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Schaetzl iycn ag_nutrition

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CORE Group Fall Meeting 2010. Maximizing Nutritional Benefits of Agricultural Interventions. A Review of the Food Security and Nutritional Impacts of Agriculture Interventions. - Tom Schaetzel, Infant & Young Child Nutrition (IYCN) Project

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Schaetzl iycn ag_nutrition

  1. 1. A Review of the Food Security and Nutritional Impacts of Agriculture Interventions Maximizing Nutritional Benefits of Agricultural Interventions Tom Schaetzel Infant & Young Child Nutrition (IYCN) Project
  2. 2. The Infant & Young Child Nutrition Project <ul><li>USAID Global Health Bureau flagship project on infant and young child nutrition. </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritizes the prevention of malnutrition for mothers and children, focusing from pregnancy until two years of age. </li></ul><ul><li>Led by PATH in collaboration with CARE, The Manoff Group, and University Research Co., LLC. </li></ul>Photo: PATH/Evelyn Hockstein
  3. 3. A New Era for Agricultural Development Source: Farming First
  4. 4. Does Increased Agricultural Production Improve Nutrition? <ul><li>“… one of the most persistent of misperceptions…about technology and economics…is the idea that as long as production is rising, any problems of consumption will sort themselves out.” </li></ul><ul><li>Pacey and Payne, 1985 </li></ul>Photo: © 2008 Monirul Alam, Courtesy of Photoshare
  5. 5. Does Increased Income Improve Nutrition? <ul><li>Not everything can be bought… </li></ul><ul><li>“ Income is a rather dubious indicator of the opportunity of being well nourished….” (Dr è ze and Sen, 1989) </li></ul>Health Education Clean Water Gender Equality Photos: PATH
  6. 6. The Problem <ul><li>There are trade offs and complementarities between production/employment goals and meeting nutritional goals which should be taken into account…when making program decisions. (USAID, 1982) </li></ul><ul><li>How can we maximize the complementarities? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we minimize the tradeoffs? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Review of Experience <ul><li>What are the characteristics of agriculture interventions that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve food security? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve nutrition? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are the characteristics of interventions that have negative effects? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Negative Food Security Impact <ul><li>Results when increase unemployment among population groups already un- or under-employed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased production tends to increase employment, but not always </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanization can decrease employment </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Negative Food Security Impact <ul><li>Increased prices (e.g., price supports) have negative impact when vulnerable households are net purchasers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller producers may increase production, but not enough to become net sellers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cameroon calculation for 10% price increase: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3% income increase and 0.5% consumption increase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>11.6% reduction of consumption due to purchase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Lower prices have negative impact when vulnerable households are net sellers. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Positive Food Security Impact is More Likely When… <ul><li>Involve women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better translation of income increases to food security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small-scale processing (often an income source) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Food promoted is disproportionately produced by food insecure households (usually also disproportionately consumed by these households). </li></ul>Photo: QFP/Mario DiBari
  11. 11. Positive Nutrition Impacts are More Likely When… <ul><li>The intervention includes explicit nutrition counseling (coupled with access to health care, sanitation and hygiene). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculation (Rwanda): doubling energy intake decreases stunting by only ¼ standard deviation—a clean latrine has twice the effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparisons of orange-fleshed sweet potato with and without counseling </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Positive Nutrition Impacts are More Likely When… <ul><li>The intervention involves women. </li></ul><ul><li>The intervention includes home gardens. </li></ul><ul><li>The intervention introduces micronutrient-rich crop varieties. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Positive Nutrition Impacts are More Likely When… <ul><li>Vulnerable households regularly consume the food commodity being produced. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent of income effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even for commercial crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: fish, vegetables, dairy, poultry and eggs </li></ul></ul>Photo: PATH
  14. 14. Positive Nutrition Impacts are More Likely When… <ul><li>Interventions are designed to benefit/protect nutritionally vulnerable populations. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires identifying and considering the situation of vulnerable households before the project takes place. </li></ul>Photo: PATH
  15. 15. Solutions <ul><li>Include meaningful nutrition objectives in project design (with activities supporting them). </li></ul><ul><li>Protect nutritional considerations in the design of production/income projects. </li></ul>Photo: QFP/Mario DiBari
  16. 16. Key Considerations <ul><li>The expected impacts are often unclear and require modeling at the outset. </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling requires identifying the nutritional vulnerable, and understanding why they are vulnerable. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Thank you Contact me: tschaetzel@path.org
  18. 18. The preceding slides were presented at the CORE Group 2010 Fall Meeting Washington, DC To see similar presentations, please visit: www.coregroup.org/resources/meetingreports

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