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Rice-fish integration for high saline areas of the coastal zone of Bangladesh: learning from CPWF

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By S.B. Saha, K.A. Kabir, M.K. Mondal, M. Karim, P.L.C. Paul, M. Phillips, E. Humphreys, T.P. Tuong

Revitalizing the Ganges Coastal Zone Conference
21-23 October 2014, Dhaka, Bangladesh
http://waterandfood.org/ganges-conference/

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Rice-fish integration for high saline areas of the coastal zone of Bangladesh: learning from CPWF

  1. 1. Rice-­‐fish  integra/on  for  high  saline  areas   of  the  coastal  zone  of  Bangladesh:     learning  from  CPWF         S  B  Saha,  K  A  Kabir,  M  K  Mondal,  M  Karim   P  L  C  Paul,  M  Phillips,  E  Humphreys,  T  P  Tuong    
  2. 2. BANGLADESH   Salinity fluctuates from high in dry season to very low in rainy season Research site
  3. 3. 3   Satellite  image  of  the    developed     pond  complex   Tradi/onal  ghers   Tradi/onal  ghers   407-­‐870  m2   Pond  complex  (24  ponds)   Research Objective
  4. 4. 4   Drain/Intake  canal   around  every  gher   Ponds   In-­‐house  nursery   24 ponds of different sizes (407-870 m2) have been constructed with water inlet system. Canals (100cm wide x 50cm deep) have been excavated surrounding the periphery of each pond. One nursery complex with six small sized ponds (3 in-house and 3 outside) was also constructed.
  5. 5. Aquaculture treatments (4 reps) Treatments   Culture   paUerns   2012   2013   Cycle  1   Cycle  2   Cycle  3   Cycle  1   Cycle  2   Cycle  3   Farmer’s   prac/ce   Poly   Shrimp  +  different  sp  of  fish   (mul/ple  stocking  &   harves/ng)   Shrimp  +  different  sp  of  fish   (mul/ple  stocking  &   harves/ng)   Improved   prac/ce  1   Mono   Shrimp   Tilapia       Prawn   (+rice)       Shrimp   Shrimp     Tengra   (+rice)       Improved   prac/ce  2     Poly   Shrimp   Tilapia   Tilapia   Tengra     Prawn     Tengra   (+rice)       Shrimp   Tilapia     Shrimp   Tilapia     Tilapia     Tengra   (+rice)     Managed  by  farmers  
  6. 6. Rice-aquaculture system Therefore 2 water depth treatments (50 cm & 70 cm) in rice-aquaculture system, both seasons Saline water needs to be drained in July to allow leaching of salt by rainfall prior to rice transplanting Higher brackish water aquaculture production if saline water is kept for longer Need shallow water after transplanting rice (<20 cm) This is very shallow for aquaculture (importance of trenches) Better rice productivity with shallower water Better aquaculture productivity with deeper water Some tradeoffs for rice & aquaculture system
  7. 7. Management Prac/ce   Farmer’s   Prac/ce   Improved  1  &  2   Liming   200  kg  ha-­‐1   200  kg  ha-­‐1   Water  filtering   Unfiltered   Filtered   Predatory  Fish   Not  eradicated   Eradicated   Disinfec/on   No  disinfecBon   Disinfected   Fer/liza/on   No  ferBlizer   FerBlizer  &  dolomite   Shrimp  seed   Not  PCR  tested   PCR  tested   Feed   No  feed   Feeding     Water  replenishment   When  needed   When  needed   Post  stocking  fer/liza/on   Very  insufficient   When  primary   producBon  is  low   Fish  seed   Some  wild   All  from  hatcheries  
  8. 8. Observed  depth  of  water  of  50  cm  depth  ponds   0   10   20   30   40   50   60   1   14   28   42   56   70   84   97   111   125   139   153   167   180   194   208   222   236   250   264   278   Depth  of  flat  area  (cm)   7  March   Farmer's  prac/ce   Monoculture   Polyculture     Rice  planta/on   0   10   20   30   40   50   60   1   14   28   42   56   70   84   98   112   126   140   154   168   182   196   210   224   238   252   Depth  of  flat  area  (cm)     Days  of  culture   14  March   Farmer's  prac/ce   Monculture   Polyculture   Rice  planta/on   2012   2013   Cycle  1   Cycle  2   Cycle  3  
  9. 9. 0   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   80   1   14   28   42   56   70   84   98   112   126   140   154   168   182   196   210   224   238   252   Depth  of  flat  area  (cm)   Days  of  Culture   14  March   Farmer's  prac/ce   Monculture   Polyculture   Rice  planta/on   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   80   1   14   28   42   56   70   84   97   111   125   139   153   167   180   194   208   222   236   250   264   278   Depth  of  flat  area  (cm)   7  March   Farmer's  prac/ce   Monoculture   Polyculture   Rice  planta/on   Observed  depth  of  water  of  70  cm  depth  ponds   2012   2013   Cycle  1   Cycle  2   Cycle  3  
  10. 10. Salinity  of  water  of  50  cm  depth  ponds     0   5   10   15   20   25   1   14   28   42   56   70   84   97   111   125   139   153   167   180   194   208   222   236   250   264   278   Salinity  (ppt)   7  March   Farmer's  prac/ce   Monoculture   Polyculture     2012   0   5   10   15   20   25   1   14   28   42   56   70   84   98   112   126   140   154   168   182   196   210   224   238   252   Salinity  (ppt)   Days  of  culture   14  March   Farmer's  prac/ce   Monculture   Polyculture   2013   Cycle  1   Cycle  2   Cycle  3  
  11. 11. Salinity  of  water  of  70  cm  depth  ponds     0   5   10   15   20   25   1   14   28   42   56   70   84   97   111   125   139   153   167   180   194   208   222   236   250   264   278   Salinity  (ppt)   7  March   Farmer's  prac/ce   Monoculture   Polyculture   2012   2013   Cycle  1   Cycle  2   Cycle  3   0   5   10   15   20   25   1   14   28   42   56   70   84   98   112   126   140   154   168   182   196   210   224   238   252   Salinity  (ppt)   Days  of  Culture   14  March   Farmer's  prac/ce   Monculture   Polyculture  
  12. 12. Findings 2012
  13. 13. Production (kg/ha) 2012 Culture pattern Cycle-1 (91 days) Cycle-2 (71days) Cycle-3 (99 days) Total Shrimp Tilapia Tengra Tilapia Prawn Fish *Shrimp Fish Farmer’s 50 cm 278 days 241.82a 520.40a Farmer’s 70 cm 262.91a   428.53b   Mono 50 cm 168.05 -­‐   -­‐   2273.10 217.97 - 386.02b 2273.09c Mono 70 cm 233.87 -­‐   -­‐   2642.41   279.79 - 513.66c 2756.32d Poly 50 cm 216.31 2122.18   95.67   830.30   147.24 97.98 363.55c 3146.29e Poly 70 cm 321.04 1704.52   94.00   1411.47   161.96 157.84 483.00c 3387.83e *Shrimp  +  prawn   *  Figures  with  different  superscript    in  the  same  column  differ  significantly  
  14. 14. Cost  and   return         “50  cm”   “70  cm  “   Farmer's   prac/ce   Monoculture     Polyculture   Farmer's   prac/ce   Monoculture     Polyculture   Total   variable   cost       230         312         377         225         370         395     Total   Return       215         428         522         210         672         661     Gross   margin         -­‐15  a         85b         145d         -­‐15a         302c         266c     G  margin   (minus   LABOR  -­‐   LAND)   70     208     205     70     395     350     Profitability    of  aquaculture  (Tk  x  1000  ha-­‐1  )  2012   (includes  farmer  labour  &  land  lease  value)    
  15. 15. 0   500   1000   1500   2000   2500   BR11   BR47   BR54   Jotai   Kumri   Morichsail   Yield  (kg/ha)   Varie/es   ProducBon  of  Aman  Rice  2012  
  16. 16. Yield  of  HYV  aman  rice  in  ghers  under  different   ferBlizer  management  2012   0   500   1000   1500   2000   No  F   Basal   Recom   No  F   Basal   Recom   No  F   Basal   Recom   BR11   BR47   BR54   Yield  (kg/ha)  
  17. 17. Characteris/cs  of  soil  in  rice  aquaculture  system  2012   0   5   10   15   20   25   30   EC  (dS/m)   P  (µg/g)   Before  stocking  (Feb.)   Before  rice  plantaBon  (Aug,)   A^er  complete  harvest  (Dec.)   0   0.5   1   1.5   2   2.5   3   OM  (%)   K  (me/100  g)   N  (%)   Before  stocking  (Feb.)   Before  rice  plantaBon  (Aug,)   A^er  complete  harvest  (Dec.)  
  18. 18. Findings 2013
  19. 19. Production (kg/ha) 2013 Culture pattern Cycle-1 (70 days) Cycle-2 (50days) Cycle-3 (99 days) Total Shrimp Tilapia Shrimp Tilapia Tengra Tilapia Shrimp Fish Farmer’s 50 cm 259 days 473.00a 673.98a Farmer’s 70 cm 338.10b 744.48a Mono 50 cm 388.67 -­‐   271.43   -­‐   923.00 - 617.57c 923.00b Mono 70 cm 501.52 -­‐   309.34   -­‐   686.41 - 810.86d 686.41a Poly 50 cm 360.17 1625.68   231.83   515.77   339.50 711.25 589.00c 3452.20c Poly 70 cm 381.52 1624.30   255.54   652.36   323.25 1012.14   637.06c 3612.18c Figures    with  different  superscript    in  the  same  column  differ  significantly    
  20. 20. Cost  and   return         “50  cm”   “70  cm  “   Farmer's   prac/ce   Mono-­‐ culture     Polyculture   Farmer's   prac/ce   Monoculture     Polyculture     Total   variable  cost         215         254         382         215         257         377     Total  Return     225   485   545   407   385   547   Gross   margin     -­‐10a   230c   163d   76b   149d   170d   GM  (minus   LABOR   LAND)   93   315   248   59   234   255   Profitability    of  aquaculture  (Tk  x  1000  ha-­‐1  )  2013   (includes  farmer  labour  &  land  lease  value)    
  21. 21. ProducBon  of  Aman  Rice  2013   0   500   1000   1500   2000   2500   3000   3500   BR47   BR54   Jotai   Yield  (kg  ha-­‐1)  
  22. 22. Impact of rice on fish production 0   200   400   600   800   1000   1200   1400   1600   Cat  fish   Cat  fish  +  /lapia   Produc/on    (kg  ha-­‐1)   With  rice   Without  rice  
  23. 23. Production (kg/ha) 2012 vs 2013 Culture pattern Shrimp Fish 2012 2013 2012 2013 Farmer’s 50 cm 242 243 520 674 Farmer’s 70 cm 263 338 428 744 Mono 50 cm 386 618 2273 923 Mono 70 cm 514 811 2756 686 Poly 50 cm 492 589 3146 3452 Poly 70 cm 483 637 3369 3612
  24. 24. Key  challenges   Markets   •  Scarcity  of  quality  shrimp  and  fish  seed   •  Lack  of  quality  feed  in  local  market     Aquaculture  management   •  Preven/on  of  escaping  cat  fish  through  dikes   •  Low  stocking  of  caoish   •  Aqua/c  weed  control     Community   •  Poor  feeder  canal  for  gravita/onal  water  exchange  (need   community  system)   •  Poaching  risk  increases  (need  to  increase  produc/vity  of  all   ghers  to  lessen  preda/on  of  individual  gher  –  share  the   preda/on  more  evenly!)  
  25. 25. Other  improvements   You  can  make  your  saline  gher  dike  green  and  environment  friendly  by   adding  trees    
  26. 26. Other  improvements   Vegetable  can  be  grown  on  saline  gher  dikes  during  wet  season  
  27. 27. Other  improvements   Local  variety  of  grass  grows  very  well  on  saline  gher  dikes  which  can   be  used  as  fodder  
  28. 28. Conclusion   q  Both  produc/on  and  income  is  higher  in  improved  culture  system,   though  investment  is  higher  in  improved  system.   q  Produc/on  of  both  shrimp  and  fish  is  higher  in  higher  water  depth   ponds  and  depth  showed  no  significant  impact  on  rice.   q  Polyculture  system  is  more  resilient  than  monoculture  system.   q  There  is  scope  of  increasing  stocking  density  of  tengra  for  increasing   produc/on.   q  Short  dura/on  culture  of  shrimp  appears  less  risky.   q  The  local  variety  Jatai  and  BRRI  dhan54  could  be  a  good  op/on  in   brackishwater  gher  on  aspect  of  yield  performance.   q  Aquaculture   interven/on   increases   nutrients   of   soil,   which   has   a   significant  role  in  increasing  rice  produc/on.   q  Addi/onal   fer/liza/on   showed   no   posi/ve   impact   on   rice   produc/on  in  rice-­‐aquaculture  system.   q  Introduc/on  of  rice  has  no  adverse  impact  on  the  produc/on  of  fish.   q  Integra/on  of  hor/culture  and  fodder  in  dikes  would  earn  addi/onal   income.  

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