy by increasing efficiency, reducing trade-offs, and building synergies across sectors