PowerPackedPowerPoint SlidesDavid MarshCORE Spring MeetingBaltimore, MarylandApril 25, 2013
• Argument• Title Slide• Text Slide• Table Slide• Bar-Chart Slide• PhotographsOutline
Argument
• Argument: the art of persuasion.• For documents based on new evidence ornew synthesis of old evidence (situationanalysis...
• Title Slide (1)• Background Slides (2-3)• Methods Slides (3-4)• Results Slides (2-5)• Conclusions Slides (2-3)12-Minute ...
• Title Slide for title• Text Slides for background, methods,results, or conclusions• Table Slides for results orconclusio...
Title Slide
A real case (different authors)! This slide hasat least seven problems. Let’s start from theperiphery: the formatting.“SUS...
“SUSTAINABLE OUTREACH SERVICE”(SOS): SOLUTION TO A VEXING PROBLEM?A. EinsteinGood. Usingagency-approvedstyle is important....
“Sustainable Outreach Service” (SOS):Solution to a Vexing Problem?A. EinsteinGood. Proper title format requires a capitall...
A. EinsteinGood. This 11-wordtitle defines content,an association,results, and setting.Sustainable Outreach Services (SOS)...
A. Einstein, A. Gore, B. Obama, K.Marx, N. Bonaparte, E. Windsor, S.PalinGood. Now we have the full team. Beinclusive. The...
Third Annual Bubble Gum ConventionBrooklyn, New York – May 2, 2038Sustainable Outreach Services (SOS) ImmunizeSemi-Nomadic...
Third Annual Bubble Gum ConventionBrooklyn, New York – May 2, 2038Sustainable Outreach Services (SOS) ImmunizeSemi-Nomadic...
• Do have an interesting, informative title.• Don’t have an “egocentric” author line.• Don’t forget the standard title ite...
• Do use your agency’s approved style.• If there is no official style, use simple,attractive, non-distracting slideformatt...
Text Slide
Research• Community-based surveillance to identify principal bacterial andviral agents of neonatal infections; emphasis on...
– Community-based surveillance to identify principal bacterial and viralagents of neonatal infections; emphasis on Africa ...
– Community-based surveillance to identify principal bacterial and viralagents of neonatal infections; emphasis on Africa ...
– Community-based surveillance to identify principal bacterial and viralagents of neonatal infections; emphasis on Africa ...
– Community-based surveillance to identify principal bacterialand viral agents of neonatal infections; emphasis on Africaa...
• Community-based surveillance for pathogens,especially in Africa and Asia.• Determination of antimicrobial resistancepatt...
• Community-based surveillance for pathogens,especially in Africa and Asia.• Determination of antimicrobial resistance pat...
• Community-based surveillance for pathogens, especiallyin Africa and Asia.• Determination of antimicrobial resistance pat...
• Community-based surveillance forpathogens, especially in Africa and Asia.• Determination of antimicrobial resistancepatt...
• Community-based surveillance forpathogens, especially in Africa and Asia.• Determination of antimicrobial resistancepatt...
• Case control studies to assess role oflow birth weight; unhygienic delivery,skin and umbilical cord care; birthasphyxia;...
• Do use an informative slide title.• Do use bullets, not paragraphs.• Do write concisely and elaborateduring the presenta...
• Do remember the “6x6” rule anddon’t write too much on one slide.• Do use large fonts: (36-40 title, 24-32text)• Do use c...
Table Slide
Validity by DiagnosisValidity (% with 95% CI)DiagnosisSensitivity Specificity PPVBirth defect 100 (98-102) 99 (97-101) 33 ...
Validity (% with 95% CI)DiagnosisSensitivity Specificity PPVBirth defect 100 (98-102) 99 (97-101) 33 (31-35)NNT 84 (81-87)...
Validity of Neonatal VerbalAutopsy by Reference DiagnosisDiagnosis Validity (% with 95% CI)Sensitivity Specificity PPVBirt...
Validity of Neonatal VerbalAutopsy by Reference DiagnosisDiagnosis Validity (% with 95% CI)Sensitivity Specificity PPVBirt...
Validity of Neonatal VerbalAutopsy by Reference DiagnosisDiagnosis Validity (% with 95% CI)Sensitivity Specificity PPVBirt...
Validity of Neonatal VerbalAutopsy by Reference DiagnosisDiagnosis Validity (% with 95% CI)Sensitivity Specificity Positiv...
Validity of Neonatal VerbalAutopsy by Reference DiagnosisDiagnosis Validity (% with 95% CI)Sensitivity Specificity PPV*Bir...
Validity of Neonatal VerbalAutopsy by Reference DiagnosisDiagnosis Validity (% with 95% CI)Sensitivity Specificity Positiv...
Diagnosis Validity (% with 95% CI)Sensitivity Specificity PositivePredictiveValueNeonatal tetanus 84 (81-87) 99 (96-100) 9...
Validity of Neonatal Verbal Autopsyby Reference DiagnosisDiagnosis Validity (%)Sensitivity Specificity PositivePredictiveV...
Validity of Neonatal Verbal Autopsyby Reference DiagnosisDiagnosis Validity (%)Sensitivity Specificity PositivePredictiveV...
Validity of Neonatal Verbal Autopsyby Reference DiagnosisDiagnosis Validity (%)Sensitivity Specificity PositivePredictiveV...
Validity of Neonatal Verbal Autopsyby Reference DiagnosisDiagnosisValidity (%)Sensitivity Specificity PositivePredictiveVa...
Validity of Neonatal Verbal Autopsyby Reference DiagnosisDiagnosisValidity (%)Sensitivity Specificity PositivePredictiveVa...
Table Nuggets• Do use an informative title.• Don’t have too many rows orcolumns; instead focus on the rowsand columns cent...
Table Nuggets – 2• Do double-check your numbers.• Don’t have too many numbersor too many significant figures.• Do use anim...
Table Nuggets – 3• Do use PowerPoint’s table feature.• Do format consistently with text slides.• Don’t use a font with a s...
Bar-Chart Slide
Results of COPE activities3.2%3.7%3.0%3.3%6.6%8.4%11.3%12.5%7.5%7.8%0%2%4%6%8%10%12%14%Thanh HoaHospitalHoang HoaDHCQuang ...
Use of Delivery ServicesBefore and After COPE (2002)3.2%3.7%3.0%3.3%6.6%8.4%11.3%12.5%7.5%7.8%0%2%4%6%8%10%12%14%Thanh Hoa...
Use of Delivery Services Beforeand After COPE (2002)3.2%3.7%3.0%3.3%6.6%8.4%11.3%12.5%7.5%7.8%0%2%4%6%8%10%12%14%Thanh Hoa...
Use of Delivery Services Beforeand After COPE (2002)0%2%4%6%8%10%12%14%Thanh HoaHospitalHoang HoaDHCQuang TriHospitalTrieu...
Use of Delivery Services Beforeand After COPE (2002)0%2%4%6%8%10%12%14%Thanh HoaHospitalHoang Hoa DHC Quang Tri Hospital T...
Use of Delivery Services Beforeand After COPE (2002)02468101214Thanh HoaHosp.Hoang HoaDHCQuang TriHosp.Trieu HaiHosp.Hai L...
Use of Delivery Services Beforeand After COPE (2002)02468101214Thanh HoaHosp.Hoang HoaDHCQuang TriHosp.Trieu HaiHosp.Hai L...
Use of Delivery Services Beforeand After COPE (2002)02468101214Thanh HoaHosp.Hoang HoaDHCQuang TriHosp.Trieu HaiHosp.Hai L...
Use of Delivery ServicesBefore and After COPE (2002)02468101214Thanh HoaHosp.Hoang HoaDHCQuang TriHosp.Trieu HaiHosp.Hai L...
Bar-Chart Nuggets• Do use bar-charts, your most powerfulvisual tool.• Do have an informative title.• Do use the simplest l...
• Don’t import bar-charts; rather do usePowerPoint’s bar-chart feature.• Do avoid the gimmick of 3-D parallax.• Don’t use ...
Photographs
“Cusp of Access”in NicaraguaAll photos by D Marsh, unless otherwise creditedUse good qualityphotographs!But burring is par...
Use good qualityphotographs!
Rotated, cropped and enlarged.
Most photos from the internethave too little “information”(pixels) to be useful.
On the other hand, copyingphotos brings much too muchinformation (pixels).
Importing photos works just right. You canalso right click and compress all photos.
Bangladeshi CCM workers get timersDon’t distortphotographs!Change size of photograph bydragging corners, not sides.Crop a ...
Pneumonia treatment in MangbuiAdministrative Village (11/10)Crop and/orsize a groupphotos to tell astory
Global Action Plan for Prevention andControl of Pneumonia (GAPP)• Strategy documentfinalized andlaunched at the WorldPneum...
How to implement CCMTake and editphotographs toillustrate documents.
Photos Can be (Are) “Graphic”Know youraudience.Not All Agreed Nicaraguan CHW
ChinaYunnanProvinceLincangPrefectureCangyuanCountyFig 1. China, YunnanProvince, Lincang Prefecture,and Cangyuan CountyZoom...
• Use photographs• Use good photographs• Do not distort photos; size or crop them• If you fill the slide, adjust font colo...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Powerpacked PowerPoint Presentations_David Marsh_4.25.13

331 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
331
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Yikes! This was an actual slide from a dear colleague. One of the smartest researchers I know! Where do we start? Let’s start at the top. Is the title as helpful as it could be?
  • Bar-charts are supposed to be the most effective visual communication tool for quantitative data. Where have we gone wrong? We start at ground zero with a cut and pasted bar-chart. Let’s start at the periphery. What about the title?
  • OK. Now the title is informative. We did not spell out COPE because we assume that by now the audience knows what we’re talking about. But what about the formatting jumps out at you?
  • Yes. The 3-D effect is OK for lay audiences, but technical audiences prefer to be able to measure the height of the bars which parallax impedes in the 3-D view. In fact, the bars are now pretty clear, so clear that we can eliminate those annoying, overly precise, and distracting numerical values above each bar.
  • Great. But what else? The bar chart almost seems to be vying with the legend for importance.
  • The bigger the bars, the better. Dragging the legend inside the chart allows the bars to fill the slide. But it’s still hard to read, isn’t it? And what about the y-axis label? It looks more like a sub-title.
  • Great. Here we have re-cast the bar-chart from an Excel import to a native PowerPoint graphic (which takes about 60 seconds to create). The formatting is totally consistent with the rest of the slide-show. There is one title and a clear label to the y-axis. The legend is readable. But there are some minor improvements yet to make.
  • Here we have reduced the legend to the bare minimum and added a footnote to define the abbreviations. Note that we have NOT labeled the x-axis because it is obvious from the title.
  • Oh oh. Did you notice that the footnote had a misspelling. Use Spell-Check!
  • Spell-checked and good to go.
  • Blurred photo because of a tropical monsoon. Mother on mile 20 of a 24 mile round-trip to HF for her infant’s pneumonia. Infant wrapped in plastic. She’s on the “cusp of inaccessibility” She’s better off than most her neighbors. And her caballo is already too thin.
  • Powerpacked PowerPoint Presentations_David Marsh_4.25.13

    1. 1. PowerPackedPowerPoint SlidesDavid MarshCORE Spring MeetingBaltimore, MarylandApril 25, 2013
    2. 2. • Argument• Title Slide• Text Slide• Table Slide• Bar-Chart Slide• PhotographsOutline
    3. 3. Argument
    4. 4. • Argument: the art of persuasion.• For documents based on new evidence ornew synthesis of old evidence (situationanalysis, abstract, manuscript, slidepresentation, desk review), this formula islogical and powerful.– Background – Why did you do it?– Methods – How did you do it?– Results – What did you observe?– Conclusions – So what do we do?Presenting an argument
    5. 5. • Title Slide (1)• Background Slides (2-3)• Methods Slides (3-4)• Results Slides (2-5)• Conclusions Slides (2-3)12-Minute Presentation:RecipeThe typical 12-minute evidence-based slidepresentation has10-18 slides orabout 1 to 1.5slides per minute.
    6. 6. • Title Slide for title• Text Slides for background, methods,results, or conclusions• Table Slides for results orconclusions• Bar Chart Slides for results• Photographs to explain and interestCommon Slide LayoutsThese five formats will address 95% of yourslides. We will now go through four “cases” plusphoto examples to help you draft good slides.
    7. 7. Title Slide
    8. 8. A real case (different authors)! This slide hasat least seven problems. Let’s start from theperiphery: the formatting.“SUSTAINABLE OUTREACH SERVICE”(SOS): SOLUTION TO A VEXING PROBLEM?A. Einstein
    9. 9. “SUSTAINABLE OUTREACH SERVICE”(SOS): SOLUTION TO A VEXING PROBLEM?A. EinsteinGood. Usingagency-approvedstyle is important.But CAPITAL letters aredifficult to read quickly.(And shouting is rude.)
    10. 10. “Sustainable Outreach Service” (SOS):Solution to a Vexing Problem?A. EinsteinGood. Proper title format requires a capitalletter for each important word and the firstword of each line, even if it is a tiny word.Not using all capital letters saves space, too.But what about this nine-word title? Is it informative?Is it interesting?
    11. 11. A. EinsteinGood. This 11-wordtitle defines content,an association,results, and setting.Sustainable Outreach Services (SOS) ImmunizeSemi-Nomadic Children in Rural EthiopiaBut what about the authorline? Few documentationefforts are solo.
    12. 12. A. Einstein, A. Gore, B. Obama, K.Marx, N. Bonaparte, E. Windsor, S.PalinGood. Now we have the full team. Beinclusive. The first, second, third, and lastspots are more important. The presenterdoes NOT automatically get one of these.But the slide stilllacks some keyinformation.Sustainable Outreach Services (SOS) ImmunizeSemi-Nomadic Children in Rural Ethiopia
    13. 13. Third Annual Bubble Gum ConventionBrooklyn, New York – May 2, 2038Sustainable Outreach Services (SOS) ImmunizeSemi-Nomadic Children in Rural EthiopiaA. Einstein, A. Gore, B. Obama, K.Marx, N. Bonaparte, E. Windsor, S.PalinNow we have the occasionfor the presentation. Thisalso helps filing.Anythingelse?
    14. 14. Third Annual Bubble Gum ConventionBrooklyn, New York – May 2, 2038Sustainable Outreach Services (SOS) ImmunizeSemi-Nomadic Children in Rural EthiopiaA. Einstein, A. Gore, B. Obama, K.Marx, N. Bonaparte, E. Windsor, S.PalinA “sans serif” font like GillSansor Arial is much easier to read.GillSans takes less space.
    15. 15. • Do have an interesting, informative title.• Don’t have an “egocentric” author line.• Don’t forget the standard title items.– Title– Authors– Occasion and Date– Logo, if necessaryTitle Nuggets
    16. 16. • Do use your agency’s approved style.• If there is no official style, use simple,attractive, non-distracting slideformatting and background.• Don’t use ALL CAPITALS.• Don’t use a font with serif.Title Nuggets – 2
    17. 17. Text Slide
    18. 18. Research• Community-based surveillance to identify principal bacterial andviral agents of neonatal infections; emphasis on Africa and Asia.• Determination of antimicrobial resistance profiles of the commonbacterial agents of serious infections in neonates on a regional basis,in both community and hospital settings.• Studies of neonatal care provided in the home by caretakers,traditional birth attendants, and community health workers, andfollow cohorts of neonates for infectious outcome.• Case-control studies to identify the principal risk factors forneonatal infections. Risk factors to be evaluated include low birthweight; unhygienic delivery, skin and umbilical cord care; birthasphyxia; hypothermia; smoke inhalation; and feeding practices.Refine and adapt oral rehydration protocols for use in diarrhea. Implement currently available vaccines; develop newvaccines.Another real case(slightly modified).Let’s start at theperiphery again: style.
    19. 19. – Community-based surveillance to identify principal bacterial and viralagents of neonatal infections; emphasis on Africa and Asia.– Determination of antimicrobial resistance profiles of the common bacterialagents of serious infections in neonates on a regional basis, in bothcommunity and hospital settings.– Studies of neonatal care provided in the home by caretakers, traditionalbirth attendants, and community health workers, and follow cohorts ofneonates for infectious outcome.– Case-control studies to identify the principal risk factors for neonatalinfections. Risk factors to be evaluated include low birth weight;unhygienic delivery, skin and umbilical cord care; birth asphyxia;hypothermia; smoke inhalation; and feeding practices. Refine and adapt oral rehydration protocols for use in diarrhea. Implement currently available vaccines; develop new vaccines.ResearchGood. We areusing an agency-approved style.Whatabout thetitle?
    20. 20. – Community-based surveillance to identify principal bacterial and viralagents of neonatal infections; emphasis on Africa and Asia.– Determination of antimicrobial resistance profiles of the common bacterialagents of serious infections in neonates on a regional basis, in bothcommunity and hospital settings.– Studies of neonatal care provided in the home by caretakers, traditionalbirth attendants, and community health workers, and follow cohorts ofneonates for infectious outcome.– Case-control studies to identify the principal risk factors for neonatalinfections. Risk factors to be evaluated include low birth weight;unhygienic delivery, skin and umbilical cord care; birth asphyxia;hypothermia; smoke inhalation; and feeding practices. Refine and adapt oral rehydration protocols for use in diarrhea. Implement currently available vaccines; develop new vaccines.Research Priorities for NewbornInfectionGood. The titleis nowinformative.Bullets andindentationareinconsistent.
    21. 21. – Community-based surveillance to identify principal bacterial and viralagents of neonatal infections; emphasis on Africa and Asia.– Determination of antimicrobial resistance profiles of the common bacterialagents of serious infections in neonates on a regional basis, in bothcommunity and hospital settings.– Studies of neonatal care provided in the home by caretakers, traditionalbirth attendants, and community health workers, and follow cohorts ofneonates for infectious outcome.– Case-control studies to identify the principal risk factors for neonatalinfections. Risk factors to be evaluated include low birth weight;unhygienic delivery, skin and umbilical cord care; birth asphyxia;hypothermia; smoke inhalation; and feeding practices.– Refine and adapt oral rehydration protocols for use in diarrhea.– Implement currently available vaccines; develop new vaccines.Research Priorities for NewbornInfectionOK. Bulletsare good.But do you feellike you aresuffocating?
    22. 22. – Community-based surveillance to identify principal bacterialand viral agents of neonatal infections; emphasis on Africaand Asia.– Determination of antimicrobial resistance profiles of thecommon bacterial agents of serious infections in neonates ona regional basis, in both community and hospital settings.– Studies of neonatal care provided in the home by caretakers,traditional birth attendants, and community health workers,and follow cohorts of neonates for infectious outcome.– Case-control studies to identify the principal risk factors forneonatal infections. Risk factors to be evaluated include lowbirth weight; unhygienic delivery, skin and umbilical cordcare; birth asphyxia; hypothermia; smoke inhalation; andfeeding practices.– Refine and adapt oral rehydration protocols for use indiarrhea.– Implement currently available vaccines; develop newvaccines.Research Priorities for NewbornInfectionOK. Now we havesome margins.But the text is aboutto fall off the bottomof the slide. Thereare too many words:125 words in 14lines, requiring a 20font, which is barelyreadable. The “6x6”rule calls for amaximum of sixlines of six wordseach, i.e., 36 words!
    23. 23. • Community-based surveillance for pathogens,especially in Africa and Asia.• Determination of antimicrobial resistancepatterns in community and hospital.• Examining association between infection andcare provided by families, traditional birthattendants, and community health workers.• Case control studies to assess role of low birthweight; unhygienic delivery, skin andumbilical cord care; birth asphyxia;hypothermia; smoke inhalation; and feedingpractices.• Refine, adapt, and test oral rehydration fordiarrhea.• Implement currently available vaccines;develop new vaccines.Research Priorities for NewbornInfectionTwo approaches: editand divide the slide.Light editing allows 22font. Heavy editing mightmeet the 6x6 rule andallow some speakerspontaneity.But we are unlikely toavoid dividing our slide.Before we do that, doyou see anything elsethat would impact thesize of the text area?
    24. 24. • Community-based surveillance for pathogens,especially in Africa and Asia.• Determination of antimicrobial resistance patternsin community and hospital.• Examining association between infection and careprovided by families, traditional birth attendants,and community health workers.• Case control studies to assess role of low birthweight; unhygienic delivery, skin and umbilical cordcare; birth asphyxia; hypothermia; smoke inhalation;and feeding practices.• Refine, adapt, and test oral rehydration for diarrhea.• Implement currently available vaccines; developnew vaccines.Research Priorities for NewbornInfectionYes,GillSans isofficialagency font(BUT itdoesn’t“work” in mycomputer!
    25. 25. • Community-based surveillance for pathogens, especiallyin Africa and Asia.• Determination of antimicrobial resistance patterns incommunity and hospital.• Examining association between infection and careprovided by families, traditional birth attendants, andcommunity health workers.• Case control studies to assess role of low birth weight;unhygienic delivery, skin and umbilical cord care; birthasphyxia; hypothermia; smoke inhalation; and feedingpractices.• Refine, adapt, and test oral rehydration for diarrhea.• Implement currently available vaccines; develop newvaccines.Research Priorities for NewbornInfectionAnd removingbold savesspace.But we shoulddivide the slideinto two slides ofthree bulletseach.
    26. 26. • Community-based surveillance forpathogens, especially in Africa and Asia.• Determination of antimicrobial resistancepatterns in community and hospital.• Examining association between infectionand care provided by families, traditionalbirth attendants, and community healthworkers.Research Priorities for NewbornInfectionBold in the slidetitle “works. So dothree bullets.The text is still abit crowded.
    27. 27. • Community-based surveillance forpathogens, especially in Africa and Asia.• Determination of antimicrobial resistancepatterns in community and hospital.• Examining association between infectionand care provided by families, traditionalbirth attendants, and community healthworkers.Research Priorities for NewbornInfectionIncreased spacingbetween lines letsin some oxygen(35 words in sevenlines!What about theother bullets?
    28. 28. • Case control studies to assess role oflow birth weight; unhygienic delivery,skin and umbilical cord care; birthasphyxia; hypothermia; smokeinhalation; and feeding practices.• Refine, adapt, and test oralrehydration for diarrhea.• Implement currently availablevaccines; develop new vaccines.Research Priorities – 2An abbreviatedtitle and “ – 2”reminds theaudience thatthis is acontinuation.We did notheavily edit thetext which stilllacks parallelconstruction.Some start withnouns; othersstart with verbs.
    29. 29. • Do use an informative slide title.• Do use bullets, not paragraphs.• Do write concisely and elaborateduring the presentation.Text Nuggets
    30. 30. • Do remember the “6x6” rule anddon’t write too much on one slide.• Do use large fonts: (36-40 title, 24-32text)• Do use consistent bulleting andindentation.• Don’t fear empty space on yourslides.Text Nuggets – 2
    31. 31. Table Slide
    32. 32. Validity by DiagnosisValidity (% with 95% CI)DiagnosisSensitivity Specificity PPVBirth defect 100 (98-102) 99 (97-101) 33 (31-35)NNT 84 (81-87) 99 (96-102) 94 (91-97)Pneumonia 67 (64-70) 98 (95-101) 40 (37-43)Prematurity 63 (56-70) 95 (88-102) 90 (83-97)AWD 60 (57-63) 99 (97-101) 60 (57-63)Birth asphyxia 54 (45-63) 79 (70-88) 61 (52-70)LBW 42 (33-51) 92 (84-101) 81 (73-90)SGA 35 (27-43) 84 (76-92) 27 (19-35)Sepsis 13 (8-19) 97 (91-103) 33 (28-39)Malnutrition 0 (-1.4-1.4) 100 (99-101) 0 (-1.4-1.4)Pers diarrhea 0 (-1.4-1.4) 99 (98-101) 0 (-1.4-1.4)This case is anexample of cuttingand pasting a tablefrom a manuscriptinto a slide. Let’sstart with the title.
    33. 33. Validity (% with 95% CI)DiagnosisSensitivity Specificity PPVBirth defect 100 (98-102) 99 (97-101) 33 (31-35)NNT 84 (81-87) 99 (96-102) 94 (91-97)Pneumonia 67 (64-70) 98 (95-101) 40 (37-43)Prematurity 63 (56-70) 95 (88-102) 90 (83-97)AWD 60 (57-63) 99 (97-101) 60 (57-63)Birth asphyxia 54 (45-63) 79 (70-88) 61 (52-70)LBW 42 (33-51) 92 (84-101) 81 (73-90)SGA 35 (27-43) 84 (76-92) 27 (19-35)Sepsis 13 (8-19) 97 (91-103) 33 (28-39)Malnutrition 0 (-1.4-1.4) 100 (99-101) 0 (-1.4-1.4)Pers diarrhea 0 (-1.4-1.4) 99 (98-101) 0 (-1.4-1.4)We made thetitle informative,helping the tableto “stand alone,”a goal forgraphics andtables.Presentationscan not tell thewhole story froma manuscript.Can we focus abit?Validity of Neonatal VerbalAutopsy by Reference Diagnosis
    34. 34. Validity of Neonatal VerbalAutopsy by Reference DiagnosisDiagnosis Validity (% with 95% CI)Sensitivity Specificity PPVBirth asphyxia 54 (45-63) 79 (80-98) 61 (52-70)LBW 42 (33-51) 92 (84-100) 81 (73-90)NNT 84 (81-87) 99 (96-100) 94 (91-97)Prematurity 63 (56-70) 95 (88-100) 90 (83-97)SGA 35 (27-43) 84 (76-92) 27 (19-35)We used thePowerPoint tablefeature andreduced thenumber of rows,preserving thosemost essential tothe message.See anything else?
    35. 35. Validity of Neonatal VerbalAutopsy by Reference DiagnosisDiagnosis Validity (% with 95% CI)Sensitivity Specificity PPVBirth asphyxia 54 (45-63) 79 (80-88) 61 (52-70)LBW 42 (33-51) 92 (84-100) 81 (73-90)NNT 84 (81-87) 99 (96-100) 94 (91-97)Prematurity 63 (56-70) 95 (88-100) 90 (83-97)SGA 35 (27-43) 84 (76-92) 27 (19-35)Transcriptionerrors arecommon whencopyingnumbers intoPowerPoint’stable function.Let’s fix that.What do youthink of thejustification?
    36. 36. Validity of Neonatal VerbalAutopsy by Reference DiagnosisDiagnosis Validity (% with 95% CI)Sensitivity Specificity PPVBirth asphyxia 54 (45-63) 79 (70-88) 61 (52-70)LBW 42 (33-51) 92 (84-100) 81 (73-90)NNT 84 (81-87) 99 (96-100) 94 (91-97)Prematurity 63 (56-70) 95 (88-100) 90 (83-97)SGA 35 (27-43) 84 (76-92) 27 (19-35)We usually left-justify rowheadings andcenter-justifycolumn headingsand data.What about theabbreviations?
    37. 37. Validity of Neonatal VerbalAutopsy by Reference DiagnosisDiagnosis Validity (% with 95% CI)Sensitivity Specificity PositivePredictive ValueBirth asphyxia 54 (45-63) 79 (70-88) 61 (52-70)Low birthweight 42 (33-51) 92 (84-100) 81 (73-90)Neonatal tetanus 84 (81-87) 99 (96-100) 94 (91-97)Prematurity 63 (56-70) 95 (88-100) 90 (83-97)Small for gestational age 35 (27-43) 84 (76-92) 27 (19-35)Now we areclear, even if thelast row headingis a bit large.Can you think ofanother way todeal withabbreviations?
    38. 38. Validity of Neonatal VerbalAutopsy by Reference DiagnosisDiagnosis Validity (% with 95% CI)Sensitivity Specificity PPV*Birth asphyxia 54 (45-63) 79 (70-88) 61 (52-70)Low birthweight 42 (33-51) 92 (84-100) 81 (73-90)Neonatal tetanus 84 (81-87) 99 (96-100) 94 (91-97)Prematurity 63 (56-70) 95 (88-100) 90 (83-97)Small for gestational age 35 (27-43) 84 (76-92) 27 (19-35)*PPV = Positive predictive valueUse the Text Boxfeature to defineabbreviations ina footnote.Look at the insideof the table.What about theorder of therows?
    39. 39. Validity of Neonatal VerbalAutopsy by Reference DiagnosisDiagnosis Validity (% with 95% CI)Sensitivity Specificity PositivePredictiveValueNeonatal tetanus 84 (81-87) 99 (96-100) 94 (91-97)Prematurity 63 (56-70) 95 (88-100) 90 (83-97)Birth asphyxia 54 (45-63) 79 (70-88) 61 (52-70)Low birthweight 42 (33-51) 92 (84-100) 81 (73-90)Small for gestational age 35 (27-43) 84 (76-92) 27 (19-35)Alphabetical orderprobably does notinform themessage. Instead,we ordered therows indescending orderof sensitivity, a keyvariable.But what aboutoverallformatting?
    40. 40. Diagnosis Validity (% with 95% CI)Sensitivity Specificity PositivePredictiveValueNeonatal tetanus 84 (81-87) 99 (96-100) 94 (91-97)Prematurity 63 (56-70) 95 (88-100) 90 (83-97)Birth asphyxia 54 (45-63) 79 (70-88) 61 (52-70)Low birthweight 42 (33-51) 92 (84-100) 81 (73-90)Small for gestational age 35 (27-43) 84 (76-92) 27 (19-35)Validity of Neonatal Verbal Autopsyby Reference DiagnosisOf course!Agency style.(How could weforget?)Can we be evenmore clear?
    41. 41. Validity of Neonatal Verbal Autopsyby Reference DiagnosisDiagnosis Validity (%)Sensitivity Specificity PositivePredictiveValueNeonatal tetanus 84 99 94Prematurity 63 95 90Birth asphyxia 54 79 61Low birthweight 42 92 81Small for gestational age 35 84 27Depending onthe audience,eliminatingconfidenceintervalsremoves twothirds of thenumbers andallows a biggerfont.Do we need to bemore precise?
    42. 42. Validity of Neonatal Verbal Autopsyby Reference DiagnosisDiagnosis Validity (%)Sensitivity Specificity PositivePredictiveValueNeonatal tetanus 84.4 99.5 94.6Prematurity 63.5 95.3 90.9Birth asphyxia 54.8 79.3 61.1Low birthweight 42.1 92.7 81.3Small for gestational age 35.5 84.0 27.8No, twosignificantfigures is almostalways enough.Back up!
    43. 43. Validity of Neonatal Verbal Autopsyby Reference DiagnosisDiagnosis Validity (%)Sensitivity Specificity PositivePredictiveValueNeonatal tetanus 84 99 94Prematurity 63 95 90Birth asphyxia 54 79 61Low birthweight 42 92 81Small for gestational age 35 84 27Even though we went from 45 to 15numbers, it is a lot of information toabsorb quickly. Simple “specialeffects” can highlight “messagenumbers.”More?
    44. 44. Validity of Neonatal Verbal Autopsyby Reference DiagnosisDiagnosisValidity (%)Sensitivity Specificity PositivePredictiveValueNeonatal tetanus 84 99 94Prematurity 63 95 90Birth asphyxia 54 79 61Low birthweight 42 92 81Small for gestational age 35 84 27We centered“Diagnosis”vertically.
    45. 45. Validity of Neonatal Verbal Autopsyby Reference DiagnosisDiagnosisValidity (%)Sensitivity Specificity PositivePredictiveValueNeonatal tetanus 84 99 94Prematurity 63 95 90Birth asphyxia 54 79 61Low birthweight 42 92 81Small for gestational age 35 84 27Finally, wecovered the “redbaby” with awhite patch,ordered to theback.
    46. 46. Table Nuggets• Do use an informative title.• Don’t have too many rows orcolumns; instead focus on the rowsand columns central to yourmessage.• Do organize table rows according toyour message.
    47. 47. Table Nuggets – 2• Do double-check your numbers.• Don’t have too many numbersor too many significant figures.• Do use animated circles tohighlight key numbers.• Don’t paste a table from amanuscript.
    48. 48. Table Nuggets – 3• Do use PowerPoint’s table feature.• Do format consistently with text slides.• Don’t use a font with a serif.• Do left-justify row headings andcenter-justify column headings anddata.• If you use abbreviations, usefootnotes to explain them so yourtable “stands alone.”
    49. 49. Bar-Chart Slide
    50. 50. Results of COPE activities3.2%3.7%3.0%3.3%6.6%8.4%11.3%12.5%7.5%7.8%0%2%4%6%8%10%12%14%Thanh HoaHospitalHoang HoaDHCQuang TriHospitalTrieu HaiHospitalHai lang DHCProportion of all births in project hospitalsFirst 6 monthsof 2002Last 6 monthsof 2002Bar charts areone of the mosteffective visualtools tocommunicateand comparequantitativeinformation.This chart isimported fromExcel. Let’s startat the periphery:the title.
    51. 51. Use of Delivery ServicesBefore and After COPE (2002)3.2%3.7%3.0%3.3%6.6%8.4%11.3%12.5%7.5%7.8%0%2%4%6%8%10%12%14%Thanh HoaHospitalHoang HoaDHCQuang TriHospitalTrieu HaiHospitalHai lang DHCProportion of all births in project hospitalsFirst 6 monthsof 2002Last 6 monthsof 2002Now the title isinformative. Wechose not tospell out COPEbecause weassume that thiswas introducedearlier.What about theformatting?
    52. 52. Use of Delivery Services Beforeand After COPE (2002)3.2%3.7%3.0%3.3%6.6%8.4%11.3%12.5%7.5%7.8%0%2%4%6%8%10%12%14%Thanh HoaHospitalHoang HoaDHCQuang TriHospitalTrieu HaiHospitalHai lang DHCProportion of all births in project hospitalsFirst 6 monthsof 2002Last 6 monthsof 2002Technicalpeople want tosee the heightsof the bars.They are, afterall, the mostimportant part!3-D parallaxmakesascertaining theheight difficult.Now we canremove thosedistractingnumerical labelsabove each bar.
    53. 53. Use of Delivery Services Beforeand After COPE (2002)0%2%4%6%8%10%12%14%Thanh HoaHospitalHoang HoaDHCQuang TriHospitalTrieu HaiHospitalHai lang DHCProportion of all births in project hospitalsFirst 6 monthsof 2002Last 6 monthsof 2002Sometimes specific numbersneed to be included – individualText Boxes can do this. But wehardly ever need every numberor 3 significant figures! Thegeneral and relative heights ofthe bars are enough.What about therelative size ofthe bar chart vs.legend?
    54. 54. Use of Delivery Services Beforeand After COPE (2002)0%2%4%6%8%10%12%14%Thanh HoaHospitalHoang Hoa DHC Quang Tri Hospital Trieu Hai Hospital Hai lang DHCProportion of all births in project hospitalsFirst 6 monthsof 2002Last 6 monthsof 2002The bigger the bars, thebetter. By putting the legendinside the “shallow” end of thebar chart, we can spread thechart over the whole slide.But it’s still noteasy to read.What about they-axis label? Itlooks more like asub-title.
    55. 55. Use of Delivery Services Beforeand After COPE (2002)02468101214Thanh HoaHosp.Hoang HoaDHCQuang TriHosp.Trieu HaiHosp.Hai LangDHCFirst 6 monthsof 2002Second 6months of2002Proportionof births infacilities (%)We recast the Excel chart directlythrough PowerPoint. It takes about60 seconds to enter 10 values andlabel the categories. Double checkthe values! Now we also have aclear y-axis label.Do you see anyremaining minorimprovements tomake?
    56. 56. Use of Delivery Services Beforeand After COPE (2002)02468101214Thanh HoaHosp.Hoang HoaDHCQuang TriHosp.Trieu HaiHosp.Hai LangDHCJan-JunJul-DecProportionof births infacilities (%)DHC = Distrit Health CenterWe reduced thelegend andadded a footnoteto define theabbreviation. Wedid not label thex-axis since it isobvious from thetitle .Anything else?
    57. 57. Use of Delivery Services Beforeand After COPE (2002)02468101214Thanh HoaHosp.Hoang HoaDHCQuang TriHosp.Trieu HaiHosp.Hai LangDHCJan-JunJul-DecProportionof births infacilities (%)DHC = Distrit Health CenterSpell-check!
    58. 58. Use of Delivery ServicesBefore and After COPE (2002)02468101214Thanh HoaHosp.Hoang HoaDHCQuang TriHosp.Trieu HaiHosp.Hai LangDHCJan-JunJul-DecProportionof births infacilities (%)DHC = District Health CenterMessage?We increased thetitle font from 28to 32.
    59. 59. Bar-Chart Nuggets• Do use bar-charts, your most powerfulvisual tool.• Do have an informative title.• Do use the simplest legend and thelargest bar-chart possible.• Do use footnotes so your bar-chart“stands alone.”
    60. 60. • Don’t import bar-charts; rather do usePowerPoint’s bar-chart feature.• Do avoid the gimmick of 3-D parallax.• Don’t use routine data labels on bars.• Do label the axes.• Do spell-check.Bar-Chart Nuggets – 2
    61. 61. Photographs
    62. 62. “Cusp of Access”in NicaraguaAll photos by D Marsh, unless otherwise creditedUse good qualityphotographs!But burring is partof story!Don’t fear fillingthe slide withphoto, but use fontcolors that “work”on photo’s colors.Compress allphotos tominimizedocument size.List credits.
    63. 63. Use good qualityphotographs!
    64. 64. Rotated, cropped and enlarged.
    65. 65. Most photos from the internethave too little “information”(pixels) to be useful.
    66. 66. On the other hand, copyingphotos brings much too muchinformation (pixels).
    67. 67. Importing photos works just right. You canalso right click and compress all photos.
    68. 68. Bangladeshi CCM workers get timersDon’t distortphotographs!Change size of photograph bydragging corners, not sides.Crop a slide to fit in a pre-determined area.
    69. 69. Pneumonia treatment in MangbuiAdministrative Village (11/10)Crop and/orsize a groupphotos to tell astory
    70. 70. Global Action Plan for Prevention andControl of Pneumonia (GAPP)• Strategy documentfinalized andlaunched at the WorldPneumonia Summiton November 2, 2009in New York• Wide partner buy-in• Extensive mediacoverageCourtesy of S. Qazi, WHO/GenevaDownload photographsof documents frominternet.
    71. 71. How to implement CCMTake and editphotographs toillustrate documents.
    72. 72. Photos Can be (Are) “Graphic”Know youraudience.Not All Agreed Nicaraguan CHW
    73. 73. ChinaYunnanProvinceLincangPrefectureCangyuanCountyFig 1. China, YunnanProvince, Lincang Prefecture,and Cangyuan CountyZooming maps
    74. 74. • Use photographs• Use good photographs• Do not distort photos; size or crop them• If you fill the slide, adjust font color• Use proper photograph resolution• Know your audience• Use mapsPhotograph Nuggets

    ×