Forget Focus Group Discussions: Alternative Methods to Understand Community Realities_Lenette Golding, Ph.D._4.24.13
Forget focus group discussions:Alternative methods to understandcommunity realtiesSome useful tips, resources, and hands-on practiceLenette Golding, PhD, MPHSenior Technical AdvisorCARElgolding@care.orgCORE Group Spring MeetingApril 24, 2013
1. People often do not understand why they are doing the things they aredoing, and therefore can’t tell you.2. Sometimes people are in touch with their reasons and their feelings, butthey can’t express them.3. Even when they do understand why they are doing things, theyoften don’t want to tell you.4. When they do tell you, they often don’t tell you the truth, or the wholetruth.5. It is more important for most people to preserve their view ofthemselves than tell you why they are doing what they are doing.6. Often people don’t care to examine their motivations.7. There is rarely a single reason why a given person does something.Why the truth is so elusive
A few things to try• Mini-groups• Have groups react to what was said in other groups• Screen participants• Give participants the opportunity to expressafterthoughts, or things they did not want to bring upin the group• Use informality• Make it fun• Make it a group from the beginning• Eyes closed exercise• Eliminate unnatural physical surroundings
• Activist participatory research• Agroecosystem analysis• Applied anthropology• Field research on farming systems• Rapid rural appraisalParticipatory approaches: Some originsPaulo FreireGordon Conway
Beneficiary AssessmentCommunity Action PlanningParticipatory Action and LearningParticipatory Impact Pathways AnalysisParticipatory Monitoring and EvaluationParticipatory Operational ResearchParticipatory Poverty AssessmentParticipatory Poverty MonitoringParticipatory Policy ResearchParticipatory Research MethodologyParticipatory Rural Appraisal andPlanningParticipatory Social AssessmentParticipatory Technology DevelopmentParticipatory Urban AppraisalRapid AppraisalRapid Assessment of AgriculturalKnowledge SystemsRapid Assessment ProceduresRapid Assessment TechniquesRapid Catchment AnalysisRapid Ethnographic AssessmentRapid Food Security AnalysisRapid Multi-perspective AppraisalRapid Organizational AssessmentRapid Rural AppraisalSelf-esteem, Associative Strength,Resourcefulness, Action Planning, andResponsibilityTheatre for DevelopmentTraining for TransformationVillage AppraisalParticipatory Research
Types of participatory activitiesMappingExperiential activitiesTime AnalysisLinkages and relationshipsPrioritization / Quantification+ = Action Planning
Tools Together Now! 100 Participatory Tools to Mobilize Communities for HIV/AIDS. (2006). International HIV/AIDSAlliance. This document can be downloaded for free at:http://www.aidsalliance.org/includes/Publication/Tools_Together_Now_2009.pdfIdeas and Action: Addressing the Social Factors that Influence Sexual and Reproductive Health. (2007). Cooperative forAssistance and Relief Everywhere, Inc. (CARE). This document can be downloaded free at:http://www.care.org/careswork/whatwedo/health/downloads/social_analysis_manual.pdfParticipatory Analysis for Community Action (PACA) Training Manual. (2007). Peace Corps. This document can bedownloaded for free at: http://multimedia.peacecorps.gov/multimedia/pdf/library/PACA-2007.pdfA Guide to Participatory Monitoring of Behavior Change Communication for HIV/AIDS. (2005). PATH, FHI, USAID. Thisdocument can be downloaded free of charge at: http://www.stoptb.org/assets/documents/countries/acsm/HIV-AIDS_BCC_partic%20monit_guide%20(PATH).pdfParticipatory learning and action: with 100 field methods. (2002) by Neela Mukherjee. This book can be viewed but notdownloaded at:http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=CPDylQ5_RKAC&oi=fnd&pg=PA7&dq=particpatory+learning+and+action&ots=r4ASYuhlYi&sig=PjWOSjWdshD8qMkPxwRawjBe6NE#v=onepage&q&f=falseEmpowering Communities: Participatory Techniques For Community-Based Program Development . Volume 1: TrainersManual and Volume II: Participants Handbook. FHI 360.This document can be downloaded free of charge at:http://www.globalhealthcommunication.org/tools/36A Facilitators Guide to Participatory Workshops with NGOs/CBOs Responding to HIV/AIDS. (2001). International HIV/AIDSAlliance. http://www.impactalliance.org/ev_en.php?ID=3773_201&ID2=DO_TOPICEmbracing Participation in Development: Wisdom from the Field. (1999). CARE.http://www.care.org/careswork/whatwedo/health/downloads/embracing_participitation/embracing_participitation_en.pdfDesigning and Facilitating Creative Learning Activities: A companion Booklet to the Barefoot Guide to Learning Practicesin Organisations and Social Change. (2011). Second Barefoot Collective.http://www.barefootguide.org/index.php/component/content/article/39-download/255-the-bfg2-companion-booklet-designing-and-facilitating-creative-learning-activitiesFormative Research: A Guide to Support in the Collection and Analysis of Qualitative Research for Integrated Maternaland Child Nutrition and Food Security Program Planning. (2013). CARE.http://thewindowofopportunity.info/resources/
Source: Tools Together Now! 100 Participatory Tools to MobilizeCommunities for HIV/AIDS. (2006). International HIV/AIDSAlliance. p. 28
Scenario planning with Boranand Somali Herders (Kenya)http://www.iied.org/search/site/scenario%20planning%20with%20Boran%20and%20Somali
Problem Tree (20 minutes)Now we’re going to talk about thespecific causes and effects of stress inour lives.1. Using the paper and markersprovided, draw a large treeincluding the roots, trunk andbranches. Write “Stress” on thetrunk of the tree.2. Identify all the main causes of theproblem. Draw these along largeroots of the tree, indicating thatthey are ‘root’ problems.3. What are the main effects of all ofthis stress? Write these maineffects on the main branches ofyour tree.
Following up on a problem tree• Holistic World View Analysis• Force Field Analysis• Output/outcome matrix These activities get participants thinkingabout how they can turn the problem into asolution, the steps to take to achieve thatsolution, and monitor and evaluate theprogress of activities.
So, why use activities?How do they generate data?How do they help with facilitation?