Welcome, Introduce the team Agenda Introductions around each table Group Survey Activity: Sector and Experience ; ChallengesKey themes among the challenges that some of you shared in the survey included:How to better engage men in FP/RH and MCH programmingIntegrating gender-transformative approaches in politically conservative or unstable environmentsStrengthening gender capacity and commitment in field officesLimited resource allocations for gender programs (both internal and external to our projects)Measurement of gender outcomes
Social construct that defines how women and men are supposed to act or the “social definition” of women and men, girls and boys.-- comic— illustrates how norms influence our attitudes and beliefs about appropriaterolesand behaviors for women and men. And also how we reinforce these roles in our families and in communities.In all societies, these customary rules exist. They vary from context to context, and are constantly evolving and changing, quickly in some societies and slowly in others.
Adherence to rigid gender roles, by individuals, by communities, by societies, by governments, mean that women and men are often excluded from opportunities perceived as gender-inappropriate. This can lead to a gender gap - that is, inequality in opportunities for women and men to access and use resources and derive benefits from policies and services. For example, in some societies laws and policies exclude women from having land rights; or parents do not allow girls to complete secondary school because that level of education is considered unnecessary for women. Likewise, men may not have access to family planning information because programs typically target women only.This inequality impacts health outcomes, and influences health programs
And on that last point, gender impacts health outcomes because it influences how women and men experience health. It influences their…… Exposure to risk factors.For example, In some contexts women have increased risk of contracting HIV because norms encourage her husband’s promiscuity while, at the same time, prevent her from insisting on condom use.Young boys may be at higher risk of being injured in an accident because of expectations that young men should be risk-takers.Access to & understanding of information about healthPatterns of service useWomen may not receive needed health care because norms in her community prevent her from travelling alone to a clinic.Health decision-makingPerceptions of quality of careMen may not have accurate information about family planning because it is considered the women’s responsibility (yet in many contexts, they are in fact the key decision-maker around whether or not to use FP.
So gender is an important consideration when designing and implementing health programs. And we will turn now to program strategies to remove gender as a barrier to good health. This is what we refer to as gender integration or gender-integrated programs.
Gender integration is the process of taking account of gender norms and the differences and inequalities between men and women in programs and policies. On this slide is a picture of the Gender Integration Continuum, a framework for understanding the extent to which programs and policies address gender. As you see in the graphic, programs and policies can be either gender blind or gender aware. Gender blind programs, at the bottom of the graphic, do not explicitly articulate how gender issues are being addressed. It ignores – often unintentionally – underlying gender constraints, and carries out the program without specific consideration of gender barriers. Gender aware programs and policies, on the other hand, deliberately examine and address the environment in terms of gender, and consider how gender influences program objectives.A gender aware program may use a range of approaches to address gender constraints and opportunities. Gender transformative strategies, on the right side of the continuum, seek to address gender constraints directly by challenging inequitable gender norms. Examples of gender transformative strategies include promoting the status of women or addressing power imbalances between women and men. Gender accommodating strategies, in the middle of the continuum, also acknowledges gender constraints, however instead of challenging inequitable norms, they seek to accommodate or compensate for them. These types of strategies may design programs to “work around” the constraints in order to achieve their outcomes. Gender exploitative strategies are found on the left side of the continuum. These approaches take advantage of rigid gender norms and existing imbalances in power to achieve the health program objectives. These types of approaches can reinforce existing gender inequality and undermine program efforts in the long term. Gender exploitative approaches are not appropriate strategies for gender integration.
On this slide I’ve included some illustrative examples of accommodative and transformative approaches for addressing or removing gender barriers.Conducted a gender analysis and found that women do not have access or control over own income and therefore are not attending MH services. The transformative approach goes one step further to empower women to have access to their own income.Integrates FP counseling into neonatal visits – women don’t have to make a separate trip to the health clinic for FP / Engages men in FP and addresses power imbalances between women and menAddresses rigid gender rolesANY COMMENTS OR QUESTIONS SO FAR?
It will be addressed through integration of gender equality and female empowerment throughout the Agency’s Program Cycle and related processes: in strategic planning, project design and implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. This integrated approach positions the Agency to address gender gaps and the constraints that hold women back.
Under this policy, USAID investments are aimed at three overarching outcomes. In strategic planning at the country or project level, these outcomes will be adapted and translated into specific results with associated targets and indicators. These outcomes, which are especially important for people who are marginalized or excluded due to ethnicity, gender identity, sexual orientation, lack of income, disability or other factors, reflect the gamut of activities that USAID undertakes across multiple sectors and fields.
Seven guiding principles underpin this policy, reflecting key features of the USAID Policy Framework 20112015 and the parameters of the USAID Forward reform agenda: (1) Integrate gender equality and female empowerment into USAID’s work: This policy will be implemented by integrating approaches and actions to advance gender equality and female empowerment throughout the Agency’s Program Cycle. USAID will also make strategic investments to promote gender equality and female empowerment. (2) Pursue an inclusive approach to foster equality:This policy is inclusive of all women and men, girls and boys, regardless of age, sexual orientation, gender identity, disability status, religion, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, geographic area, migratory status, forced displacement or HIV/AIDS status. (3) Build partnerships across a wide range of stakeholders: USAID will partner with host governments, civil society, the private sector and other donors to ensure that our efforts are coordinated and nonduplicative, build on the skills and initiatives of local actors, and reflect country priorities. (4) Harness science, technology, and innovation to reduce gender gaps and empower women and girls: USAID investments should make bold and imaginative use of new technologies to change discriminatory social norms and stereotypes, and empower women and girls to wield greater influence in society. (5) Address the unique challenges in crisis and conflict-affected environments: USAID’s work in conflictaffected and fragile states should promote women’s participation in all efforts to prevent, resolveand rebuild following conflict; prevent and respond to sexual and gender based violence; and ensure that relief and recovery efforts address the different needs and priorities of women and men. (6) Serve as a thought leader and a learning community: The Agency will measure performance in closing key gender gaps and empowering women and girls, learn from successes and failures and disseminate best practices on gender integration throughout the Agency. (7) Hold ourselves accountable: Gender equality and female empowerment is a shared Agency responsibility and depends on the contribution and collective commitment of all staff, with particular emphasis on senior managers and Mission DirectorsOther notes: 2 year phase-in, for evaluation in 2015. Additional implementation guidance is anticipated.
Refer to what participants have shared, and note that in short, gender analysis is the process of identifying gender inequalities and determining their programmatic and developmental implications. That is, gender analysis identifies and examines the social constructions of what it means to be a woman and girl or man or boy and how these impact the lives and health of women and girls and men and boys.
In general, gender analysis tools seek to help us understand the body of social interactions that are influenced by existing gender norms, roles and relationships. Consider that mass of interaction as the pie’s content—if we don’t break it down or slice it up, the complexity is to great to lead to clear understanding.Different instruments slice the pie in various ways. Our tool—the IGWG gender analysis tool—slices the pie (social interaction) into five pieces or domains, with power spilling over into the other four. As we apply the gender analysis tool today, we hope to sharpen our analytic skills, thereby sharpening the knife.
Gender Analysis for Global Health_10.15.13
for Global Health
October 15, 2013
CORE Group Fall Meeting
Gender Overview – Terminology and Approaches
USAID Policy on Gender Equality and Female
Participant Approaches and Successes in Gender
Gender Integration in Practice
Conclusion and Resources
Rules for how women and men should behave
What does “gender” mean?
The roles, responsibilities, behavior and attributes that a particular
society considers appropriate for women and men
Why does gender matter?
Adherence to rigid gender
roles can create a gender gap
unequal options, opportunities and
realities that women and men
Inequality impacts health,
influences health programs
Source: WHO, Why Gender and Health?
Gender influences women’s and
men’s experiences related to
Exposure to risk factors
„ Access to & understanding of information about
Patterns of service use
„ Perceptions of quality of care
Source: Adapted from Caro 2009
Developing or adapting programs to remove gender
as a barrier to good health
Gender Integration Continuum
Source: See www.igwg.org
Women do not have
access or control over
maternal and child
women’s credit and
Men are final decisionmakers regarding use
counseling on FP
workload does not
permit time to visit
health clinic for
equitable sharing of
USAID Policy on Gender Equality
and Female Empowerment
USG Policy Overview
USAID Gender Equality & Female Empowerment Policy
US Strategy to Prevent & Respond to GBV Globally
USAID Vision for Action: Ending Child Marriage & Meeting the
needs of Married Children
Counter-Trafficking in Persons
National Action Plan on Women, Peace, and Secutrity
Youth in Development Policy
USG Action Plan on Children in Adversity
Gender Equality and Female
Improve the lives of citizens around the world by
advancing equality between females and males, and
empowering women and girls to participate fully in and
benefit from the development of their societies.
Reduce gender disparities in access to, control over and
benefit from resources, wealth, opportunities and services
economic, social, political, and cultural;
Reduce gender-based violence and mitigate its harmful effects
on individuals and communities; and
Increase capability of women and girls to realize their rights,
determine their life outcomes, and influence decision-making
in households, communities, and societies.
Integrate gender equality and female empowerment into
Pursue an inclusive approach to foster equality
Build partnerships across a wide range of stakeholders
Harness science, technology, and innovation to reduce gender
gaps and empower women and girls
Address the unique challenges in crisis and conflict-affected
Serve as a thought-leader and a learning community
Hold ourselves accountable
• Gender Analysis
• A tool to help us better
understand women’s and
What is Gender Analysis?
Examines relational differences in women’s
and men’s and girls’ and boys’
roles and identities
needs and interests
access to and exercise of power
and the impact of these differences in their
lives and health.
Applying a gender lens
Laws do not support men’s
involvement in family planning
Laws do not protect women from violence
Social norms encourage men to be
strong - discourage them from being
Community norms devalue women’s
FP services target women, therefore men are
uninformed about contraceptives but still the
key decision-maker regarding FP use
Beliefs that men are weak if they seek health
Has to ask permission from her husband
to leave the home
Limited control over income
The Gender Pie
Gender Analysis In Practice
Case Study: Timor Leste
Small Group Activity
The Health Policy Project is a five-year cooperative agreement funded by the U.S. Agency for International
Development under Agreement No. AID-OAA-A-10-00067, beginning September 30, 2010. It is implemented by
Futures Group, in collaboration with CEDPA (CEDPA is now a part of Plan International USA), Futures
Institute, Partners in Population and Development, Africa Regional Office (PPD ARO), Population Reference Bureau
(PRB), RTI International, and the White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood (WRA).
Join the discussion: Community of Practice on Scale-up and Gender, Policy and
Measurement, at http://knowledge-gateway.org/scaleupcop