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Success Stories of Learning Watersheds in BNB of Amhara Region:
Lessons and Implications for Sustainable RWM
NBDC Regional Stakeholder Dialogue, Bahir Dar, 23-24 July 2013
Gizaw Desta (ARARI)
Contents
• Context of RWM in Watershed management
• Issues of WM and IWRM
• Success stories of learning watersheds in BNB
• Lessons and Implications for RWM
• Integrated Watershed Management Approach – for
agricultural development, NRM, and RWM
• What matters for watershed management?
34mm/
17mm/hr
51mm/
35mm/hr
Erosion Runoff Water mang. Biodiversity
Loss of
productivity
unemploymen
Monitoring & Evaluation
• Planning Stage
• Participatory M&E system was not set at the planning
stage
• Implementation stage
• Clearly defined reporting and evaluation roles among DAs,
DG, 1:5 workforce and woreda experts
• Supervision and feedback from decision makers –
• Post implementation
• No performance indicators set to explicitly evaluate the
effectiveness and sustainability of the targeted measures
• Lack of responsible unit for coordinated M&E across sectors
Context of Watershed Development in ANRS
Findings based on case study on 40 watersheds
Sustainability
• Most of the interventions are inclined towards protective
function than productive functions
• no clarity on cost sharing and utilization arrangements of
common resources and nor on mechanisms for conflict
resolution, regulation of behavior
• Lack of authorized body with power to implement and
regulate the community bylaws on watershed development
Issues in watershed management
1. Socioeconomic Issues in Watershed Management
– Upstream-downstream relationships - food security,
commercialization, environmental service, water
governance
– Capacity: Constraints to investment at an individual land
holding level (labor, income, KAS)
– Participation: for common decision making, collective
action and equitable cost & benefit sharing,
participatory R&D
10
2. Biophysical Issues in Watershed Management
– WATER: Water scarcity and/or flooding - IWRM
– LAND DEGRADATION: Soil erosion and sedimentation
– BIODIVERSITY: Deforestation, wetland and loss of
aquatic life
– LAND USE: Inappropriate land use plans/ farming
system and management practices
11
3. Issues of scale in a watershed approach
• NRM activities follow the watershed approach while the
livelihood activities are at kebele unit
• Interaction of Social and Spatial scale of watershed
management
– Farm and/or Household
– Catchment and/or Community
– Sub watersheds
– River basin or landscapes
• Which issues of watershed management at plot, catchment,
watershed or basin scales dependent on household or
community decisions? 12
4. Impact of watershed management
• Individual and community behavior and practices
• Sediment and hydrology budget
• Biodiversity change
• Productivity/Livelihood
• Crop and livestock productivity
• employment
13
Questions
 Are the interventions capable to address the social,
economic, and biophysical ISSUES?
 Are the approaches and mechanisms facilitate
 Participation and empowerment? And
 Transfer and ownership of processes, responsibilities
and outcomes sustainably by users and implementing
institutions?
Balancing protection of resources (supply)
and use of resources (demand) .
Use
Protection
Supplydriven
Demanddriven
Maximize economic efficiency
• Maximize env. protection
• Ensure equity
• Demand or supply driven?
• Development or environment?
Watershed management for sustainability?
• The RWM interventions and its management in
watershed approach can be sustainable if they target
the following
– Empowerment and ownership of processes and
outcomes
– Rehabilitation of natural resources
– Increase on-site productivity - livelihood
– Create employment
– Equitable resource use
– Protection of environment – upstream and
downstream connectivity
– Transferability and scaling out
RWM Projects working in learning
watersheds/landscape approach
What lessons learned?
SCRP MERET SIDA AMAREW SWHISA CBINRMP
JICA SUN WLRC
SRMP AGP
SLMP NBDC
TANA
BELES
ICARDA
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
Success stories
SCRP
1. Household wells and WHS
2. Community participate in the
design, supervision of small
scale irrigation development
3. Gully + pasture development
4. Area enclosures
5. Self-help user groups
6. Farmer to farmer extension
SWHISA
1. Long-term hydrology and
sediment monitoring
2. Fanyaju terrace
TANA BELES
1. M&E strategy
2. Hydrological monitoring
GTZ
1. Gully development -Napier
2. Triticale
3. Sub-soiling
WLRC
1. R4D – research-extension link
2. Homestead development
Success stories
SIDA AMAREW
1. Seed multiplication and dissemination-
durum wheat growers group
2. Grasses and fodder tree along field
boundaries
3. Dairy cows in zero-grazing system
4. Roof water harvesting
5. Fruit production
6. Gully control
7. Integration of u/s and d/s irrigation users
8. Fish ponds
9. Free grazing control
10.Wood lots
11.Tree seedling production
12.Fuel stoves
1. Improved varieties – Vernonia, sorghum
2. Integrated production by innovative farmers
eg. Ato Dessalegn, Ato Yasin
3. Hillside area enclosures
4. Low-cost gravity drip irrigation
5. Rope and washer pump for water
harvesting systems
6. Income generation
• improved stoves-self-help women Yeku
• Gabion wire box production Lench Dima
7. Water point development
8. Gully rehabilitation and production
9. Joint planning of research-extension
10.FREG
11.Inductive training
12.Community based watershed management
• Question: To what extent these best practices and
success stories are adopted and scaled out until this time
and continued to make the watersheds as a learning and
demonstration sites?
• Evidences indicate that
– Low level of continued adoption
– Lack landscape approach at the planning stage
– Only local impact noted for a short term
– Lack of sense of long-term ownership by users and
takeover of the responsibilities by public institutions
Lessons
• Watershed interventions
– Inclined to the on-site protection of natural resources or
on-site rehabilitation
– adapted to existing small holder production system, lack
to consider eco-friendly alternative livelihood strategies
and land use change production options
– Less emphasis to the use of resources or productivity
and offsite protection through landscape approach
– Lack of knowledge of targeting of techniques - feasibility
of RWM practices 22
– Inadequate for capturing structures and processes at
landscape level, where common property resources
(forest, wetlands, protected areas, water bodies, grazing
lands) become visible
– Upstream watershed management practices was not
strategically connected with water resources management
objectives in the downstream – IWRM
Lessons
• Institutional arrangement
– No capacity gap at policy and strategy level - ESIF/SLM, but
gap at implementation level towards sectoral integration
– Limited dialogue and discussion among the various
stakeholders about the context specific micro-watershed
approach and landscape NRM strategies, despite there is
national guideline
• adhoc type – watershed committee, water users group,
etc
• link only to MOA but not to EPLAU & MOWE – agriculture
but not on environment , land use and water use 24
Lessons
Lessons
• Research need for knowledge development and management
– Current research focus is on farm-level innovations and
facilitate change through individualized decision processes
at household or community scale
– Limited R4D on
• Targeting of practices – soil, hydrology, topographic,
social, economic conditions
• Landscape connectivity
• Basin level research and knowledge to guide basin and
regional development
• Strategic level research
• Information and Knowledge management at all levels 25
• The lessons on successes and best practices on learning
watersheds implies the need to bring change on
– individual farmers and community behavior towards SLM
and managing common property resources
– Empowerment of community and sense of ownership of
successes by community and public regulatory functions
and private users
– Integration of watershed successes into Government
watershed plan for scaling out
Implication for sustainable RWM
• Research demand for well established watershed approach
and technologies to address– LAND USE, WATER,
ENVIRONMENT, BIODIVERSITY, SCALE Issues and Monitoring
Data of sustainability indicators
• Linkage of IWRM and watershed management –basin
regulatory functions
• Institutional framework for coordinated SLM at grass root
level – projects and public sectors
• Strategy for participatory M&E of R&D at all levels – change
in sustainability indicators (practice, behavior, biomass/
productivity, hydrology, biodiversity, employment, equity)
Thank you

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Success stories of learning watersheds in BNB of Amhara Region: Lessons and implications for sustainable RWM

  • 1. Success Stories of Learning Watersheds in BNB of Amhara Region: Lessons and Implications for Sustainable RWM NBDC Regional Stakeholder Dialogue, Bahir Dar, 23-24 July 2013 Gizaw Desta (ARARI)
  • 2. Contents • Context of RWM in Watershed management • Issues of WM and IWRM • Success stories of learning watersheds in BNB • Lessons and Implications for RWM
  • 3. • Integrated Watershed Management Approach – for agricultural development, NRM, and RWM • What matters for watershed management? 34mm/ 17mm/hr 51mm/ 35mm/hr Erosion Runoff Water mang. Biodiversity Loss of productivity unemploymen
  • 4. Monitoring & Evaluation • Planning Stage • Participatory M&E system was not set at the planning stage • Implementation stage • Clearly defined reporting and evaluation roles among DAs, DG, 1:5 workforce and woreda experts • Supervision and feedback from decision makers – • Post implementation • No performance indicators set to explicitly evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of the targeted measures • Lack of responsible unit for coordinated M&E across sectors Context of Watershed Development in ANRS Findings based on case study on 40 watersheds
  • 5. Sustainability • Most of the interventions are inclined towards protective function than productive functions • no clarity on cost sharing and utilization arrangements of common resources and nor on mechanisms for conflict resolution, regulation of behavior • Lack of authorized body with power to implement and regulate the community bylaws on watershed development
  • 6. Issues in watershed management 1. Socioeconomic Issues in Watershed Management – Upstream-downstream relationships - food security, commercialization, environmental service, water governance – Capacity: Constraints to investment at an individual land holding level (labor, income, KAS) – Participation: for common decision making, collective action and equitable cost & benefit sharing, participatory R&D 10
  • 7. 2. Biophysical Issues in Watershed Management – WATER: Water scarcity and/or flooding - IWRM – LAND DEGRADATION: Soil erosion and sedimentation – BIODIVERSITY: Deforestation, wetland and loss of aquatic life – LAND USE: Inappropriate land use plans/ farming system and management practices 11
  • 8. 3. Issues of scale in a watershed approach • NRM activities follow the watershed approach while the livelihood activities are at kebele unit • Interaction of Social and Spatial scale of watershed management – Farm and/or Household – Catchment and/or Community – Sub watersheds – River basin or landscapes • Which issues of watershed management at plot, catchment, watershed or basin scales dependent on household or community decisions? 12
  • 9. 4. Impact of watershed management • Individual and community behavior and practices • Sediment and hydrology budget • Biodiversity change • Productivity/Livelihood • Crop and livestock productivity • employment 13
  • 10. Questions  Are the interventions capable to address the social, economic, and biophysical ISSUES?  Are the approaches and mechanisms facilitate  Participation and empowerment? And  Transfer and ownership of processes, responsibilities and outcomes sustainably by users and implementing institutions?
  • 11. Balancing protection of resources (supply) and use of resources (demand) . Use Protection Supplydriven Demanddriven Maximize economic efficiency • Maximize env. protection • Ensure equity • Demand or supply driven? • Development or environment? Watershed management for sustainability?
  • 12. • The RWM interventions and its management in watershed approach can be sustainable if they target the following – Empowerment and ownership of processes and outcomes – Rehabilitation of natural resources – Increase on-site productivity - livelihood – Create employment – Equitable resource use – Protection of environment – upstream and downstream connectivity – Transferability and scaling out
  • 13. RWM Projects working in learning watersheds/landscape approach What lessons learned? SCRP MERET SIDA AMAREW SWHISA CBINRMP JICA SUN WLRC SRMP AGP SLMP NBDC TANA BELES ICARDA 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
  • 14. Success stories SCRP 1. Household wells and WHS 2. Community participate in the design, supervision of small scale irrigation development 3. Gully + pasture development 4. Area enclosures 5. Self-help user groups 6. Farmer to farmer extension SWHISA 1. Long-term hydrology and sediment monitoring 2. Fanyaju terrace TANA BELES 1. M&E strategy 2. Hydrological monitoring GTZ 1. Gully development -Napier 2. Triticale 3. Sub-soiling WLRC 1. R4D – research-extension link 2. Homestead development
  • 15. Success stories SIDA AMAREW 1. Seed multiplication and dissemination- durum wheat growers group 2. Grasses and fodder tree along field boundaries 3. Dairy cows in zero-grazing system 4. Roof water harvesting 5. Fruit production 6. Gully control 7. Integration of u/s and d/s irrigation users 8. Fish ponds 9. Free grazing control 10.Wood lots 11.Tree seedling production 12.Fuel stoves 1. Improved varieties – Vernonia, sorghum 2. Integrated production by innovative farmers eg. Ato Dessalegn, Ato Yasin 3. Hillside area enclosures 4. Low-cost gravity drip irrigation 5. Rope and washer pump for water harvesting systems 6. Income generation • improved stoves-self-help women Yeku • Gabion wire box production Lench Dima 7. Water point development 8. Gully rehabilitation and production 9. Joint planning of research-extension 10.FREG 11.Inductive training 12.Community based watershed management
  • 16. • Question: To what extent these best practices and success stories are adopted and scaled out until this time and continued to make the watersheds as a learning and demonstration sites? • Evidences indicate that – Low level of continued adoption – Lack landscape approach at the planning stage – Only local impact noted for a short term – Lack of sense of long-term ownership by users and takeover of the responsibilities by public institutions
  • 17. Lessons • Watershed interventions – Inclined to the on-site protection of natural resources or on-site rehabilitation – adapted to existing small holder production system, lack to consider eco-friendly alternative livelihood strategies and land use change production options – Less emphasis to the use of resources or productivity and offsite protection through landscape approach – Lack of knowledge of targeting of techniques - feasibility of RWM practices 22
  • 18. – Inadequate for capturing structures and processes at landscape level, where common property resources (forest, wetlands, protected areas, water bodies, grazing lands) become visible – Upstream watershed management practices was not strategically connected with water resources management objectives in the downstream – IWRM Lessons
  • 19. • Institutional arrangement – No capacity gap at policy and strategy level - ESIF/SLM, but gap at implementation level towards sectoral integration – Limited dialogue and discussion among the various stakeholders about the context specific micro-watershed approach and landscape NRM strategies, despite there is national guideline • adhoc type – watershed committee, water users group, etc • link only to MOA but not to EPLAU & MOWE – agriculture but not on environment , land use and water use 24 Lessons
  • 20. Lessons • Research need for knowledge development and management – Current research focus is on farm-level innovations and facilitate change through individualized decision processes at household or community scale – Limited R4D on • Targeting of practices – soil, hydrology, topographic, social, economic conditions • Landscape connectivity • Basin level research and knowledge to guide basin and regional development • Strategic level research • Information and Knowledge management at all levels 25
  • 21. • The lessons on successes and best practices on learning watersheds implies the need to bring change on – individual farmers and community behavior towards SLM and managing common property resources – Empowerment of community and sense of ownership of successes by community and public regulatory functions and private users – Integration of watershed successes into Government watershed plan for scaling out Implication for sustainable RWM
  • 22. • Research demand for well established watershed approach and technologies to address– LAND USE, WATER, ENVIRONMENT, BIODIVERSITY, SCALE Issues and Monitoring Data of sustainability indicators • Linkage of IWRM and watershed management –basin regulatory functions • Institutional framework for coordinated SLM at grass root level – projects and public sectors • Strategy for participatory M&E of R&D at all levels – change in sustainability indicators (practice, behavior, biomass/ productivity, hydrology, biodiversity, employment, equity)