A Partner
of
Setting up for successful Agricultural
Water Management interventions
an analysis of a consultative approach ...
Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta
KEY MESSAGE:
The enabling factors to success are
• technical support incl...
Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta
Content
Background
Methodology
Findings from expert consultations and 19 ...
Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta
AWM technologies in past 50 years
Little systematic evidence about succes...
Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta
Methodology
1. Expert consultations in four countries
‘What are critical ...
Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta
Expert consultations – defining success
Farmers adopted technology and a ...
Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta
Expert consultations - results
Type of technology Failure Successful Not ...
Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta
Expert consultations - Critical factors to success
Especially project man...
Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta
19 successful cases
• Burkina Faso, Ghana, South Africa,
Zimbabwe
• AWM t...
Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta
Enabling factors
Nature of the communities
Communities that had previous ...
Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta
Clear demand from the communities
• In Zimbabwe and South Africa farmers ...
Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta
Enabling project implementation
Training
• Demonstration farms, observati...
Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta
Enabling factor or barrier?
Labour could be an enabling factor –
availabi...
Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta
Improved well-being
Direct benefits:
Increased yield and/or improved live...
Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta
Conclusions
Both expert consultations and in-depth case studies highlight...
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Setting up for successful Agricultural Water Management interventions: an analysis of a consultative approach in Volta and Limpopo using participatory GIS

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by A. de Bruin, R. Pateman, J. Barron, M. Balima, I. Ouedraogo, D. Dapola, M. Fosu, F. Annor, M. Magombey, S. Ncube, C. Mabiza
Presented at the Final Volta Basin Development Challenge Science Workshop, September 2013

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  • These technologies have been promoted for decades.
  • Stone bunds and conservation agricultureSmall reservoirs
  • Stone bunds and conservation agricultureSmall reservoirs
  • These technologies have been promoted for decades.
  • Irrelevant of the type of technology a third of the factors mentioned related to project management. Examples are ‘Early engagement with stakeholders’, ‘Community owns the initiative’, continuous support’, ‘clear objective’, and ‘Appropriate implementation and design of the technology’.
  • Stone bunds and conservation agricultureSmall reservoirs
  • Setting up for successful Agricultural Water Management interventions: an analysis of a consultative approach in Volta and Limpopo using participatory GIS

    1. 1. A Partner of Setting up for successful Agricultural Water Management interventions an analysis of a consultative approach in Volta and Limpopo using participatory GIS Annemarieke de Bruin1, Rachel Pateman1, Jennie Barron1, Mariam Balima2, Issa Ouedraogo2, Da Dapola3, Mathias Fosu4, Frank Annor5, Manuel Magombeyi6, Sikhululekile Ncube7, Collin Mabiza7 Institution: Stockholm environment Institute1, Institut National de l’Environnement et de Récherche Agricole (INERA)2, Dept. of Geography of the University of Ouagadougou3, Savanna Agricultural Research Institute (SARI)4, Civil Engineering Dept. of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST)5, University of WitWatersrand6, and Waternet7
    2. 2. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta KEY MESSAGE: The enabling factors to success are • technical support including training and financial and material inputs; • a clear need or demand for the technology in the community; and • creating a sense of ownership of the technology
    3. 3. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta Content Background Methodology Findings from expert consultations and 19 cases Conclusions
    4. 4. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta AWM technologies in past 50 years Little systematic evidence about successful scaling out of technologies Taken from: Douxchamps, S., Ayantunde, A. and Barron, J. (2012) Evolution of Agricultural Water Management in Rainfed Crop -Livestock Systems of the Volta Basin. Colombo, Sri Lanka: CGIAR Challenge Program for Water and Food (CPWF). 74p. CPWF R4D Working Paper Series 04.
    5. 5. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta Methodology 1. Expert consultations in four countries ‘What are critical factors to success?’ 2. 19 in-depth case studies using Participatory GIS ‘What were the benefits?’ ‘What contributed to the success in this case?’ 3. Qualitative text analysis using Nvivo software ‘What are similarities and differences between 4 countries, two basins and 19 cases?’
    6. 6. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta Expert consultations – defining success Farmers adopted technology and a positive impact on farmer’s well-being And/or • Continued to use it more than 2 years after intervention • More farmers taking up technology during project intervention • Volunteered adoption of the technology
    7. 7. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta Expert consultations - results Type of technology Failure Successful Not said Rainfed Soil and water conservation/DRS/CES SA - BF BF Planting pits BF? - Zim Trench technology SA SA Conservation agriculture SA SA Bunding Gha Gha BF Contour bunds/ridges/ploughing Zim Gha-Zim Tied ridges SA - Zim SA – Gha - BF Cover crop Gha Tree planting SA – Gha - BF Mulching SA - Zim SA Zim Shallow groundwater Gha Shallow wells Gha BF Waste water re-use Zim Zim Water pumps (small scale irrigation) Gha Gha BF Treadle pump SA BF Sprinkler irrigation SA-Zim Zim Zim Drip irrigation SA-Zim SA-Zim BF -Zim Punched bag Zim Micro irrigation Gha Supplemental irrigation (rice) BF Roof Rainwater Harvesting Zim Ferro-cement tanks SA Earth dams SA - Gha BF Underground level dams SA Full irrigation Small dams/reservoirs SA BF BF-Zim Large scale irrigation SA
    8. 8. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta Expert consultations - Critical factors to success Especially project management related factors are critical to the success of AWM interventions A third of the factors mentioned related to project management: ‘Early engagement with stakeholders’ ‘Community owns the initiative’ ‘Continuous support’ ‘Clear objective’ ‘Appropriate implementation and design of the technology’
    9. 9. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta 19 successful cases • Burkina Faso, Ghana, South Africa, Zimbabwe • AWM technologies ranged from in situ to ex situ technologies • Implemented at different times (on-going, finished recently, some started in 60’s) • Implemented by Government or NGO’s
    10. 10. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta Enabling factors Nature of the communities Communities that had previous knowledge of the technology Dynamic, functional, and peaceful communities open to innovation
    11. 11. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta Clear demand from the communities • In Zimbabwe and South Africa farmers got involved because they wanted to reduce poverty and in one case specifically because they wanted to feed their children. Early engagement • Information and awareness sessions and meetings between project partners and members of the communities were used in Burkina Faso and Ghana to create interest in the intervention. Enabling factors
    12. 12. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta Enabling project implementation Training • Demonstration farms, observation based learning, extension services Ownership of the technology • Communities part of the design of the technology • Beneficiaries invested in the technology with labour and/or money
    13. 13. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta Enabling factor or barrier? Labour could be an enabling factor – availability of human labour and draft power BUT AWM intervention could increase labour demand Inputs (equipment, fertiliser, seeds) provided or subsidised by interventions were an enabling factor for take up BUT the costs related could be too high and therefore become a barrier for scaling out
    14. 14. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta Improved well-being Direct benefits: Increased yield and/or improved livestock management More cooperation between beneficiaries due to user groups being established Indirect benefits: Increased food security increased wealth (e.g. able to buy clothes, mobile phones, motorbikes) Access to education Ability to diversify income streams (e.g. fruit)
    15. 15. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta Conclusions Both expert consultations and in-depth case studies highlighted that the enabling factors for successful AWM interventions were: • Technical support including training and financial and material inputs • A clear need or demand for the technology in the community • Creating a sense of ownership of the technology • Some enabling factors (provided inputs such as fertiliser and equipment) can become barriers for scaling out

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