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par	
  Joseph-­‐Omer	
  Dyer,	
  pht,	
  MSc,	
  PhD	
  
Collaborateurs:	
  Anne	
  Hudon,	
  Katherine	
  Montpetit-­‐
To...
Probléma)que	
  
—  Développement	
  du	
  RC	
  chez	
  des	
  étudiants	
  novices	
  (cours	
  
d’Électrothérapie	
  2...
Probléma)que	
  
—  Une	
  option:	
  Utilisation	
  d’exemples	
  résolus	
  «worked-­‐
examples»	
  	
  en	
  ENA	
  
—...
Probléma)que	
  
—  Évidences	
  dans	
  les	
  sc.	
  de	
  la	
  santé:	
  
—  Diagnostics	
  liés	
  à	
  l’hypertens...
Probléma)que	
  
—  Exemples	
  résolus:	
  encore	
  plus	
  efficaces	
  lorsque	
  pairés	
  
avec	
  un	
  exemple	
  à...
Probléma)que	
  
—  Options	
  pour	
  ↑	
  transfert	
  avec	
  les	
  ER	
  
—  Ajouter	
  une	
  activité	
  d’intégr...
Objec)f	
  
—  Vérifier	
  	
  entre:	
  
—  l’auto-­‐explication	
  par	
  écrit,	
  	
  
—  la	
  construction	
  de	
...
Méthologie	
  
—  N=91	
  étudiants	
  (2è	
  année	
  physiothérapie)	
  
—  Randomisés	
  en	
  3	
  groupes:	
  
—  ...
Méthodologie	
  
—  Pre-­‐test:	
  30	
  min.	
  
—  1	
  module:	
  33	
  min.	
  
—  WE:	
  8	
  min.	
  
—  CE:	
  ...
Résultats	
  
Discussion	
  
—  La	
  condition	
  «étude	
  de	
  la	
  carte	
  conceptuelle»:	
  
—  Favorise	
  le	
  plus	
  l’ac...
Discussion/Conclusion	
  
—  Limites	
  
—  Exposition	
  limitée	
  aux	
  activités	
  
—  Post-­‐test	
  immédiat	
 ...
Remerciements	
  
—  Les	
  participants	
  à	
  l’étude	
  
—  Les	
  enseignants	
  qui	
  ont	
  participé	
  au	
  d...
Ques)ons/	
  commentaires	
  ?	
  
Les exemples résolus (« worked-examples ») en environnement numérique d’apprentissage pour développer le raisonnement clin...
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Les exemples résolus (« worked-examples ») en environnement numérique d’apprentissage pour développer le raisonnement clinique d’intervention

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Conférence présentée le 20 mai 2015 dans le cadre de la Journée de la recherche et de l’innovation en éducation des sciences de la santé à l’Université de Montréal.

Conférencier:
Omer Dyer (physiothérapie)

Résumé:
Les exemples résolus «worked-examples» de cas cliniques présentés en environnement numérique d’apprentissage (ENA) facilitent le développement du raisonnement clinique (RC). L’ENA permet également de combiner ces exemples avec d’autres activités intégratrices (problèmes, auto-explication, cartes conceptuelles). Comment combiner ces activités pour optimiser le développement du RC?

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Les exemples résolus (« worked-examples ») en environnement numérique d’apprentissage pour développer le raisonnement clinique d’intervention

  1. 1. par  Joseph-­‐Omer  Dyer,  pht,  MSc,  PhD   Collaborateurs:  Anne  Hudon,  Katherine  Montpetit-­‐ Tourangeau,  Bernard  Charlin,  Silvia  Mamede  et   Tamara  van  Gog   École  de  réadaptation  
  2. 2. Probléma)que   —  Développement  du  RC  chez  des  étudiants  novices  (cours   d’Électrothérapie  2è  année  physiothérapie)   —  Électrothérapie:    Modalité  utilisant  des  courants   électriques  (TENS),  des  ondes  acoustiques  (Ultrason)  et   électromagnétiques  (LASER)  pour  évaluer  et  traiter  des   problèmes  de  santé  (douleur,  inflammation,  faiblesse)   —  Beaucoup  d’étudiants  (90  étudiants/  année)   —  Curriculum  chargé    
  3. 3. Probléma)que   —  Une  option:  Utilisation  d’exemples  résolus  «worked-­‐ examples»    en  ENA   —  Exemples  de  cas  où  la  démarche  de  résolution  de   problèmes  est  démontrée  à  l’apprenant  (Sweller  et  al.,   1985;  Atkinson  et  al.,  2000)   —  Efficacité  expliquée  par  la  théorie  de  la  charge   cognitive:  l’apprenant  utilise  une  plus  grande  proportion   de  la  mémoire  de  travail  pour  apprendre  à  résoudre  le   problème  plutôt  que  dans  des  tentatives  de  résolution  du   problème.  
  4. 4. Probléma)que   —  Évidences  dans  les  sc.  de  la  santé:   —  Diagnostics  liés  à  l’hypertension  artérielle  (Kopp  et  coll.,   2008,  Stark  et  coll.,  2011)   —  Diagnostics  liés  à  l’hyperthyroïdie  (Kopp  et  coll.,  2009)   —  Démarche  interrogatoire  subjectif  pour  le   diagnostic  des  troubles  musculosquelettiques    en   physiothérapie  (Boekhout  et  coll.,  2010)    
  5. 5. Probléma)que   —  Exemples  résolus:  encore  plus  efficaces  lorsque  pairés   avec  un  exemple  à  résoudre  («completion  example»)   consécutif  (Renkl  et  al.,  2002)   —  Exemple  à  compléter  (completion  example):  Exemple   résolu  dans  lequel  l’apprenant  doit  compléter  une  étape   —  Paires  de  ER-­‐EC  >  ER  >  EC  (Atkinson  et  coll.,  2000)   —  Limite:  peu  de  transfert  des  apprentissages  
  6. 6. Probléma)que   —  Options  pour  ↑  transfert  avec  les  ER   —  Ajouter  une  activité  d’intégration  qui  favorise  l’apprentissage   utile  «meaningful  learning»  (Gonzalez  et  al.,  2008);     —  Auto-­‐explication  «self-­‐explanation»          (Chi,  2000;  Chamberland,  2011)   —  Faire  des  cartes  conceptuelles  (Novak,  2002;  Daley  et  al.,   1999)   —  Étudier  des  cartes  conceptuelles  modèles  
  7. 7. Objec)f   —  Vérifier    entre:   —  l’auto-­‐explication  par  écrit,     —  la  construction  de  cartes  conceptuelles   —  Et  l’étude  de  cartes  conceptuelles   Quelle  activité  d’intégratrice  favorise  le  plus  le  transfert   des  apprentissages  chez  des  apprenants  novices  étudiant   des  paires  d’ER-­‐EC?  
  8. 8. Méthologie   —  N=91  étudiants  (2è  année  physiothérapie)   —  Randomisés  en  3  groupes:   —  auto-­‐explication   —  concept  mapping,     —  étude  de  carte  conceptuelle   —  Pré-­‐test/  Post-­‐test:  connaissances  conceptuelles,   résolution  de  problème   —  Charge  cognitive  (échelle  numérique  de  1  à  9)                (Paas,  1992)  
  9. 9. Méthodologie   —  Pre-­‐test:  30  min.   —  1  module:  33  min.   —  WE:  8  min.   —  CE:  10  min.   —  IA:  15  min.   —  Auto-­‐explication   —  Concept  mapping   —  Étude  concept  map   —  Post-­‐test:  30  min  
  10. 10. Résultats  
  11. 11. Discussion   —  La  condition  «étude  de  la  carte  conceptuelle»:   —  Favorise  le  plus  l’acquisition  de  connaissances   conceptuelles   —  est  la  plus  efficiente  en  termes  de  processus   d’apprentissage  (↓effort  mental  à  l’apprentissage)   —  La  condition  «auto-­‐explication»   —  Favorise  le  plus  le  développement  des  capacités  de   résolution  de  problèmes.   —  est  la  plus  efficiente  en  termes  de  résultats   d’apprentissage  (↓effort  mental  lors  de  la  résolution  de   problème)    
  12. 12. Discussion/Conclusion   —  Limites   —  Exposition  limitée  aux  activités   —  Post-­‐test  immédiat     —  Messages  à  retenir   —  L’auto-­‐explication  peut  être  associée  aux  exemples  de   cas  pour  favoriser  les  apprentissages.  
  13. 13. Remerciements   —  Les  participants  à  l’étude   —  Les  enseignants  qui  ont  participé  au  développement   des  cas   —  Stéphane  Boutin  (technopédagogue)  pour  l’aide  au   développement  de  l’ENA   —  CPASS  soutient  financier  
  14. 14. Ques)ons/  commentaires  ?  

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