Policy Reform toward Gender Equality in Ethiopia
Little by Little the Egg Begins to Walk

Neha Kumar
Agnes R Quisumbing
Po...
Kes be kes enqullal be-egrwa tihedalech

INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE

Page 2
Context
• Ethiopia: poor country, substantial ethnic and religious diversity
• Diverse gender norms related to property ow...
Policy reform: An opportunity for increased
gender equality?
• Changes in legislation may improve well-being outcomes for ...
The reforms in a nutshell (eggshell?)

Photo: Stein Holden

Photo: Agnes Quisumbing

INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH IN...
Land registration
• Land certification in Ethiopia was carried out through a
low-cost, rapid, and transparent process

• L...
Family Law
• At the federal level, a new Family Code based on the
principle of gender equality came into effect in mid-200...
Objectives of this paper
• Using a recently collected round (2009) of the Ethiopian
Rural Household Survey, we explore:
1....
Data

INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE

Page 9
There is regional variation in female headship…

Figure 2. Proportion of Female Headed Households
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
...
…and in resources of FHHs and MHHs
FHH

MHH

Pvalue

Age of head

54.3

52.5

**

Highest grade obtained

4.76

6.28

***
...
While differences in land management are statistically significant,
magnitudes are similar
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4

FHH
MHH

0.2...
Gender differences in awareness of land
registration process
% hhs aware of land
registration

% hhs attending meetings
du...
Perceptions of division upon divorce in 1997,
Land equally split upon a no fault divorce
100
90
80
70
60
50

FHH
MHH

40
3...
Changes in perceptions of division upon divorce:
Moved towards equality of division of land, 1997-2009
70
60
50
40

FHH
MH...
Summary of regression results on land registration
(with PA fixed effects)
Knowledge of
land registration
Highest grade in...
Summary of regression results on family law (with PA fixed
effects)
Move to split land
50:50

Move to split
livestock 50:5...
Concluding remarks--1
• Our analysis confirms gender gaps in awareness and information
about the land registration process...
Concluding remarks--2
• Presence of female members in the LAC has a positive effect on the
changes in perceptions towards ...
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE

Page 20
Index of participation in land registration process

4

3.5

3

2.5

2

Female Headed
Male Headed

1.5

1

0.5

0
Whole Sa...
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Policy Reform Toward Gender Equality in Ethiopia_N. Kumar and A. Quisumbing_10.16.13

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  • Exception is the fraction of cropped area operated by women, which is very low in MHH
  • Regressions controlled for age and sex of hh head, years of schooling of head, total livestock holdings in 2004, network size, whether member has a bangk account
  • Regressions controlled for age and sex of hh head, years of schooling of head, total livestock holdings in 2004, network size, whether member was aware of land registration process
  • Policy Reform Toward Gender Equality in Ethiopia_N. Kumar and A. Quisumbing_10.16.13

    1. 1. Policy Reform toward Gender Equality in Ethiopia Little by Little the Egg Begins to Walk Neha Kumar Agnes R Quisumbing Poverty, Hunger and Nutrition Division (PHND), IFPRI CORE Group Fall Meeting 2013
    2. 2. Kes be kes enqullal be-egrwa tihedalech INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 2
    3. 3. Context • Ethiopia: poor country, substantial ethnic and religious diversity • Diverse gender norms related to property ownership, inheritance, and the division of assets after divorce, with men favored in the majority of cases (Fafchamps and Quisumbing 2005). • Gender disparities have important welfare consequences: poor women in the Southern Ethiopia, where customary laws on settlement at divorce are biased against women, fare worse when illness shocks occur. (Dercon and Krishnan 2000). • Relative nutrition of spouses is associated with correlates of bargaining power, such as cognitive ability, independent sources of income, and devolution of assets upon divorce (Fafchamps, Kebede, Quisumbing 2009); several dimensions of female empowerment benefit the nutrition and education level of children. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 3
    4. 4. Policy reform: An opportunity for increased gender equality? • Changes in legislation may improve well-being outcomes for women. Example: In Canada, suicide rates of married women are lower in states with divorce laws that are more beneficial to women (Hoddinott and Adam). • In Ethiopia, the recent Land Registration process (~ 2003 onwards) led to joint certification of husbands and wives, giving stronger land rights to women • The revised Family Code, passed in 2000, gave equal rights to women and men in terms of marriage, inheritance and property. • To what extent do these policy reforms reinforce each other? INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 4
    5. 5. The reforms in a nutshell (eggshell?) Photo: Stein Holden Photo: Agnes Quisumbing INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 5
    6. 6. Land registration • Land certification in Ethiopia was carried out through a low-cost, rapid, and transparent process • Land administration committees at kebele level were required to have at least one female member (although variations in compliance). • Land certificates were issued after public registration for transparency. • Land certificates include maps and pictures of husband and wife, though there were regional variations. See Deininger et al. (2007), work by Holden and colleagues for more INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 6
    7. 7. Family Law • At the federal level, a new Family Code based on the principle of gender equality came into effect in mid-2000 • However, constitutional recognition gave full sovereignty to seven regions out of nine, each having its own family law. By 2005, 3 out of the 4 regions in our study had implemented the law. Currently all regional governments implement the law. • Assets brought to marriage remain the property of each spouse upon divorce • Common property to be divided 50:50 upon divorce INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 7
    8. 8. Objectives of this paper • Using a recently collected round (2009) of the Ethiopian Rural Household Survey, we explore: 1. differences in the awareness, participation, and perception of land registration process between male- and female-headed households; 2. determinants of awareness, participation and perception of the land registration process 3. determinants of changes in perceptions regarding the division of assets (land and livestock) upon divorce • Explore role of initial wealth, social networks, regional variations in explaining these differences INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 8
    9. 9. Data INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 9
    10. 10. There is regional variation in female headship… Figure 2. Proportion of Female Headed Households 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 10
    11. 11. …and in resources of FHHs and MHHs FHH MHH Pvalue Age of head 54.3 52.5 ** Highest grade obtained 4.76 6.28 *** Household size 4.39 6.38 *** Total land owned (hectares) 1.73 2.20 *** Total livestock owned (TLUs) 8.82 9.39 *** Per capita consumption in 2004 (birr) 94 91 Prop household belonging to iddir 0.76 0.89 *** Network size 8.61 11.41 *** 1.57 *** Number of sources from which hh can borrow 1.32 INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 11
    12. 12. While differences in land management are statistically significant, magnitudes are similar 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 FHH MHH 0.2 0 Fraction of Fraction of Fraction of Fraction of Fraction of total land total land cropped cropped total area cropped that is fertile area area registered operated by registered women INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 12
    13. 13. Gender differences in awareness of land registration process % hhs aware of land registration % hhs attending meetings during land registration 1.2 1.2 1 Female Headed 0.8 1 Female Headed 0.8 0.6 Male Headed 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.2 Male Headed 0.2 0 0 Whole Sample Amhara Oromiya SNNPR INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Whole Sample Amhara Oromiya SNNPR Page 13
    14. 14. Perceptions of division upon divorce in 1997, Land equally split upon a no fault divorce 100 90 80 70 60 50 FHH MHH 40 30 20 10 0 All Tigray INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Amhara Oromiya SNNPR Page 14
    15. 15. Changes in perceptions of division upon divorce: Moved towards equality of division of land, 1997-2009 70 60 50 40 FHH MHH 30 20 10 0 All Tigray INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Amhara Oromiya SNNPR Page 15
    16. 16. Summary of regression results on land registration (with PA fixed effects) Knowledge of land registration Highest grade in hh Plot area, 2004 Attendance at meetings Index Positive Negative Negative Lowest land quartile, 2004 Negative 3rd land quartile, 2004 Negative Any female Positive members in LAC Positive Member of iddir, 2004 Positive Positive INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 16
    17. 17. Summary of regression results on family law (with PA fixed effects) Move to split land 50:50 Move to split livestock 50:50 Plot area, 2004 Negative Negative Any female members in LAC Positive Positive Member of iddir, 2004 Negative Negative INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 17
    18. 18. Concluding remarks--1 • Our analysis confirms gender gaps in awareness and information about the land registration process • Male headed households are on average more likely to have heard about the land registration process, attended meetings (and a greater number) and have received some written material with information about the process • The presence of female members in the LAC encourages participation by female headed households and does not discourage participation by male headed households. • Social networks also matter INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 18
    19. 19. Concluding remarks--2 • Presence of female members in the LAC has a positive effect on the changes in perceptions towards a more equal distribution of assets upon divorce. • Even after controlling for local norms regarding the distribution of assets upon divorce, the presence of females in an important villagelevel committee may provide support to women and also may be a source of information regarding the new family code. Interventions to improve gender equality can reinforce each other. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 19
    20. 20. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 20
    21. 21. Index of participation in land registration process 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 Female Headed Male Headed 1.5 1 0.5 0 Whole Sample Tigray INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Amhara Oromiya SNNPR Page 21

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