Rhetoric versus Realities
An assessment of rainwater management planning and
implementation modalities
in Oromiya and Amha...
Rainwater Management
• Ethiopia has invested extensively in RWM
interventions, in particular soil and water conservation
a...
Ludi, 2012
Rainwater management
• Rainwater management refers to interventions which
enable smallholder farmers to sustainably increa...
Nile 2
• On integrated RWM strategies – technologies,
institutions and policies
• Baseline research on RWM planning and
im...
Findings – past RWM
• Limited success of past RWM interventions
– Top-down planning & implementation
– Standardised interv...
Planning of RWM today
Cell
Development
Team
Sub-Kebele
Kebele
Woreda
Zone / Region
Targets/
funding
Targets/
funding
Targe...
• Dilemma for woreda experts:
– reconciling plans with available budgets,
government policy and strategic plans / directiv...
Conclusions - Planning
• Discrepancy policy planning: participation vs quota
• Notion of participation: mobilising labour ...
Central dilemma
• This needs to be resolved if RWM interventions are to
be owned by farmers, be sustainable, and make a
me...
Implementation
Action plan
developed by
WoARD
Community
mobilisation by
KA
administration
Identification of required
labou...
Reasons for poor sustainability
• Lack of relevance to local priorities
• Weak technical design
• Lack of voluntary collec...
Livelihoods
• To achieve better fit of RWM interventions, specific
livelihood context and institutional environment needs
...
Conclusions
• Insights from baseline research on planning and
implementation process shaped innovation platforms
at local,...
Recommendations
1. Shift the focus of targets from outputs to outcomes
2. Enhance monitoring and evidence collection on RW...
ODI is the UK’s leading independent think tank on
international development and humanitarian issues.
We aim to inspire and...
Rhetoric versus realities: An assessment of rainwater management planning and implementation modalities in Oromiya and Amh...
Rhetoric versus realities: An assessment of rainwater management planning and implementation modalities in Oromiya and Amh...
Rhetoric versus realities: An assessment of rainwater management planning and implementation modalities in Oromiya and Amh...
Rhetoric versus realities: An assessment of rainwater management planning and implementation modalities in Oromiya and Amh...
Rhetoric versus realities: An assessment of rainwater management planning and implementation modalities in Oromiya and Amh...
Rhetoric versus realities: An assessment of rainwater management planning and implementation modalities in Oromiya and Amh...
Rhetoric versus realities: An assessment of rainwater management planning and implementation modalities in Oromiya and Amh...
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Rhetoric versus realities: An assessment of rainwater management planning and implementation modalities in Oromiya and Amhara Region, Ethiopia

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Presented by Eva Ludi at the Nile Basin Development Challenge (NBDC) Science Workshop, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 9–10 July 2013

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Rhetoric versus realities: An assessment of rainwater management planning and implementation modalities in Oromiya and Amhara Region, Ethiopia

  1. 1. Rhetoric versus Realities An assessment of rainwater management planning and implementation modalities in Oromiya and Amhara Region, Ethiopia Eva Ludi Nile Basin Development Challenge (NBDC) Science Workshop Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 9–10 July 2013
  2. 2. Rainwater Management • Ethiopia has invested extensively in RWM interventions, in particular soil and water conservation and afforestation over the last 40 years, but in many areas with disappointing impact • A new approach is obviously needed, but what should it be? 4
  3. 3. Ludi, 2012
  4. 4. Rainwater management • Rainwater management refers to interventions which enable smallholder farmers to sustainably increase agricultural production – focusing on livestock, trees, fish as well as crops – by making better use of available rainwater • These interventions may be at plot, farm, community, district or watershed level. • A rainwater management system (RWMS) includes technologies and practices for managing water for production, and the policy, institutional and social dynamics and support systems necessary to optimize the benefits of such technologies and practices Merrey & Gebreselassie
  5. 5. Nile 2 • On integrated RWM strategies – technologies, institutions and policies • Baseline research on RWM planning and implementation and how this intersects with livelihoods and innovation • Fieldwork in the three NBDC learning sites Jeldu and Diga (Oromiya) and Fogera (Amhara) • Five KAs per site representing different agro-ecologies (highland – midland – lowland), presence / absence of RWM, high / low levels of degradation • Broad suite of methods and tools for data collection 9
  6. 6. Findings – past RWM • Limited success of past RWM interventions – Top-down planning & implementation – Standardised intervention packages – Quote system – Lack of integrated watershed approach – Limited consideration of variations in agro-ecological and socio-economic conditions – Coerced participation with limited regard to people’s views and preferences – Focus on SWC instead of RWM as a means to increase productivity resulted in limited or no benefits to farmers
  7. 7. Planning of RWM today Cell Development Team Sub-Kebele Kebele Woreda Zone / Region Targets/ funding Targets/ funding Targets/ funding Targets/ funding Targets/ funding Targets/ funding Theoretical planning cycle - Following the budget cycle
  8. 8. • Dilemma for woreda experts: – reconciling plans with available budgets, government policy and strategic plans / directives whilst also taking account of local issues and priorities as formulated in kebele plans. • Considerable tension at the woreda level as bottom- up planning – focusing on needs and priorities as formulated by kebeles – collides with top-down planning, i.e. implementation plans received from higher levels that reflect regional and national priorities, in the form of quotas that woredas must achieve.
  9. 9. Conclusions - Planning • Discrepancy policy planning: participation vs quota • Notion of participation: mobilising labour vs incentivising collective action • Incentive systems for DAs: quota vs local needs • Failure to anticipate conflicts: quota vs local needs • Missed opportunities for sustainability: insufficient participation vs taping into local practices and institutions
  10. 10. Central dilemma • This needs to be resolved if RWM interventions are to be owned by farmers, be sustainable, and make a meaningful contribution to improved environmental management and better livelihoods. National plan Output targets Top-down planning focus Devolution Decentralisation Participation in planning Co-development of innovations at the lowest possible level
  11. 11. Implementation Action plan developed by WoARD Community mobilisation by KA administration Identification of required labour and other resources, organising farmers into teams by DAs Training farmers by DAs and woreda experts Scheduling of activities Establishing quality control team Carrying out work Establishing follow-up structures (e.g. Water User Committee) Follow-up and reporting
  12. 12. Reasons for poor sustainability • Lack of relevance to local priorities • Weak technical design • Lack of voluntary collective action • Lack of clear governance structures for interventions on communal land • Poor follow-up and monitoring • Focus on isolated technical interventions
  13. 13. Livelihoods • To achieve better fit of RWM interventions, specific livelihood context and institutional environment needs to guide RWM selection, planning and implementation process • Interdisciplinary communication and transdisciplinary collaboration required to identify best RWM strategies in a given locality: – multidisciplinary research – research partnerships – genuine collaboration between researchers and local societies to
  14. 14. Conclusions • Insights from baseline research on planning and implementation process shaped innovation platforms at local, regional and national levels and innovation fund • Recommendations formulated in view of contributing to improve RMW planning and implementation to achieve impact, sustainability, and local ownership, foster meaningful collaboration between farmers, government agencies and research community, and increase opportunity for genuine innovation at all levels.
  15. 15. Recommendations 1. Shift the focus of targets from outputs to outcomes 2. Enhance monitoring and evidence collection on RWM with a focus on impact and sustainability 3. Revitalise and capitalise on the DA system 4. Strengthen local institutions’ roles in RWM 5. Move towards more meaningful participation 6. Open lines of communication to foster innovative capacity
  16. 16. ODI is the UK’s leading independent think tank on international development and humanitarian issues. We aim to inspire and inform policy and practice to reduce poverty by locking together high-quality applied research and practical policy advice. The views presented here are those of the speaker, and do not necessarily represent the views of ODI or our partners. Overseas Development Institute 203 Blackfriars Road, London, SE1 8NJ T: +44 207 9220 300 www.odi.org.uk e.ludi@odi.org.uk

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