Integrated Aqua-Agricultural Production Systems in the Brackish Water Zones of Bangladesh


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Integrated Aqua-Agricultural Production Systems in the Brackish Water Zones of Bangladesh

  1. 1. Jahangir Alam, S.B. Saha , M.L. Islam, T.P. Tuong and B. K. Barman Integrated Aqua-Agricultural Production Systems in the Brackish Water Zones of Bangladesh
  2. 2. Bangladesh Coastal Zone > 80% of shrimp cultivation area in the southwest region, particularly in Satkhira, Khulna and Bagerhat districts Khulna Shrimp Farming Areas Satkhira Bagerhat Gopalgonj Narail Jessore N Background
  3. 3. <ul><li>The CP10 Project of CPWF in Phase 1 implemented on-field research, during the period of 2004-07 in farmers gher in the polder # 16/1 at Paikgacha, a southwest sub-district. </li></ul><ul><li>On-farm survey - overview of the aquaculture </li></ul><ul><li>systems in salinity influenced areas </li></ul><ul><li>Series of experiments were </li></ul><ul><li>conducted to improve shrimp </li></ul><ul><li>( P. monodon ) rice system to </li></ul><ul><li>maximize farm output to increase production and </li></ul><ul><li>income. </li></ul>Background
  4. 4. Evolution of shrimp farming Before 1980 1980-1985 1985-1995 1995-2005 T. aman rice Extensive traditional shrimp farming Extensive/improved extensive shrimp Intensification Diversification Extensive traditional shrimp farming / T. aman rice Extensive/improved extensive shrimp / T. aman rice Pushing/pulling and enabling factors International market for shrimp; wild shrimp capture Development of hatcheries; Reduction of natural stock Disease outbreaks; Access to knowledge; Survey Findings
  5. 5. <ul><li>The usual farming pattern in the area </li></ul><ul><li>- monoculture of shrimp (5%); or </li></ul><ul><li>- alternating wet-season rice with dry-season shrimp (95%) </li></ul>S = Stocking, LP= Land preparation, H = harvesting, Rc =Rice crop, Rh= Rice harvest; T= Transplanting. Survey Findings J F M A M J J A S O N D Salinity > 4 ppt Extensive shrimp S S S-H S-H S-H S-H S-H H H H LP S Shrimp/ T. Aman S S S-H S-H H H H LP-T Rc Rc Rc Rh-LP-S
  6. 6. Extensive shrimp farming followed by T. aman rice <ul><li>Stocking density : 1- 2 PL.m -2 </li></ul><ul><li>Yield </li></ul><ul><li>Shrimp: Up to 250 kg.ha -1 .y -1 </li></ul><ul><li>Rice: 1 t.ha -1 of traditional variety – 3 t.ha -1 HYV (BR11); average 2.8 t.ha -1 </li></ul><ul><li>Net return: Tk. 6000 to Tk. 83 000.ha -1 .y -1 </li></ul><ul><li>E nabling factor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to water and drainage facilities to flush the salt water before the rice crop </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pushing factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher return for shrimp compared to rice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rice: secure crop compared to shrimp </li></ul></ul>Survey Findings
  7. 7. Extensive shrimp farming followed by T. aman rice <ul><li>Constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large ghers with low depth of water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is a problem for shrimp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water logging is problem for rice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher shrimp mortality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High loan rates from middlemen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low level of knowledge for shrimp grow-out management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower adoption of HYVs of rice </li></ul></ul>Survey findings
  8. 8. <ul><li>Rice, prawn and fish (GIFT) </li></ul><ul><li>Determining appropriate combination, stocking rate, and culture management for integration of fish (GIFT) and prawn ( M. rosenbergii ) with rice production </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying the suitable HYVs of rice for fresh and saline water interface area </li></ul><ul><li>Shrimp </li></ul><ul><li>Assess different stocking pattern and management options for increased production of shrimp ( P. monodon ) </li></ul>Objectives of on-farm experiments
  9. 9. Land preparation prior to shrimp stocking Fertilization Fish harvesting Stocking prawn PL 10 (0.007g) Rice plantation Stocking Prawn PL & GIFT (1.5g) Shrimp grow-out plots Preparation & conducting on-farm experiments
  10. 10. <ul><li>Single stocking (T1) resulted in higher average production values, though not significant. </li></ul><ul><li>Average production of shrimp is 2-5 times higher than that of existing system </li></ul><ul><li>Single stocking resulted in higher net return </li></ul>Results (Shrimp)
  11. 11. <ul><li>Replication in each treatment with higher water depth yielded higher shrimp biomass. </li></ul>Results (Shrimp)
  12. 12. <ul><li>Monsoon tidal flashing helps to keep up the soil fertility reducing salinity 2-3 ppt. </li></ul><ul><li>HYVs viz. BR 23, BRRIdhan 40 & 41 resulted in a higher yield rate </li></ul><ul><li>of 4-5 t.ha -1 </li></ul>Seasonal rainfall Periodical flashing Results (Rice-aquaculture)
  13. 13. <ul><li>Water logging in relatively higher depth dry season shrimp gher resulted in lower yield </li></ul>Results (Rice-aquaculture)
  14. 14. 2004-05 F M A M J J A S O N D J GIFT & Prawn stocking Rice growing season Shrimp growing season Rice plantation Results (Rice-aquaculture)
  15. 15. <ul><li>We obtained av. production of GIFT - 270 kg/ha </li></ul><ul><li>and that of prawn - 70 kg/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Net return from prawn was very low (only 3%) </li></ul><ul><li>Identified causes were -- higher cost at stocking </li></ul><ul><li>- lower body weight at </li></ul><ul><li>harvest </li></ul>Results (Rice-aquaculture)
  16. 16. 4 replications for each T 2006-07 F M A M J J A S O N D J Prawn stocking (0.5/m 2 ) Rice growing season Shrimp growing season Rice plantation & GIFT stocking (0.5/m 2 ) Results (Rice-aquaculture)
  17. 17. Wet season Dry season Gher preparation <ul><li>Water depth 60-80 cm </li></ul><ul><li>Single stocking: @ 3-5.m -² </li></ul><ul><li>Yield: 350-550 kg.ha -1 </li></ul><ul><li>NR: Tk. 75,000-100,000.ha -1 </li></ul><ul><li>(1:1.9) </li></ul>Golda GIFT 5,000-10,000.ha -1 at 1:1 ratio <ul><li>Yield </li></ul><ul><li>Rice: 4-5 t.ha -1 . </li></ul><ul><li>Fish: 200-250 kg.ha -1 </li></ul><ul><li>Prawn: 70-90 kg. ha -1 </li></ul>Seedling Bagda Rice Improved rice (aman)-shrimp system model HYVs: BR 23/40/41 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  18. 18. Thank You All