Survival Guide to CGIAR Change Process


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Survival guides take experiences and share it with would-be travelers. The CGIAR System is embarking on a collective journey aboard 15 new vehicles called CGIAR Research Programs (CRPs). Prototype CRPs exist and have been working since 2004 in the shape of CGIAR Challenge Programs. Like CRPs, Challenge Programs were designed to explore new ways of linking research to development outcomes through work conducted across a range of partnerships.

Boru Douthwaite, innovation and impact director for the CGIAR Challenge Program on Water and Food (CPWF), has been part of the CPWF journey since 2005. In this presentation he shares hard-won lessons that will help us all not merely survive aboard our CRPs, but make the trip thoroughly worthwhile.

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  • CPWF was set up as a big experiment into implementing the sort of programmatic research envisaged by the CRPs
  • CRP5 = water land and ecosystemsGRISP = CRP3.3
  • The emerging planks are the basis of the ‘survival guide’, and I go through them one by one
  • Co-developing and testing ToC during project implementation is a way of managing R4D given the uncertain nature of what we do
  • Coastal Resource Management for Improved Livelihoods
  • CRESMIL worked at across 3 scales
  • BWDB = Bangladesh Water Development BoardLGED = Local Govnt Engineering Dept
  • As much for CRP management, (the drivers) than the passengers.CAVEAT that CPWF and CRP5 are different to GRISP
  • Programmatic approaches can and do work better
  • Survival Guide to CGIAR Change Process

    1. 1. A Survival Guide to the CGIAR Change Process<br />Boru Douthwaite, Innovation and Impact Director, CPWF<br />
    2. 2. 1990s – Eco-regional approach, system-wide programs<br />2001 - Launch of Challenge Programs<br />2004<br />Generation Challenge Program<br />Harvest Plus<br />Challenge Program on Water and Food (CPWF)<br />2005<br />Sub-Saharan Africa Challenge Program<br />2008<br />Climate change, agriculture and food security<br />CGIAR Challenge Programs as prototype CRPs<br />
    3. 3. Prototype nature of CPWF<br />A big experiment<br />Addresses a Global Challenge through a programmatic approach<br />Emphasis on partnership<br />Impact focus<br />Key pillar of previous CGIAR reform program<br />3<br />
    4. 4. CRPs are not all the same, so CPWF is prototype of what?<br />4<br />Source: CRP5 Proposal<br />
    5. 5. Understanding the Prototype<br />CPWF aims to increase the resilience of social and ecological systems through better water management for food production<br />Through its broad partnerships, it conducts research that leads to impact on the poor and to policy change <br />5<br />
    6. 6. CPWF Basins in phases 1 and 2<br />2<br />1<br />
    7. 7. Six basin development challenges (highly abbreviated versions)<br />Andes – Benefit-sharing mechanisms<br />Ganges – Floods and salt in the Delta<br />Limpopo – Small reservoirs, rainwater and livelihoods<br />Mekong – Dams and livelihoods<br />Nile – Rainwater management in Ethiopia<br />Volta – Small reservoirs, rainwater and livelihoods<br />Phase 2 finishes in 2014<br />
    8. 8. An example of a BDC R4D program– the Ganges – the vision<br />Store more fresh season water within polders<br />Use for high value post-rainy season crops and aquaculture<br />Change in sluice gate management to let water in when it is fresh, but keep it out when it is saline<br />8<br />
    9. 9. An example of a BDC R4D program– the Ganges - projects<br />G1 Spatial targeting, which strategies for which polders<br />G2 On-farm water management: getting the most value out of scarce stored fresh water<br />G3 Water governance: who gets how much water, when, and for what purposes – and who gets to decide (sluice gate management)<br />G4 External consequences and global drivers, downstream consequences of success, likely effects of global drivers<br />G5 Coordination and change: policy engagement, communications, fostering change, M&E<br />9<br />
    10. 10. BDC structure<br />10<br />CPWF MT<br />BL<br />G5 – C&C project<br />G4<br />G2<br />G3<br />G1<br />Technical projects<br />
    11. 11. 11<br />Ganges BDC Partners<br />
    12. 12. 12<br />CPWF Phase 2 Partners<br />
    13. 13. 13<br />CPWF Partners<br />
    14. 14. Emerging planks of the CPWF’s R4D approach<br />Know you are a research for development program<br />Work on compelling development challengesin real places<br />Through co-developing theory of change<br />Through partnership<br />Through working at different scales<br />While ensuring integration of research and knowledge management<br />14<br />
    15. 15. 1. Know you are an R4D Program<br />Be crystal clear that you do research to achieve developmental outcomes<br />Researchers don’t become development workers<br />But, do have responsibility to link to next users and end users<br />15<br />
    16. 16. 2. Work on compelling development challenges in real places<br />Gets people on board<br />Motivates participation<br />It grounds the research, gives it context, relevance and a purpose<br />Makes priority-setting easy<br />BUT … must invest in the coordination and change; leadership<br />… don’t overload it<br />16<br />
    17. 17. 3. Co-develop and test theories of change<br />What is TOC?<br />Description of how a project or program thinks it will achieve developmental change<br />Shows the logic; the assumed causal steps<br />Can be expressed in a number of ways<br />LogFrames; tables; graphic depictions; narratives; logic models<br />And developed in a number of ways<br />Top down, participatory<br />17<br />
    18. 18. 18<br />
    19. 19. Example of project ToC<br />19<br />
    20. 20. Benefits of ToC<br />Developing and agreeing project ToC with partners and stakeholders helps build commitment; purpose<br />Helps set priorities<br />Basis for M&E<br />Basis for comms and uptake strategy<br />Aids subsequent reflection; helps justify course corrections<br />“Improvements in poverty alleviation, food security and the state of natural resources result from dynamic, interactive, non-linear, and generally uncertain processes of innovation.” <br /> EIARD, 2003<br />20<br />
    21. 21. 4. Work through partnerships<br />Duh!<br />Difficult to build, easy to break<br />Contract them in!<br />Commission not competitive<br />Set up the rules of the game<br />In basin research org, out-of-basin research org, next user<br />Budget share<br />Visualize them<br />Be a network weaver, see collaborative research as a means <br />21<br />
    22. 22. Theory of Network Weaving (Krebs and Holley, 2004)<br />
    23. 23. What projects liked in CPWF Phase 1 had much to do with working in partnership<br />Survey of PLs, principle scientists (n=79)<br />Greater diversity<br />Multidisciplinarity<br />Complementarity<br />Wider geographic reach<br /> Adopting a basin-scale perspective<br />Smaller organizations could increase their reach (through networks)<br />Sullivan and Alvarez, 2009<br />
    24. 24. Less positive aspects<br />Poor internal communication, worse further away for CP Secretariat<br />Mismatch between length of project and expected impact<br />Lack of continuity (changes in team composition, leadership)<br />Lack of coordination (time, many meetings, ‘unfunded mandates’)<br />24<br />
    25. 25. 5. Work at different scales<br />25<br />
    26. 26. 26<br />
    27. 27. CRESMIL Example: Impact needs three outcome pathways<br />Reduction in poverty and increased food security in the Ganges Delta<br />Pathway 3<br />Policy <br />enabling <br />environment<br />Pathway 1.<br />On-farm change in technologies<br />Pathway 2<br />Improved water supply to farms<br />Adapted from MacDonald 2008<br />
    28. 28. Pathway 1: On farm changes in the technology<br />28<br />
    29. 29. Pathway 2: Improved water supply to farms<br />29<br />
    30. 30. Pathway 3: Enabling policy environment <br />30<br />
    31. 31. A characterization of the CRPs<br />31<br />
    32. 32. Bangladesh Impact<br />2500 farmers increase returns by 50 to 100%<br />Rice-shrimp farmers increase returns by 157%<br />BWDB and LGED change polder management policy<br />Farmer adoption of double cropping, storage of water in canals, new varieties (incl. from Vietnam, fish culture with shrimp)<br />Local BWDB and LGED staff allow polder infrastructure to be used to store water<br />Adapted from MacDonald 2008<br />
    33. 33. Before…<br />and after the project.<br />(Photograph by Olivier Joffre)<br />CRESMIL impact in Vietnam, showing what is possible<br />Mr. Nguyen Hoang Ben<br />Ap Lung Chim, Xa Dinh Thanh, Dong Hai.<br />
    34. 34. 6. Integration of Research and Knowledge Management<br />Knowledge management (KM)<br />Range of strategies and practices <br />Support learning and reflection<br />Identify, create, represent, distribute and enable adoption of insights and experiences<br />Insights and experiences = knowledge<br />Knowledge is embodied in individuals or embedded in organizational processes and practices<br />Main pillars of KM in CPWF<br />Communications, M&E, information management<br />34<br />
    35. 35. Normal versus CPWF view of KM<br />35<br />Research<br />Comms, Uptake<br />Planning<br />M&E<br />M&E<br />KM as a service and support to Research <br />V<br />Equal partnership<br /><br />
    36. 36. The logic behind integration <br />We do research for development<br />Developmental change comes through behavioral change<br />Behavioral change is learned<br /><ul><li>Research must influence the learning cycles that researchers, next users and end users go through, to have impact
    37. 37. KM is about designing and facilitating these learning cycles
    38. 38. KM and research must be planned together; happen together</li></ul>36<br /><br />
    39. 39. Ensuring integration in practice<br />ToC provides a common framework<br />Invest in leadership, coordination and making change happen, about 20% of program budget<br />37<br />
    40. 40. Coordination and change function<br />C&C Project and BL functions:<br />Ensure quality and relevance of science<br />Coordination<br />Facilitating change<br />Adaptive management<br />Innovation research<br />38<br />BL<br />G5 – C&C project<br />G4<br />G2<br />G3<br />G1<br />Technical projects<br />
    41. 41. CRP Survival Guide<br />Know you are part of a R4D program<br />Work on compelling development challengesin real places<br />Through co-developing and testing theory of change<br />Through partnership<br />Through working on technical, institutional and process innovations at different scales<br />While ensuring integration of research and knowledge management<br />39<br />
    42. 42. Reasons to be cheerful<br />Experience to learn from<br />Successful test flights<br />Does what it says on the label<br />40<br />
    43. 43. Thank you and enjoy the ride!<br />41<br />