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G2 - Productive, profitable, resilient
agriculture & aquaculture systems
1
2
Take home messages
1. Tremendous potential to greatly increase productivity, nutritive
value, profitability & resilience...
West Bengal, India
SW& SC Bangladesh
Patuakhali STU
Polder 43/2/F
Polder 30
Polder 3
North 24 Parganas
South 24 Parganas
A...
Objectives (6)
1. Rice variety evaluation
• aus (early rainy season) – low (L), medium (M) salinity
• aman (main rainy sea...
CPWF
Innovation
Project
5
Jahangir
Alam
SocioConsult
6
7
8
Liz 1. Improving rice–based agricultural cropping
systems
Saha
Ashutosh
2. Improving rice-aquaculture & aquaculture only...
Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug
Traditional Rice
2-3.5 t/ha
Predominant agricultural cropping syst...
Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug
Traditional Rice
2-3.5 t/ha
Traditional Rice
2-3.5 t/ha
Sesame
0-1...
Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug
Traditional Rice
2-3.5 t/ha
Traditional Rice
2-3.5 t/ha
Sesame
0-1...
12
For high rice yield & cropping system intensification
in polders we need rice varieties with…..
1. High yield potential...
13
Rice variety evaluation in farmers’ fields
Tolerance to water
stagnation for aman
essential throughout coastal
zone
This crop experienced deep
water (up to 44 cm) fo...
Amal-Mana ~4 t/ha
(Water stagnation tolerant)
Sabita <2 t/ha
15
Submergence tolerance needed for aman (& aus)
(example in a shrimp-rice gher)
2nd transplanting submerged for 1 week short...
Sabita <2 t/ha
Swarna sub1, 3.5 t/ha
17
Salinity tolerance needed for aman in high salinity areas
(& for aus)
- especially for aman in ghers used for brackish wat...
19
With improved varieties &
intensification we have
achieved the following
…..on-farm…..in the polders
Boro (140-145 d)T. Aman (130-140 d)Aus (100-105 d)
20
Cropping system intensification for low salinity areas
1. Aus-aman-b...
Rabi (110-140 d)
T. Aman (130-140 d)Aus (100-105 d)
A M J J A S O N D J F M A
21
Cropping system intensification for low s...
Boro (140-145 d)T. Aman (130-140 d)
22
Cropping system intensification for medium salinity/water short areas
1. Aman-boro ...
Rabi (110-140 d)T. Aman (130-140 d)
A M J J A S O N D J F M A
23
Cropping system intensification for medium salinity areas...
24
With improved varieties & cropping system intensification,
productivity can be increased 2 to several-fold
Widespread i...
Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders
1. Separation of lands of higher & lower
elevation (mini-water...
River
Sluice
gate
Drainage
outlet
Road
Rural
road
Canal
(khal)
Drainage
canal
6 ha pilot water management unit on polder 3...
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
Rainfall&Waterdepth(mm)
Transplanting
~250 mm rain after transplanting
– nee...
28
Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders
1. Separation of lands of higher & lower
elevation (mini-water...
Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders
1. Separation of lands of higher & lower
elevation (mini-water...
Sesame
Mungbean
The consequences of late rabi crop establishment
– low yields or complete failure due to early kharif rain...
Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders
1. Separation of lands of higher & lower
elevation (mini-water...
Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders
1. Separation of lands of higher & lower
elevation (mini-water...
Khals within polders vary greatly in size, can store fresh water during the dry
season, but often heavily silted up (some ...
Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders
1. Separation of lands of higher & lower
elevation (mini-water...
Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders
1. Separation of lands of higher & lower
elevation (mini-water...
37
Productive, Profitable, Resilient and
Diversified Aquaculture Systems in
High Salinity Areas
38
BANGLADESH
Aquaculture: Salinity fluctuates from
high in dry season to medium in
rainy season
Aquaculture-rice: Salinity f...
Research Objective
Improved management for enhanced productivity, profitability &
resilience in aquaculture-rice & aquacul...
41
Before
Construction
Drain/Intake canal
Around every gher
42
Satellite images of the pond complexes
Aquaculture-rice Aquaculture only
Aquaculture treatments (4 reps)
Treatments
Culture
patterns
2012 2013
Cycle 1 Cycle 2
Cycle 3
(+rice)
Cycle 1 Cycle 2
Cycl...
Management
Practice Farmer’s Practice Improved 1 & 2
Liming 200 kg ha-1 200 kg ha-1
Water filtering Unfiltered Filtered
Pr...
Timeline
Shrimp
& fish
Stocking 1
Harvest 3
AprilMarch Aug. Dec.
Harvest 2
Sept.
Stocking 3 &
rice
transplanting
Harvest 1...
Rice-aquaculture system
Therefore 2 water depth treatments (low & high) in rice-aquaculture
Saline water needs to be drain...
Findings : Aquaculture-rice
47
Aquaculture production
LD – low depth
HD – high depth
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
Farmer's practice Monoculture Polycul...
Profitability of aquaculture (BDT x 1000 ha-1 )
(Including farmer labour & land lease value)
-100
0
100
200
300
400
500
60...
Profitability of aquaculture (BDT x 1000 ha-1 )
(Excluding farmer labour & land lease value)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700...
Production of Aman Rice
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
BR11 BR47 BR54 Morichshail Kumri Jotai
Yield(kg/ka)
2012 2013
...
September – drainage congestion in whole region
after heavy rain due to inadequate water conveyance
system (drainage)
Octo...
Findings : Aquaculture only
53
Production (kg/ha)
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
Farmer's practice Monoculture Polyculture
Yield...
Profitability of aquaculture (BDT x 1000 ha-1 )
(includes farmer labour & land lease value)
-100
0
100
200
300
400
500
600...
Profitability of aquaculture (BDT x 1000 ha-1 )
(excludes farmer labour & land lease value)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
...
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
Cost (Shrimp +
Tilapia)
Income from
Shrimp
Income from
Tilapia
BDTx1000ha-1
Impact of crop d...
Key challenges
Markets
• Scarcity of quality shrimp and fish seed
• Lack of quality feed in local market
Aquaculture manag...
Other improvements
You can make your saline gher dike green and environment
friendly by adding trees
59
Other improvements
Vegetables can be grown on gher dikes during wet season
60
Other improvements
Local variety of grass grows very well on saline gher dikes
which can be used as fodder
61
Take home messages
 Farmer practice very low profit
 Improved practice increases profit 3-5 times
 Shrimp monoculture c...
63
Optimum Land Shaping & Harvesting
Practice for Rice-Fish Systems
in the Coastal Zone of West Bengal
64
65
Rainy season rice - dry season rice with fish
(across both seasons)
The cropping system
 More productive, profitable & su...
Kakdwip Block: Vill – Shibkalinagar
Namkhana Block: Vill- Madanganj
Experimental site
67
Objectives
 To evaluate the effect of pond area/land area ratio on system
performance
 20%
 30%
i.e. How big does the p...
4 Collaborators across 2 locations
69
PaddyVariety
Partition of pond and paddy field by Net and Bamboo
Fish Culture
without phase harvest
Fish Culture
with phas...
Layout
71
Fish management
Species
 3 spp Indian Major Carp
Advance Fingerlings @ 4000/ha
(Catla:Rohu:Mrigal 30:35:35),
 Scampi-@15...
Rice culture
Varieties
 Wet season - Amalmana
 Dry season –
Lalminikit (WGL 20471)
BINA-8
Fertilizer
Recommended practic...
20% pond area - higher nitrate and phosphate in water
greater production of plankton (= fish food!)
74
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
30% land
shaping
20% land
shaping
Production(kg/ha) Production of fish
0
200
40...
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
Rohu Catla Mrigal Scampi
Meanbodyweight(g)
30%
pond
20%
pond
Performance of individual speci...
Paddy production (wet season)
Paddy harvesting and threshing
Greater lodging
from cyclone
77
Dyke cropping
Dyke crops Production (kg)/ha
land of PCF
Gross income
(Rs)/ha land of PCF
Vegetables 351 11,706
Oil seed 16...
20% Land shaping 30% Land shaping
Component Total
Productivity
(kg/ha)
Amount
(x105 Rs )
Total
Productivity
(kg/ha)
Amount...
 Higher fish production with phased harvesting
 Higher fish production with 20% pond area
 To date, higher value of pro...
81
West Bengal, India
SW& SC Bangladesh
Polder 43/2/F
Polder 30
Polder 3
North 24 Parganas
South 24 Parganas
Homestead produc...
Objectives:
Comparison between southern Bangladesh and
West Bengal –
• Homestead Farming Systems (HFS)
• Socio-economic st...
Survey Samples (<1 ha-80%; 2012)
Country Region Salinity # HH surveyed
Bangladesh
Polder 43 Low 320
Polder 30 Moderate 338...
HFS
Pond
aquaculture
Beetle vine
Vegetable
production
Fruit garden
Livestock
Poultry
Components of HFS
• In Bangladesh onl...
Household food
security
Homestead
Non-homestead
Land ownership pattern
Total land (field +homestead) Homestead land
Ratio of homestead to field land
Bangladesh
Bangladesh...
Major occupation
West BengalBangladesh
Agriculture
Aquaculture
Betel vine
Business
Driver
Fishermen
Teacher
Carpenter
Job/...
Contribution of HFS to annual household income
Country Off-farm Field HFS aq. HFS Non -aq. Total
Bangladesh 667 381 70 176...
10
20
30
40
00
< 1 < 1
Month
%ofhousehold
Bangladesh West Bengal
Food requirement satisfied by own products (HFS +
Field)
...
Meals per day
Yes
80%
No
20%
Bangladesh
~20% people in both countries do not get 3 meals
regularly
Yes
82%
No
18%
West Ben...
Need further work to better understand the factors influence
consumption in both the countries
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1....
HFS productivity ($/ha/year) in different salinity
Preliminary results says
YES
Does Homestead production system holds promise ???
Key remarks
Homestead production system contributes better in meeting
household food security of Functionally Landless gro...
Women led participatory action research
(PAR) on homestead challenged pond
aquaculture
97
Shade
Shallow
Seasonality
Flooding risk
Multiple
ownership
Household water
use
Irrigation
Access for women
Why challenging...
Objectives:
to improve nutrition & income through increasing
productivity of homestead ponds
to empower women thru partici...
Locations & partners – under umbrella of G2
Legend:
Freshwater areas
Brackishwater areas
Partners:
 CPWF-G2
 CSISA
 AAS...
PAR Process
101
Designing the research: Community consultation
PAR
HFS & integration
Pond water use
Aquaculture
Species selection
Feeding ...
Experimental Treatments
Treatment Species Size Density
(#/ decimal)
Feeding Remark
1
Tilapia 25 gm 25
5% insect; 20%
Kitch...
Building women farmers research Capacity
104
Women Farmer Researchers Learning Sharing Workshop:
Learn
Share
Analyze
Create a movement for PAR
Agenda:
Developing commo...
Proper technology and care
can increase challenged pond
productivity greatly (x5)
Basic aquaculture
PAR and PM&E
Learning
...
Participatory evaluation of fish
1.Tilapia
2. Koi
Everywhere…
107
Prioritizing development outcomes
Increased fish
consumption
Importance in
family and
society
increased
Increased
income
R...
Sharing
Individual & group level
observation and findings
109
Analyze
Quality fish seed supply at beginning of season
Salinity, water quality and disease management
Low cost feed 110
Next:
analyze pond record books & impact survey data
consult with communities for 2014 PAR design
Continue to provide tech...
Staff capacity building
112
113
114
The big ones:
1. How can we implement improved community management to
achieve the benefits of improved production sys...
115
Take home messages
1. Tremendous potential to greatly increase productivity, nutritive
value, profitability & resilien...
G2 - Productive, profitable, resilient agriculture & aquaculture systems
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G2 - Productive, profitable, resilient agriculture & aquaculture systems

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by Elizabeth Humphreys, Manoranjan Mondal. At Ganges Regional Research Workshop of the Challenge Program on Water and Food/Water Land and Ecosystems (CPWF/WLE), May 2014

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G2 - Productive, profitable, resilient agriculture & aquaculture systems

  1. 1. G2 - Productive, profitable, resilient agriculture & aquaculture systems 1
  2. 2. 2 Take home messages 1. Tremendous potential to greatly increase productivity, nutritive value, profitability & resilience of production systems in the polders • agricultural systems (rice & non-rice) • aquacultural systems • rice-aquaculture systems • homestead production systems 2. To unlock this potential need to invest in • improved water mgt • with special emphasis on drainage mgt (the entry point) and infrastructure inside the polders 3. Community co-ordination is critical to achieving this – needs community ownership & to be community-driven
  3. 3. West Bengal, India SW& SC Bangladesh Patuakhali STU Polder 43/2/F Polder 30 Polder 3 North 24 Parganas South 24 Parganas Andy Nelson “LOW SALINITY” (L) •Water “stagnation” 30-50 cm weeks to months in aman •River water fresh year-round •Mild soil salinity in dry season “MEDIUM SALINITY” (M) •Water “stagnation” 30-50 cm weeks to months in aman •River water saline mid-Feb-Jun •Medium soil salinity in dry season “HIGH SALINITY” (H) •Water “stagnation” 30-50 cm weeks to months in aman •River water saline Dec-Jul •High soil salinity in dry season 3
  4. 4. Objectives (6) 1. Rice variety evaluation • aus (early rainy season) – low (L), medium (M) salinity • aman (main rainy season) - L, M, high (H) salinity • boro (dry season) - L, M 2. Rice-based cropping system intensification • Rice-rice-rice L rice-rice M • Rice-rice-rabi L rice-rabi M • Rice+fish - brackish water aquaculture H 3. Homestead production systems – L, M, H • Analysis - literature review & surveys • Improving productivity of homestead systems/empowering women 4. Brackish water aquaculture systems - H • Evaluation of improved management options 5. Technology & policy recommendations 6. Pilot community water management – CPWF Innovation Grant 4
  5. 5. CPWF Innovation Project 5 Jahangir Alam SocioConsult
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8. 8 Liz 1. Improving rice–based agricultural cropping systems Saha Ashutosh 2. Improving rice-aquaculture & aquaculture only systems Manjurul 3. Homestead production systems - cross-country comparison Kabir - women-led participatory action research Today’s presentation
  9. 9. Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Traditional Rice 2-3.5 t/ha Predominant agricultural cropping systems in the low & moderately saline regions of the coastal zone of Bangladesh ..................Fallow…………………........ Low Med ~40% • Traditional variety • Tall, photoperiod sensitive (late maturing – harvested Dec/Jan) • 35-70 day old seedlings 9
  10. 10. Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Traditional Rice 2-3.5 t/ha Traditional Rice 2-3.5 t/ha Sesame 0-1 t/haTraditional Rice 2-3.5 t/ha Predominant agricultural cropping systems in the low & moderately saline regions of the coastal zone of Bangladesh Khesari 0.2-1 t/ha ............Fallow……………. …..Fallow.... ....……........ ..................Fallow…………………........ Low Med Med Low ~40% 10
  11. 11. Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Traditional Rice 2-3.5 t/ha Traditional Rice 2-3.5 t/ha Sesame 0-1 t/haTraditional Rice 2-3.5 t/ha Predominant agricultural cropping systems in the low & moderately saline regions of the coastal zone of Bangladesh Khesari 0.2-1 t/ha ............Fallow……………. …..Fallow.... ....……........ ..................Fallow…………………........ Low Med Med Low ~40% Traditional Rice 2-3.5 t/ha Aus 3-4 t/ha............Fallow……………... Low 11
  12. 12. 12 For high rice yield & cropping system intensification in polders we need rice varieties with….. 1. High yield potential 2. Tolerance to stresses, especially • water stagnation (30-50 cm, week...months) • salinity • submergence after transplanting • singly and in combination 3. Early maturity (for system intensification) 4. Preferred grain quality
  13. 13. 13 Rice variety evaluation in farmers’ fields
  14. 14. Tolerance to water stagnation for aman essential throughout coastal zone This crop experienced deep water (up to 44 cm) for several weeks (4.6 t/ha) 14 BRRI dhan54
  15. 15. Amal-Mana ~4 t/ha (Water stagnation tolerant) Sabita <2 t/ha 15
  16. 16. Submergence tolerance needed for aman (& aus) (example in a shrimp-rice gher) 2nd transplanting submerged for 1 week shortly after transplanting – BRRI dhan52 (BR11-Sub1) 16 3rd transplanting NOT submerged
  17. 17. Sabita <2 t/ha Swarna sub1, 3.5 t/ha 17
  18. 18. Salinity tolerance needed for aman in high salinity areas (& for aus) - especially for aman in ghers used for brackish water shrimp in the dry season 18 BRRI dhan47 in gher 3.6 t/ha BRRI dhan28 BRRI dhan61 3.8 t/ha BRRI dhan28 BRRI dhan47 4 t/ha Parijat <1 t/ha
  19. 19. 19 With improved varieties & intensification we have achieved the following …..on-farm…..in the polders
  20. 20. Boro (140-145 d)T. Aman (130-140 d)Aus (100-105 d) 20 Cropping system intensification for low salinity areas 1. Aus-aman-boro (15-17 t/ha) HYV Short duration Salt tolerant HYV Medium duration Water stagnation tolerant HYV Medium duration “Early” sowing Successfully implemented on-farm for 3 years – 8th crop – polder 43/2F A M J J A S O N D J F M A
  21. 21. Rabi (110-140 d) T. Aman (130-140 d)Aus (100-105 d) A M J J A S O N D J F M A 21 Cropping system intensification for low salinity areas 2. Aus-aman-rabi (9-10 t/ha rice+9 t/ha maize OR 3.5 t/ha sunflower etc) HYV Short duration Salt tolerant HYV Medium duration Water stagnation tolerant HYV Maize Sunflower, Water melon Chilli etc. Successfully implemented on-farm for 3 years – 8th crop – polder 43/2F
  22. 22. Boro (140-145 d)T. Aman (130-140 d) 22 Cropping system intensification for medium salinity/water short areas 1. Aman-boro (~10 t/ha) HYV Medium duration Water stagnation tolerant HYV “Early” sowing Medium duration Successfully implemented on-farm for 3 years, 6th crop – polder 30 A M J J A S O N D J F M A
  23. 23. Rabi (110-140 d)T. Aman (130-140 d) A M J J A S O N D J F M A 23 Cropping system intensification for medium salinity areas 2. Aman-rabi (~4.5 t/ha rice + ~5 t/ha maize, 1.5 t/ha sunflower) HYV Maize Sunflower Sesame Implemented on-farm for 2 years, 4th crop – polder 30 – but NOT to potential; Community water management, cropping system synchronisation, adoption challenges
  24. 24. 24 With improved varieties & cropping system intensification, productivity can be increased 2 to several-fold Widespread implementation requires improved water management
  25. 25. Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders 1. Separation of lands of higher & lower elevation (mini-water mgt units) Prevent accumulation of drainage in lowlands – enable rainy season HYVrice 25
  26. 26. River Sluice gate Drainage outlet Road Rural road Canal (khal) Drainage canal 6 ha pilot water management unit on polder 30 26
  27. 27. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 Rainfall&Waterdepth(mm) Transplanting ~250 mm rain after transplanting – need to drain to save the HYV rice 27
  28. 28. 28
  29. 29. Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders 1. Separation of lands of higher & lower elevation (mini-water mgt units) Prevent accumulation of drainage in lowlands – enable rainy season HYVrice 2. Strategic drainage during the rainy season Enables cultivation of HYV & thus earlier harvest (mid-Nov) 29
  30. 30. Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders 1. Separation of lands of higher & lower elevation (mini-water mgt units) Prevent accumulation of drainage in lowlands – enable rainy season HYVrice 2. Strategic drainage during the rainy season Enables cultivation of HYV & earlier harvest (mid-Nov) 3. Drainage shortly before aman harvest (early Nov) Enables soil to dry for early (timely) establishment of rabi crops 30
  31. 31. Sesame Mungbean The consequences of late rabi crop establishment – low yields or complete failure due to early kharif rains - high yield, high value crops out of the question (e.g. sunflower, maize) AFTER RICE HARVEST – some areas Low input crops – late sown (Feb/Mar) because of late rice harvest 31
  32. 32. Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders 1. Separation of lands of higher & lower elevation (mini-water mgt units) Prevent accumulation of drainage in lowlands – enable rainy season HYVrice 2. Strategic drainage during the rainy season Enables cultivation of HYV & earlier harvest (mid-Nov) 3. Drainage shortly before aman harvest (early Nov) Enables soil to dry for early (timely) establishment of rabi crops 4. Make use of available fresh water for irrigation during the dry season In some areas lots of fresh water in the rivers almost year-round - untapped 32 0.00 4.00 8.00 12.00 16.00 7-Apr-11 6-Jun-11 -Aug-11 4-Oct-11 -Dec-11 -Feb-12 1-Apr-12 0-Jun-12 -Aug-12 8-Oct-12 -Dec-12 -Feb-13 6-Apr-13 5-Jun-13 -Aug-13 Salinity(ppt) Polder 30 (Station-2, Pussur river) 0.0 4.0 8.0 12.0 16.0 20.0 24.0 26-Feb 6-Jun 14-Sep 23-Dec 1-Apr 10-Jul 18-Oct 26-Jan 6-May 14-Aug 22-Nov 2-Mar Salinity(ppt) Date Polder 43-2f (Station-2 (Out Side),Paira River) IWM
  33. 33. Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders 1. Separation of lands of higher & lower elevation (mini-water mgt units) Prevent accumulation of drainage in lowlands – enable rainy season HYVrice 2. Strategic drainage during the rainy season Enables cultivation of HYV & earlier harvest (mid-Nov) 3. Drainage shortly before aman harvest (early Nov) Enables soil to dry for early (timely) establishment of rabi crops 4. Make use of available fresh water for irrigation during the dry season In some areas lots of fresh water in the rivers almost year-round - untapped 5. De-silting of khals ..Increases storage capacity for irrigation when river too saline ..Facilitates drainage 33
  34. 34. Khals within polders vary greatly in size, can store fresh water during the dry season, but often heavily silted up (some no longer exist), blocked… 34
  35. 35. Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders 1. Separation of lands of higher & lower elevation (mini-water mgt units) Prevent accumulation of drainage in lowlands – enable rainy season HYVrice 2. Strategic drainage during the rainy season Enables cultivation of HYV & earlier harvest (mid-Nov) 3. Drainage shortly before aman harvest (early Nov) Enables soil to dry for early (timely) establishment of rabi crops 4. Make use of available fresh water for irrigation during the dry season In some areas lots of fresh water in the rivers almost year-round - untapped 5. De-silting of khals ..Increases storage capacity for irrigation when river too saline ..Facilitates drainage 6. “Early” establishment of boro rice after aman (sow mid-Nov) Reduces storage requirement for fresh water to finish the crop off after the rivers become too saline 35 Polder 30 - sufficient storage for 15-20% of land to grow boro rice - desilting of khals  roughly double the possible boro rice area
  36. 36. Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders 1. Separation of lands of higher & lower elevation (mini-water mgt units) Prevent accumulation of drainage in lowlands – enable rainy season HYVrice 2. Strategic drainage during the rainy season Enables cultivation of HYV & earlier harvest (mid-Nov) 3. Drainage shortly before aman harvest (early Nov) Enables soil to dry for early (timely) establishment of rabi crops 4. Make use of available fresh water for irrigation during the dry season In some areas lots of fresh water in the rivers almost year-round - untapped 5. De-silting of khals (CPWF phase 1) ..Increases storage capacity for irrigation when river too saline ..Facilitates drainage 6. “Early” establishment of boro rice after aman (sow mid-Nov – CPWF phase 1) Reduces storage requirement for fresh water to finish the crop off after the rivers become too saline 7. High yielding/value rabi crops in the dry season, espec. in water short areas Only need 2-3 irrigations 36
  37. 37. 37
  38. 38. Productive, Profitable, Resilient and Diversified Aquaculture Systems in High Salinity Areas 38
  39. 39. BANGLADESH Aquaculture: Salinity fluctuates from high in dry season to medium in rainy season Aquaculture-rice: Salinity fluctuates from high in dry season to low in rainy season 39
  40. 40. Research Objective Improved management for enhanced productivity, profitability & resilience in aquaculture-rice & aquaculture only systems 24 mini-ghers for aquaculture-rice 12 mini-ghers for aquaculture only 407-870 m2 866-1463 m2 Trenches for fish refuge when water shallow for rice establishment 40
  41. 41. 41 Before Construction Drain/Intake canal Around every gher
  42. 42. 42 Satellite images of the pond complexes Aquaculture-rice Aquaculture only
  43. 43. Aquaculture treatments (4 reps) Treatments Culture patterns 2012 2013 Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 (+rice) Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 (+rice) Farmer’s practice Poly Shrimp + different sp of fish (multiple stocking & harvesting) Shrimp + different sp of fish (multiple stocking & harvesting) Improved practice 1 Mono Shrimp Tilapia Prawn Prawn Shrimp Shrimp Tengra ……………… Tilapia Improved practice 2 Poly Shrimp Tilapia Tilapia Tengra Prawn Singh Prawn Singh Shrimp Tilapia Shrimp Tilapia Tilapia Tengra ……………… Rohu Singh Magur Managed by farmers 43 Managedbyresearchers
  44. 44. Management Practice Farmer’s Practice Improved 1 & 2 Liming 200 kg ha-1 200 kg ha-1 Water filtering Unfiltered Filtered Predatory Fish Not eradicated Eradicated Disinfection No disinfection Disinfected Fertilization No fertilizer Fertilizer & dolomite Shrimp seed Not PCR tested PCR tested Feed No feed Feeding Water replenishment When needed When needed Post stocking fertilization Very insufficient When primary production is low Fish seed Some wild All from hatcheries 44
  45. 45. Timeline Shrimp & fish Stocking 1 Harvest 3 AprilMarch Aug. Dec. Harvest 2 Sept. Stocking 3 & rice transplanting Harvest 1 & Stocking 2 June July Nov.May Oct. Dry season Wet season Shrimp diseases 45
  46. 46. Rice-aquaculture system Therefore 2 water depth treatments (low & high) in rice-aquaculture Saline water needs to be drained in July to allow leaching of salt by rainfall prior to rice transplanting Brackish water aquaculture production is higher if saline water is kept for longer Need shallow water after transplanting rice (<20 cm) This is very shallow for aquaculture (importance of trenches) Better rice productivity with shallower water Better aquaculture productivity with deeper water Some tradeoffs for rice & aquaculture system 46
  47. 47. Findings : Aquaculture-rice 47
  48. 48. Aquaculture production LD – low depth HD – high depth 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Farmer's practice Monoculture Polyculture Yield(kgha-1) Culture patterns Shrimp (LD) Fish (LD) Shrimp (HD) Fish (HD) 2013 Changed to lower growth but higher value fish species 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 Farmer's practice Monoculture Polyculture Yield(kgha-1) Culture patterns Shrimp (LD) Fish (LD) Shrimp (HD) Fish (HD) 2012 48
  49. 49. Profitability of aquaculture (BDT x 1000 ha-1 ) (Including farmer labour & land lease value) -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 FP (LD) FP (HD) Mono (LD)Mono (HD) Poly (LD) Poly (HD) BDTha-1 Culture patterns Variable cost Total return Gross margin 2012 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 FP (LD) FP (HD) Mono (LD) Mono (HD) Poly (LD) Poly (HD) BDTha-1 Culture patterns Variable cost Total return Gross margin 2013 49
  50. 50. Profitability of aquaculture (BDT x 1000 ha-1 ) (Excluding farmer labour & land lease value) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 FP (LD) FP (HD) Mono (LD) Mono (HD) Poly (LD) Poly (HD) BDTha-1 Culture patterns Variable cost Total return Gross margin 2012 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 FP (LD) FP (HD) Mono (LD) Mono (HD) Poly (LD) Poly (HD) BDTha-1 Culture patterns Variable cost Total return Gross margin 2013 50
  51. 51. Production of Aman Rice 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 BR11 BR47 BR54 Morichshail Kumri Jotai Yield(kg/ka) 2012 2013 High yielding varieties Local varieties 51
  52. 52. September – drainage congestion in whole region after heavy rain due to inadequate water conveyance system (drainage) October – water shortage - plenty of freshwater in river but inadequate conveyance system (irrigation) 52
  53. 53. Findings : Aquaculture only 53
  54. 54. Production (kg/ha) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 Farmer's practice Monoculture Polyculture Yield(kgha-1) Days of culture Shrimp Fish 2012 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 Farmer's practice Monoculture Polyculture Yield(kgha-1) Days of culture Shrimp Fish 2013 54
  55. 55. Profitability of aquaculture (BDT x 1000 ha-1 ) (includes farmer labour & land lease value) -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Farmer's practice Monoculture Polyculture BDTha-1 Culture patterns Variable cost Total return Gross margin 2012 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Farmer's practice Monoculture Polyculture BDTha-1 Culture patterns Variable cost Total return Gross margin 2013 55
  56. 56. Profitability of aquaculture (BDT x 1000 ha-1 ) (excludes farmer labour & land lease value) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Farmer's practice Monoculture Polyculture BDTha-1 Culture patterns Variable cost Total return Gross margin 2012 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Farmer's practice Monoculture Polyculture BDTha-1 Culture patterns Variable cost Total return Gross margin 2013 56
  57. 57. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Cost (Shrimp + Tilapia) Income from Shrimp Income from Tilapia BDTx1000ha-1 Impact of crop diversification in shrimp ghers during cycle 1 (55-65 days) 57
  58. 58. Key challenges Markets • Scarcity of quality shrimp and fish seed • Lack of quality feed in local market Aquaculture management • Prevention of escaping cat fish through dikes • Aquatic weed control Community • Poor canal network for filling ponds & drainage (need community system) • Poaching risk increases (need to increase productivity of all ghers to lessen predation of individual ghers) 58
  59. 59. Other improvements You can make your saline gher dike green and environment friendly by adding trees 59
  60. 60. Other improvements Vegetables can be grown on gher dikes during wet season 60
  61. 61. Other improvements Local variety of grass grows very well on saline gher dikes which can be used as fodder 61
  62. 62. Take home messages  Farmer practice very low profit  Improved practice increases profit 3-5 times  Shrimp monoculture can be profitable, but highly risky  Polyculture provides resilience against failure of shrimp – profitable even if ALL shrimp die  We failed to get high yields of rice because of inability to drain (& irrigate) when needed  Need good community water management systems for both aquaculture and rice – for intake and drainage as needed  Neighbouring farmers are beginning to adopt improved practices 62
  63. 63. 63
  64. 64. Optimum Land Shaping & Harvesting Practice for Rice-Fish Systems in the Coastal Zone of West Bengal 64
  65. 65. 65
  66. 66. Rainy season rice - dry season rice with fish (across both seasons) The cropping system  More productive, profitable & sustainable paddy cum fish culture systems Goal 66
  67. 67. Kakdwip Block: Vill – Shibkalinagar Namkhana Block: Vill- Madanganj Experimental site 67
  68. 68. Objectives  To evaluate the effect of pond area/land area ratio on system performance  20%  30% i.e. How big does the pond need to be to support dry season rice?  To evaluate the impact of harvesting method  Single harvest  Phased harvest  3 replicates, split plot 68
  69. 69. 4 Collaborators across 2 locations 69
  70. 70. PaddyVariety Partition of pond and paddy field by Net and Bamboo Fish Culture without phase harvest Fish Culture with phase harvest Earthen Embankment TrenchPond area (30% or 20%) Paddy Cultivation Area (70% or 80%) Layout 70
  71. 71. Layout 71
  72. 72. Fish management Species  3 spp Indian Major Carp Advance Fingerlings @ 4000/ha (Catla:Rohu:Mrigal 30:35:35),  Scampi-@1500/ha Feed management Broadcasting and tray feeding Feed  Pelleted feed (protein-24%, lipid 4%) @ 5-3% of body weight) 72
  73. 73. Rice culture Varieties  Wet season - Amalmana  Dry season – Lalminikit (WGL 20471) BINA-8 Fertilizer Recommended practice Irrigation of dry season rice From pond using a pump Cultivation of wet season paddy variety Cultivation of dry season paddy variety 73
  74. 74. 20% pond area - higher nitrate and phosphate in water greater production of plankton (= fish food!) 74
  75. 75. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 30% land shaping 20% land shaping Production(kg/ha) Production of fish 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Without phase harvest With phase harvestProduction(kg/ha)  Productivity 20% pond higher by 161 kg/ha – due to higher nutrient concentration?  Productivity phased harvest higher by 277 kg/ha - due to progressive removal of larger fish 75
  76. 76. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Rohu Catla Mrigal Scampi Meanbodyweight(g) 30% pond 20% pond Performance of individual species Higher growth of 3 carp species in 20% Lower growth of scampi in 20% Sampling of fish 76
  77. 77. Paddy production (wet season) Paddy harvesting and threshing Greater lodging from cyclone 77
  78. 78. Dyke cropping Dyke crops Production (kg)/ha land of PCF Gross income (Rs)/ha land of PCF Vegetables 351 11,706 Oil seed 169 2,400 Fodder (seed) 458 5,490 Dyke cropping in Paddy cum fish culture 78
  79. 79. 20% Land shaping 30% Land shaping Component Total Productivity (kg/ha) Amount (x105 Rs ) Total Productivity (kg/ha) Amount (x105 Rs) Rice (wet season only) 2875 0.37 2900 0.38 Fish 895 1.29 743 1.10 Dyke cropping 489 0.09 489 0.09 Gross Income 1.76 Gross Income 1.57 Total production & income to date 20% provided Rs. 19000/ha ($307/ha) more than 30% to date… Dry season rice yet to come, also full economic analysis 79
  80. 80.  Higher fish production with phased harvesting  Higher fish production with 20% pond area  To date, higher value of production with 20% land shaping Conclusion 80
  81. 81. 81
  82. 82. West Bengal, India SW& SC Bangladesh Polder 43/2/F Polder 30 Polder 3 North 24 Parganas South 24 Parganas Homestead production systems: enhanced productivity for food security in South Bangladesh and West Bengal, India
  83. 83. Objectives: Comparison between southern Bangladesh and West Bengal – • Homestead Farming Systems (HFS) • Socio-economic status of households • Contribution of HFS to household income & consumption • Identify priority areas of improvement
  84. 84. Survey Samples (<1 ha-80%; 2012) Country Region Salinity # HH surveyed Bangladesh Polder 43 Low 320 Polder 30 Moderate 338 Polder 3 High 461 Total 1,119 West Bengal Block Kakdwip Low 120 Block Namkhana Moderate 120 Sandeshkhali I Moderate 120 Sandeshkhali II Moderate 120 Block Sagar High 240 Total 720
  85. 85. HFS Pond aquaculture Beetle vine Vegetable production Fruit garden Livestock Poultry Components of HFS • In Bangladesh only 50% poor people have pond in their homestead while 97% households got a pond in India • Beetle vine production in HFS only in West Bengal with higher economic return
  86. 86. Household food security Homestead Non-homestead
  87. 87. Land ownership pattern Total land (field +homestead) Homestead land Ratio of homestead to field land Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh West Bengal Bangladesh West Bengal West Bengal West Bengal Bangladesh West Bengal Bangladesh West Bengal Homestead land has higher importance for the poor farmers in Bangladesh
  88. 88. Major occupation West BengalBangladesh Agriculture Aquaculture Betel vine Business Driver Fishermen Teacher Carpenter Job/Service Labor In Bangladesh higher number of hh depend on agriculture than W. Bengal
  89. 89. Contribution of HFS to annual household income Country Off-farm Field HFS aq. HFS Non -aq. Total Bangladesh 667 381 70 176 1,079 West Bengal 800 357 116 93 1,304 Annual household income (US$) from different sources by country Non-aq sources contribute more to overall income in Bangladesh 5% 15% 31% 49% Bangladesh HFS Aq HFS Non- Aq Field Off farm 9% 7% 25% 59% West Bengal
  90. 90. 10 20 30 40 00 < 1 < 1 Month %ofhousehold Bangladesh West Bengal Food requirement satisfied by own products (HFS + Field) • Only ~20% hh with <1 ha land are meeting their year round food requirement from own production, suggests opportunity for vertical integration of the systems • Over all households in West Bengal with higher amount of land supported their food requirement better than Bangladesh
  91. 91. Meals per day Yes 80% No 20% Bangladesh ~20% people in both countries do not get 3 meals regularly Yes 82% No 18% West Bengal
  92. 92. Need further work to better understand the factors influence consumption in both the countries -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2Correlationscore(r) Bangladesh West Bengal Correlation between production and consumption
  93. 93. HFS productivity ($/ha/year) in different salinity
  94. 94. Preliminary results says YES Does Homestead production system holds promise ???
  95. 95. Key remarks Homestead production system contributes better in meeting household food security of Functionally Landless groups while small households are more dependent on non- homestead production HFS productivity significantly lower in high salinity areas than low salinity areas in both the countries Need to focus more research on improving productivity in saline areas No specific factors had significant role in regulating HFS productivity Most of the people are not self sufficient/food secured Raising awareness on the importance of nutrition is crucial There are opportunities to further improve the status of food security particularly in the high saline zone
  96. 96. Women led participatory action research (PAR) on homestead challenged pond aquaculture 97
  97. 97. Shade Shallow Seasonality Flooding risk Multiple ownership Household water use Irrigation Access for women Why challenging ? 98
  98. 98. Objectives: to improve nutrition & income through increasing productivity of homestead ponds to empower women thru participatory action research (PAR) Key pond interventions: – fish species to increase production & consumption – feeding strategies to avoid water pollution – women capacity building 99
  99. 99. Locations & partners – under umbrella of G2 Legend: Freshwater areas Brackishwater areas Partners:  CPWF-G2  CSISA  AAS  CCAFS  AIN 100
  100. 100. PAR Process 101
  101. 101. Designing the research: Community consultation PAR HFS & integration Pond water use Aquaculture Species selection Feeding choice Women participation 102
  102. 102. Experimental Treatments Treatment Species Size Density (#/ decimal) Feeding Remark 1 Tilapia 25 gm 25 5% insect; 20% Kitchen waste; 50% home made; 25% commercial Region-1 (Batiaghata, Amtoli, Kaliganj and Shamnagar) Nona tengra 1 gm 50 Rui 100 gm 2 Male Golda 5-10 gm 5 2 Tilapia 25 gm 25 Koi 2 gm 50 Singh 5 gm 25 Male Golda 5-10gm 5 3 Tilapia 25 gm 25 Mrigal 100 gm 4 Catla 100 gm 2 Magur 5-10 gm 15 Mirror Carp 100 gm 1 1 Tilapia 25 gm 25 5% insect; 20% Kitchen waste; 50% home made; 25% commercial Region-2 (Barisal, Jessore, Faridpur and Jhalokathi) Koi 2 gm 50 Singh 5-gm 25 Mirror Carp 100 gm 2 2 Tilapia 25 gm 25 Koi 2 gm 50 Magur 5-10gm 15 Silver Carp 100 gm 2 3 Tilapia 25 gm 25 Male Golda 5-10gm 5 Rui 100 gm 2 Katla 100 gm 2 Japani puti 1-2 gm 10 Women preference Improved extensive Regular consumption Stress tolerant High value fish Mixed feeding Less fertilization 103
  103. 103. Building women farmers research Capacity 104
  104. 104. Women Farmer Researchers Learning Sharing Workshop: Learn Share Analyze Create a movement for PAR Agenda: Developing common understanding of research Documenting major learnings Participatory evaluation of 2013 research by treatment Prioritization of development outcomes Sharing group findings to other groups (global café) Analyzing problems and planning for new PAR cycle 105
  105. 105. Proper technology and care can increase challenged pond productivity greatly (x5) Basic aquaculture PAR and PM&E Learning 106
  106. 106. Participatory evaluation of fish 1.Tilapia 2. Koi Everywhere… 107
  107. 107. Prioritizing development outcomes Increased fish consumption Importance in family and society increased Increased income Research & Aquaculture 108
  108. 108. Sharing Individual & group level observation and findings 109
  109. 109. Analyze Quality fish seed supply at beginning of season Salinity, water quality and disease management Low cost feed 110
  110. 110. Next: analyze pond record books & impact survey data consult with communities for 2014 PAR design Continue to provide technical, facilitation & education support (gender, nutrition, rights, needs) continue documenting research & development outcomes 111
  111. 111. Staff capacity building 112
  112. 112. 113
  113. 113. 114 The big ones: 1. How can we implement improved community management to achieve the benefits of improved production systems? (about water; agricultural cropping systems, aquaculture systems) 2. Achieving no. 1 requires additional investment in drainage/water management infrastructure inside the polders – is it economic?, what’s the optimum? Many others specific to components of improved systems: • rice varietal improvement (e.g. short duration, cold tolerant boro) • nutrient cycling in rice-shrimp systems • homestead production systems (e.g. pond-ecosystem approach) • sustainability of groundwater pumping for boro rice • establishment of rabi crops • aquaculture in saline areas Research questions for the future (many)
  114. 114. 115 Take home messages 1. Tremendous potential to greatly increase productivity, nutritive value, profitability & resilience of production systems in the polders • agricultural systems (rice & non-rice) • aquacultural systems • rice-aquaculture systems • homestead production systems 2. To unlock this potential need to invest in • improved water mgt • with special emphasis on drainage mgt (the entry point) and infrastructure inside the polders 3. Community co-ordination is critical to achieving this – needs community ownership & to be community-driven

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