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Homestead Production Systems (HPS) in Sundarbans,
West Bengal, India
Current Status and Opportunities
SUBHASIS MANDAL, D. ...
Outline of presentation…
HPS – how important ?
Methodology
-Data sources & sampling design
-Analytical techniques
Results ...
HOMESTEAD- It’s national importance
Concepts and Definition - NSS report No 493 (2002-03)
Homestead land
– dwelling house
...
Central Statistical Organisation estimates
STATEWISE ESTIMATES OF VALUE OF OUTPUT FROM AGRICULTURE AND
ALLIED ACTIVITIES (...
5
y = 241.26x + 3978.7
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996...
HPS – importance in coastal WB
Value of output from homesteads more important for small-
holders.
In coastal areas of We...
Issues
The HPS system is the way of life but complex in terms of
quantification
Key questions are –
• What is the current ...
Sampling design
(multistage stratified random sampling)
8
Level Site/unit Criteria Number Cumulative
units
State West Beng...
Study area
Major occupation of HPS farmers
10
34
27
21
18
% of respondents (as per
time spent)
Cultivation
Pisciculture+cultiva
tion
...
Current status of HPS
Gender participation
All family members including the children (below 14 years
of age) participate i...
Overall HH income pattern – sources and amount
12
17188
23334
5100
3715253450
38173
Avg. Income (Rs/hh/year)
Cultivation
P...
Homestead production system - ponds
• Majority farm households one or more pond within or outside
the homestead production...
Fisheries in HPS
14
Fishes are grown in HPS ponds as composite fish culture.
rohu, catla, mrigal, japani punti, silver ca...
Non-aquaculture enterprises in HPS
• No of Vegetables grown in HPS brinjal, bhindi, potato, cabbage,
cauliflower, pumpkin,...
Contribution of HPS to the households’ food security
16
Items
Contribution (%)
Average
production
(kg/HH)
Home
consumption...
17
Risk and uncertainty mitigation and HPS
Cyclone (aila) in this coastal area during May 2009 entire farmland inundated
w...
Financial analysis of existing HPS
Financial analysis:
IRR = 11% (<12 %, the discounting rate),
NPV = Rs. (-)2816,
BCR = 0...
Harnessing the opportunities of HPS – Linking farmers
with markets
Primary objective of the HPS to supplement the daily
f...
Improved resource management – aquaculture
and vegetables production
Existence of some kind of dichotomy between adopting
...
Priority setting - crop mix or diversification
Crop mix and diversity – high or low ?
Household food and nutrition vs bett...
Conclusion
HPS contributes substantially to meet daily needs of food and
nutrition, cash income and employment to whole f...
Homestead Production Systems in Sundarbans, West Bengal, India: Current Status and Opportunities
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Homestead Production Systems in Sundarbans, West Bengal, India: Current Status and Opportunities

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By Subhasis Mandal, D. Burman, S.K. Sarangi, B.K. Bandyopadhyay, B. Maji (Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, West Bengal, India)

Revitalizing the Ganges Coastal Zone Conference
21-23 October 2014, Dhaka, Bangladesh
http://waterandfood.org/ganges-conference/

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Homestead Production Systems in Sundarbans, West Bengal, India: Current Status and Opportunities

  1. 1. Homestead Production Systems (HPS) in Sundarbans, West Bengal, India Current Status and Opportunities SUBHASIS MANDAL, D. BURMAN, S. K. SARANGI, B.K. BANDYOPADHYAY AND B. MAJI Central Soil Salinity Research Institute Regional Research Station CANNING TOWN West Bengal (India)
  2. 2. Outline of presentation… HPS – how important ? Methodology -Data sources & sampling design -Analytical techniques Results and discussions -Current status of HPS - Socio-economic features of homestead farmers -Resources in HPS -Fisheries in HPS -Contribution of HPS to household (HH) food security -Economics of HPS Harnessing the opportunities of HPS -Linking HPS to the markets !! Conclusion
  3. 3. HOMESTEAD- It’s national importance Concepts and Definition - NSS report No 493 (2002-03) Homestead land – dwelling house – courtyard – compound – garden – out-house – place of worship – family graveyard – guest house – household enterprises – tanks – wells – latrines – drains and boundary walls 3
  4. 4. Central Statistical Organisation estimates STATEWISE ESTIMATES OF VALUE OF OUTPUT FROM AGRICULTURE AND ALLIED ACTIVITIES (1999-2000 to 2005-06) Kitchen garden/Homestead: This production of crops in foreyard/backyard of houses was taken into account for the first time in the national accounts in the 1993-94 series. 4
  5. 5. 5 y = 241.26x + 3978.7 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 Value of output from Kitchen garden - West Bengal West Bengal Linear (West Bengal) Annual Compound Growth Rate: West Bengal ------ 4.23 % India ------ 1.64 % Rs Lakh Year
  6. 6. HPS – importance in coastal WB Value of output from homesteads more important for small- holders. In coastal areas of West Bengal the operational farm holding are dominated by marginal farmers (86%). HPS systems contributes to livelihoods and household level food security in this region The utilization of these available homestead water resources are not to their potential. With scientific/improved interventions to enhance resource efficiency and productivity.
  7. 7. Issues The HPS system is the way of life but complex in terms of quantification Key questions are – • What is the current status of HPS that includes socio-economics of farmers, resources in system and production ? • Quantifying the benefits and how to improve the production capacities of the system? • How the HPS is linked with the existing market? Can the system responds to the higher demand in the market, if arises? • What kind of support / intervention is needed to improve the production system?
  8. 8. Sampling design (multistage stratified random sampling) 8 Level Site/unit Criteria Number Cumulative units State West Bengal (coastal) Purposive 1 1 District N 24 Parganas Purposive (one of the coastal districts) 1 1 Block/PS Sandeshkhali I and Sandeshkhali II* Random (random from 6 salt affected blocks) 2 2 Gram Panchayat (GP) Hatgachi in Sandeshkhali I and Bermajur-I, Bermajur-II & Durgamandap are in Sandeshkhali II Random 2 (from each block/PS) 4 Village Dakhin Kanmari, Semulhati, Bermajur, Jupkhali, Daudpur and Durgamandap ** Random 3 (from each GP) 12 Households (HH) Homestead farmers Random 20 240 * N 24 Parganas has 6 salt affected blocks
  9. 9. Study area
  10. 10. Major occupation of HPS farmers 10 34 27 21 18 % of respondents (as per time spent) Cultivation Pisciculture+cultiva tion Wage Labourers Others 38 39 19 4 % of respondents (as per income source) Cultivation Pisciculture+cultiva tion Wage Labourers Others
  11. 11. Current status of HPS Gender participation All family members including the children (below 14 years of age) participate in activities of HPS on daily basis at least for few minutes to few hours. The HPS system is a way of life and considered to be a family affair.
  12. 12. Overall HH income pattern – sources and amount 12 17188 23334 5100 3715253450 38173 Avg. Income (Rs/hh/year) Cultivation Pisciculture Vegetable Wage labourer Brackishwater aquaculture Others
  13. 13. Homestead production system - ponds • Majority farm households one or more pond within or outside the homestead production systems (few have >5 no). • Avg. age of ponds 58 years, some were > 80 years and 5-6 years. • Over 50 % of the total ponds >60 years, followed by < 20 years (18%), between 40-60 years (15%) and 20-40 years (11%). • Average size of ponds 0.11 acre.
  14. 14. Fisheries in HPS 14 Fishes are grown in HPS ponds as composite fish culture. rohu, catla, mrigal, japani punti, silver carp, tangra, vetki, tilapia, mourala, prawn, pangas, golden carp, sol, koi, magur etc. Without scientific management – stocking, feeding, harvesting Avg. number of fish seeds used 2000-2500 no/year. Avg. production 75 kg/pond/year and 143 kg/HH/year. Avg. value of fish produced Rs. 8250/- per pond/year and the same was Rs. 15730/HH/year.
  15. 15. Non-aquaculture enterprises in HPS • No of Vegetables grown in HPS brinjal, bhindi, potato, cabbage, cauliflower, pumpkin, yam, spinach, colocasia, amaranthus, cucumber, bitter gourd, beet, carrot etc. • Vegetable area in HPS was 200-250sq.m. Inputs like seeds, pesticides and human labour (mainly family labour) were key cost components. • Input cost (excluding imputed value of human labour) and average production of vegetables was Rs. 450/- or 340 kg per HH • Value of vegetables produced in HPS was Rs. 5100/- per HH
  16. 16. Contribution of HPS to the households’ food security 16 Items Contribution (%) Average production (kg/HH) Home consumption % to total requirement Marketed Vegetables 70-75 30-40 25-30 340 Fish 30-35 50-60 60-65 143 Fruits 85-90 - 5-10 - Livestock 80-85 50 10-15 -
  17. 17. 17 Risk and uncertainty mitigation and HPS Cyclone (aila) in this coastal area during May 2009 entire farmland inundated with saline water. Growing crops to these lands was impossible thereafter for few subsequent seasons. The HPS was only areas feasible for cultivation due to its high land situation and less intrusion of saline water. Saline water recedes quickly or salinity washed away after few shower and the plots under HPS became suitable for growing crops.
  18. 18. Financial analysis of existing HPS Financial analysis: IRR = 11% (<12 %, the discounting rate), NPV = Rs. (-)2816, BCR = 0.98. 18 Assumptions: 1. Economic life – 15 years 2. Discount rate – 12% 3. Full benefit at 2nd year onwards 4. Major excavation/repair after 10-12 years 5. Major components – fish, vegetables Under current practices long term investment in HPS was not a financially attractive proposition but provides multiple services The system can be contribute more the economy of the region through technological intervention and financial support
  19. 19. Harnessing the opportunities of HPS – Linking farmers with markets Primary objective of the HPS to supplement the daily food requirement without commercial motive. The area of operation under HPS is very small and the quantity of marketable surplus limited. Area under individual crops very limited, the quantity available for sales were not driven by the high or low market prices of a produce, therefore weakly linked with the market demand
  20. 20. Improved resource management – aquaculture and vegetables production Existence of some kind of dichotomy between adopting management techniques for vegetable production and aquaculture practices. Aquaculture – traditional and non-scientific (way of life) Vegetables – intensive and preference for new varieties ( max. output) Needs financial and technical support to the farmers for better utilization of their existing resources through scientific management
  21. 21. Priority setting - crop mix or diversification Crop mix and diversity – high or low ? Household food and nutrition vs better income ? EITHER less number of crops focusing on the market demand to raise income OR diverse crops for better HH food security, sacrificing the expected higher return from specialized crops. Needs govt. schemes to promote HPS as per farmers preference, socio-economic conditions and priorities of practicing HPS (HH food security or commercial)
  22. 22. Conclusion HPS contributes substantially to meet daily needs of food and nutrition, cash income and employment to whole family. Resource use under this system can be made more productive and contribute more to regional food security. Need ensured supply of quality inputs and training on production management of all enterprises, fish, vegetables and livestock. HPS was an all-out family affair, any skill up-gradation programme should be focusing on whole family, including men, women and children (12-18 years of age). Farmers’ need financial support to enhance their investment capacities Enhancing production level would increase the quantity of marketable surplus and better linkage with the market.

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