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S I M P L I F I E D M O D E L L I N G F O R D E T E R M I N I N G
P O T E N T I A L G R A P E D I S E A S E S
Mapping Grap...
Presentation Overview
 Acknowledgements
 Brief history of Nova
Scotia wine
 Nova Scotia grapes
 Nova Scotia grape
dise...
Brief History Nova Scotia 2011
 French settlers began growing
grapes in the 1600’s
 Wine industry established in
1980’s
...
Geography Microclimates
 Peninsula on Canada’s east
coast between Atlantic
Ocean and the Bay of
Fundy
 Warm ocean curren...
Wine, Wine, Wine Cultivars
 Grape variety?
 Trellis
 Location
 Soil
 Depth
 Ph
 Drainage
 Slope
 Facing direction...
Getting technical L’Acadie Blanc
 Labruscana
 Vinifera
 Vitis vinifera
 Hybrids
 1984 Helen Fisher and
Kentville Rese...
Nova Scotia GrapesTable 1: Nova Scotia Grape Varieties.
Red Hybrids
Grape Origin Description Winter Hardiness
Baco Noir Fr...
Diseases Parameters
 Downy Mildew
 Powdery Mildew
 Anthracnose
 Grey Mold
 Black Rot
 Crown Gall
 Temperature
 Pre...
Nova Scotia Grape Diseases
Temperature Season
Moisture
Carisse, et. al., 2006)
Management Weather Trends
 Frost burns
 Pruning
 Air disturbance
 Organic pesticides
 Growing degree days
 Frost fre...
Nova Scotia Grapes Diseases
Table : Macro Analysis - Weather Conditions Conducive for Major Grape Diseases in Eastern Cana...
Disease Modelling
 Downy Mildew Predictor
- DMCast Model
Suitability Modelling
Table: Climatic Limitations to Wine Grape Production
Climate
Rating
Degree Days
above 10°C
Frost-fre...
Problem Context
 Increasingly growing
industry
 WANS and GGANS
 Vineyard management
kits
 Weather data
 Soil Data
 S...
Purpose of Research
The purpose of the research is to develop a GIS model
using historical data to evaluate the susceptibi...
Objectives
1. Use an established set of
criteria for indicating
certain crop stress and
quality.
2. Create a historical
we...
Data sets
 Environment Canada
weather stations (69)
 AGRG weather stations
(7)
 Soil Data (DSS)
 NS 20m DEM
 SWNS stu...
Data Preparation
 SWNS AGRG 2011
 SWNS AGRG 2012
 SWNS AGRG 2013
 SWNS EC 2011
 SWNS EC 2012
 SWNS EC 2013
 Joins
...
SWNS Study Area
Weather Stations
Detailed Soil Survey
 DSS V2  DSS V3
Soil Suitability
GDD5 2011
 Manual selection method
 Statistics
 Sum – (Count x 5)
(ESRI ArcMap, 2014)
Calculations:
Est. = 225 x 5°C
= ...
 Example script for GDD10
Data Processing
Station Suitability GDD at 10°C 2011
Production models Disease models
 Temperature models
 GDD5
 GDD10
 Frost-free Period
 Time of exposure to extreme
col...
Methodology
 AGRG and EC weather
trend production models
 AGRG and EC weather
trend disease models
Station SUIT = GDD10 ...
Stations Overall Suitability
Existing Model Gaps
Coastal Stations
BR1
vs.
BR2
Table 17: Suitability Results for BR1 Station
Processing
Procedure
Suitability
2011
Suitabili...
Coastal Stations
 CH1
 CL1
 KE1
 LI1,3
 S100
 S120
 S80
 WE1
 YA1
Table 23: Suitability Results for CH1 Station
P...
2012 vs. 2011, 2013
 On average 100 GDD10 higher
 2013 poor frost free period
 Results vs. quality of grape
 3 years v...
Conclusions and Future Considerations
 AGRG station modifications
 Site analysis for disease modelling
 Base criteria f...
Acknowledgements
I would like to thank David Colville from the Applied Geomatics Research Group
(AGRG) for his time, commi...
References
AgraPoint. (2009).Recommended grape varieties for Nova Scotia. Retrieved from
http://www.google.ca/url?sa=t&rct...
References
Kittilsen, L. (2008). Business Planning and Economics of Wine Grape Production in Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia Depa...
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Mapping Grape Suitability in South West Nova Scotia (SWNS)

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This is a research project outlining the compiled criteria for modelling grape production and disease development in South West Nova Scotia. This was achieved with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) at the Centre of Geographic Sciences (COGS) using data provided by the Applied Geomatics Research Group (AGRG).

Microclimates and soil characteristics give Nova Scotia grape growers a unique environment to produce high quality wine grapes, even though it is a cooler climate region for vineyards.

There are inherent diseases and stress related threats, but effective planning and management strategies including policy standards assist to mitigate crop damage. Moreover, there exists a potential to recognize improvement to management practices related to seasonal temperature trends.

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Mapping Grape Suitability in South West Nova Scotia (SWNS)

  1. 1. S I M P L I F I E D M O D E L L I N G F O R D E T E R M I N I N G P O T E N T I A L G R A P E D I S E A S E S Mapping Grape Suitability in South West Nova Scotia (SWNS) Presented by: Kirk Dabols
  2. 2. Presentation Overview  Acknowledgements  Brief history of Nova Scotia wine  Nova Scotia grapes  Nova Scotia grape diseases  Disease modelling  Suitability modelling  Problem context  Purpose of research  Study area  Suitability context  Purpose of research  Objectives  Data sets  Data Preparation  Study Area  Weather Stations  DSS  Methodology  Soil suitability  Data processing  Station suitability
  3. 3. Brief History Nova Scotia 2011  French settlers began growing grapes in the 1600’s  Wine industry established in 1980’s  Increasingly steady growth since 1993 Nova Scotia Grapes  Nova Scotia wine industry contributed approximately $200 million dollars to provincial economy  Attracted over 100,000 tourists  Fourth largest grape producer in Canada, following Ontario, B.C. and Quebec  22 grape growers and 400 acres
  4. 4. Geography Microclimates  Peninsula on Canada’s east coast between Atlantic Ocean and the Bay of Fundy  Warm ocean currents, prevailing winds, topographical landscape and extreme tides  Unique climate for growing world class grapes  Generally cooler climate  Characterized by latitude, glacial deposits, geographical landscapes and phenomena  Longer frost free periods  Increased heat accumulation  Wind, temperature and precipitation variation Nova Scotia Grapes
  5. 5. Wine, Wine, Wine Cultivars  Grape variety?  Trellis  Location  Soil  Depth  Ph  Drainage  Slope  Facing direction  Processing  Storage  Management practices  Vineyard management vs. wine making  Baco Noir  De Chaunac  Leon Millot  Lucie Kuhlmann  Marechal Foch  L’Acadie Blanc  New York Muscat  Seyval  Vidal blanc  Chardonnay  Pinot Noir  Riesling Nova Scotia Grapes
  6. 6. Getting technical L’Acadie Blanc  Labruscana  Vinifera  Vitis vinifera  Hybrids  1984 Helen Fisher and Kentville Research Station  Kentville White Variety KW94-1 Nova Scotia Grapes
  7. 7. Nova Scotia GrapesTable 1: Nova Scotia Grape Varieties. Red Hybrids Grape Origin Description Winter Hardiness Baco Noir France (Baco 1) Folle Blanche x V. riparia crossed in 1902 by Francois Baco. Vines are very vigorous and difficult to manage after injurious winter. Should be grown on heavy poorly drained soils. Wine is often deep in colour, fruity and herbaceous. Fair De Chaunac France Vigorous and productive variety. Clusters are large and loose which require thinning to maintain consistent yields and quality. Wine is considered fair in quality. Requires high heat units and good canopy management. Fair Leon Millot (Millot) France (Kulhmann194.2) V. riparia-rupestris x Goldriesling crossed by Eugene Kuhlmann. This is the sister seedling to Marechal Foch. Compared to Foch, vines are more vigorous, produce smaller berries, and ripen a few days earlier with lower acid levels. Wine is similar taste to Foch. Good Lucie Kuhlmann France (Kulhmann 149-1) V. riparia-rupestris x Goldriesling crossed by Eugene Kuhlmann. This is the sister seedling to Marechal Foch. It ripens earlier than Foch and is good for cooler sites. Good – Very Good Marechal Foch (Foch) France (Kulhmann188.2) V. riparia-rupestris x Goldriesling crossed by Eugene Kuhlmann. Most common red wine in Nova Scotia because of reliability and productivity. Wine is described as intense, dark red-violet with distinct complex quality good for producing in cool climates. Very Good White Hybrids L’Acadie blanc (L’Acadie) Canada (V. 53261) Seibel 13053 x Seyve-Villard 14-287 crossed in 1953 by O.A. Bradt of the Horticultural Research Institute of Ontario, Vineland Station. This is the sister seedling to Veeblanc. Wine is described as slightly spicy and has a flowery aroma. Good New York Muscat United States of America Muscat Hamburg x Ontario crossed by Richard Wellington in 1926 at the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station. Vines have low to medium vigor. Productivity is low to medium. Wine has distinct Muscat flavor and is used to make sweet Muscat wines and for blending. Good Seyval France (SV 5276) Seibel 5656 x Seibel 4986 cross made by Seyve-Villard in France. Vines are moderately vigorous and produce large bunches. Prone to over-cropping and winter injury. Crop size control must exist to ensure maturity in Nova Scotia. Fair Vidal blanc (Vidal) France (Vidal 256) Ugni Blanc x Seibel 4986 cross made by J.L. Vidal in France. Vines are vigorous and productive. Vines will suffer winter injury if they become too vigorous on coarse textured soils. Late in ripening and can be potential for ice wine. Quality is good but challenge to grow in Nova Scotia. Fair Vinifera Varieties Chardonnay France Widely grown European grape in Nova Scotia. Moderately vigorous and productive, highly susceptible to many diseases. Winter hardy, yet still requires a good frost free period. Produces high quality with apple and pear flavors. Good Pinot Noir France Considered to be more difficult variety to grow but has the most potential to produce high quality red wine in Nova Scotia’s cool climate. Most susceptible to winter injury but capable of reliably ripening on warm sites. Compact bunches and thin-skinned berries. There are various clones and should be considered as some will ripen earlier and are hardier. Poor Riesling Germany Has a high winter hardiness and suitable for quality wine. Though late ripening season severely affects quality. Has greatest potential for producing high quality sparkling wines and ice wines opposed to still wines. Recommended for Nova Scotia warmest sites only. Good – Very Good (AgraPoint 2008 and AgraPoint 2009)
  8. 8. Diseases Parameters  Downy Mildew  Powdery Mildew  Anthracnose  Grey Mold  Black Rot  Crown Gall  Temperature  Precipitation  Past-season  Relative humidity Nova Scotia Grapes Diseases Carisse, et. al., 2006)
  9. 9. Nova Scotia Grape Diseases Temperature Season Moisture Carisse, et. al., 2006)
  10. 10. Management Weather Trends  Frost burns  Pruning  Air disturbance  Organic pesticides  Growing degree days  Frost free period  Winter minimum  Crop production Nova Scotia Grapes Management 2014, http://www.practicalwinery.com/marapr05/marapr05p48.htm
  11. 11. Nova Scotia Grapes Diseases Table : Macro Analysis - Weather Conditions Conducive for Major Grape Diseases in Eastern Canada Key Factors Diseases Disease Downy Mildew Fungus: Plasmopara viticola (Mildiou) Powdery Mildew Fungus: Erysiphe necator; (Uncinula necator) (Blanc, Oidium) Black Rot Fungus: Guignardia bidwelli (Pourriture noire) Min-Max Temp: 11°C - 28°C 8°C - 32°C 9°C - 32°C Optimal Temp: 22°C - 26°C 23°C - 27°C 20°C - 25°C Precipitation: Heavy Rainfall > 10 mm Dry (cloudy - humid) 2.5 mm Rainy with light showers, rain with heavy showers and water accumulation on ground 0.25 mm Wetness Duration: 2 -3 hours 12 -15 hours > 6 hours Relative Humidity: > 98 % 97-99 % Not an added factor Duration for Infection: 24 hours 2 -3 weeks Grape Variety (slight susceptibility): Baco Noir L’Acadie Lucie Khulmann Marechal Foch NewYork Muscat Seyval L’Acadie De Chaunac L’Acadie Leon Millot NewYork Muscat Vidal Grape Variety (moderate susceptibility): Vidal Baco Noir De Chaunac Lucie Khulmann Marechal Foch NewYork Muscat Resisling Chardonnay Lucie Khulmann Marechal Foch Seyval Grape Variety (high susceptibility): Chardonnay De Chaunac Leon Millot Pinot Noir Resiling Chardonnay Leon Millot Pinot Noir Seyval Vidal Baco Noir Pinot Noir Reisling (Carisse, et. al., 2006; Craig, 2013)
  12. 12. Disease Modelling  Downy Mildew Predictor - DMCast Model
  13. 13. Suitability Modelling Table: Climatic Limitations to Wine Grape Production Climate Rating Degree Days above 10°C Frost-free period (days) Winter Minimum (°C) Suitability Rank Most Suitable > 1300 180 -21°C 3 times or less in 10 years. Minimum not less than -23°C. 4 Good Suitability 1100 - 1300 165 -21°C 5 times or less in 10 years. Minimum not lower than -26°C. 3 Fair Suitability 900 – 1100 150 -21°C almost every year. -26°C or lower only once in 10 years. 2 Poor Suitability < 900 130 -23°C 5 times or more in 10 years. -26°C 3 times or more in 10 years. 1 (Lewis et. al., 2008) ASDF Table: Climatic Limitations to Wine Grape Production Soil Rating Potential Rooting Depth (cm) Suitability Rank Most Suitable > 90 4 Good Suitability > 80 3 Fair Suitability > 70 2 Poor Suitability > 60 1 (Lewis et. al., 2008)
  14. 14. Problem Context  Increasingly growing industry  WANS and GGANS  Vineyard management kits  Weather data  Soil Data  Synthesized results
  15. 15. Purpose of Research The purpose of the research is to develop a GIS model using historical data to evaluate the susceptibility of grape varieties to weather related parameters and be used for future improvements.
  16. 16. Objectives 1. Use an established set of criteria for indicating certain crop stress and quality. 2. Create a historical weather model of SWNS using provided data sets. 3. Apply criteria to weather model. 4. Analyze and determine the areas of interest. 5. Evaluate the effectiveness and limitations of the model. The following are research objectives to assist in developing a GIS model:
  17. 17. Data sets  Environment Canada weather stations (69)  AGRG weather stations (7)  Soil Data (DSS)  NS 20m DEM  SWNS study area
  18. 18. Data Preparation  SWNS AGRG 2011  SWNS AGRG 2012  SWNS AGRG 2013  SWNS EC 2011  SWNS EC 2012  SWNS EC 2013  Joins  Data reduction  Clipping  Add X,Y
  19. 19. SWNS Study Area
  20. 20. Weather Stations
  21. 21. Detailed Soil Survey  DSS V2  DSS V3
  22. 22. Soil Suitability
  23. 23. GDD5 2011  Manual selection method  Statistics  Sum – (Count x 5) (ESRI ArcMap, 2014) Calculations: Est. = 225 x 5°C = 1125°C GDD5= 2736.2°C - 1125°C = 1611.2°C "Station" = 'BACCARO' AND "Year" = 2011 AND "Month" >= 4 AND "Month" <= 11 AND "Mean_Temp" >= 5
  24. 24.  Example script for GDD10 Data Processing
  25. 25. Station Suitability GDD at 10°C 2011
  26. 26. Production models Disease models  Temperature models  GDD5  GDD10  Frost-free Period  Time of exposure to extreme cold  Winter Minimum  Weather conditions  Time of exposure  Moisture  Downy Mildew  Powdery Mildew  Black Rot Production vs. Disease "Station" = 'GREENWOOD' AND "Month" >=4 AND "Month" <=11 AND "Min_Temp__" >= 8 AND "Max_Temp__" <= 32 AND "Mean_Temp" >=23 AND "Mean_Temp" <=27 AND "Total_Rain" >= '10'
  27. 27. Methodology  AGRG and EC weather trend production models  AGRG and EC weather trend disease models Station SUIT = GDD10 SUIT + FFP SUIT + WinMin SUIT + DM SUIT + PM SUIT + BR SUIT SUIT GDD10 FFP WinMin DM PM BR Soil 1 poor poor poor high high high poor 2 fair fair fair moderate moderate moderate fair 3 good good good low low low good 4 most most most least least least most  Soil data  Python script
  28. 28. Stations Overall Suitability Existing Model Gaps
  29. 29. Coastal Stations BR1 vs. BR2 Table 17: Suitability Results for BR1 Station Processing Procedure Suitability 2011 Suitability Score Suitability 2012 Suitability Score Suitability 2013 Suitability Score Total GDD5 1745 3 1878 4 1672 4 11 GDD10 850 1 917 2 767 1 4 Frost Free Period Winter Minimum 000 4 000 4 000 4 12 Downy Mildew 0 0 0 Powdery Mildew 0 0 Black Rot 7 7 7 Soil Table 18: Suitability Results for BR2 Station Processing Procedure Suitability 2011 Suitability Score Suitability 2012 Suitability Score Suitability 2013 Suitability Score Total GDD5 1931 4 2119 4 2001 4 12 GDD10 1030 2 1145 3 1085 2 7 Frost Free Period Winter Minimum 000 4 000 4 100 4 12 Downy Mildew 0 0 2 Powdery Mildew 1 3 2 Black Rot 30 41 22 Soil
  30. 30. Coastal Stations  CH1  CL1  KE1  LI1,3  S100  S120  S80  WE1  YA1 Table 23: Suitability Results for CH1 Station Processing Procedure Suitability 2011 Suitability Score Suitability 2012 Suitability Score Suitability 2013 Suitability Score Total GDD5 1696 4 1912 4 1744 4 12 GDD10 839 1 958 2 839 1 4 Frost Free Period Winter Minimum 000 4 000 4 100 4 12 Downy Mildew 0 0 0 Powdery Mildew 0 0 3 Black Rot 2 9 8 Soil Table 29: Suitability Results for CL1 Station Processing Procedure Suitability 2011 Suitability Score Suitability 2012 Suitability Score Suitability 2013 Suitability Score Total GDD5 1605 4 1797 4 1443 4 12 GDD10 672 1 796 1 488 1 3 Frost Free Period Winter Minimum 000 4 000 4 000 4 12 Downy Mildew 0 0 0 Powdery Mildew 0 0 0 Black Rot 0 0 0 Soil Table 34: Suitability Results for KE1 Station Processing Procedure Suitability 2011 Suitability Score Suitability 2012 Suitability Score Suitability 2013 Suitability Score Total GDD5 1192 4 1879 4 1695 4 12 GDD10 597 1 920 2 780 1 4 Frost Free Period Winter Minimum 000 4 000 4 000 4 12 Downy Mildew 0 1 0 Powdery Mildew 0 0 0 Black Rot 4 5 3 Soil Table 39: Suitability Results for LI1 Station Processing Procedure Suitability 2011 Suitability Score Suitability 2012 Suitability Score Suitability 2013 Suitability Score Total GDD5 1811 4 1959 4 1802 4 12 GDD10 924 2 989 2 886 1 5 Frost Free Period Winter Minimum 000 4 000 4 000 4 12 Downy Mildew 0 0 1 Powdery Mildew 0 1 0 Black Rot 9 14 9 Soil Table 41: Suitability Results for LI3 Station Processing Procedure Suitability 2011 Suitability Score Suitability 2012 Suitability Score Suitability 2013 Suitability Score Total GDD5 1735 4 1859 4 1657 4 12 GDD10 829 1 896 1 748 1 3 Frost Free Period Winter Minimum 000 4 000 4 000 4 12 Downy Mildew 0 0 1 Powdery Mildew 0 0 1 Black Rot 7 9 4 Soil Table 52: Suitability Results for S100 Station Processing Procedure Suitability 2011 Suitability Score Suitability 2012 Suitability Score Suitability 2013 Suitability Score Total GDD5 1440 4 1572 4 1630 4 12 GDD10 554 1 659 1 717 1 3 Frost Free Period Winter Minimum 000 4 000 4 100 4 12 Downy Mildew 0 0 0 Powdery Mildew 0 0 0 Black Rot 0 1 0 Soil Table 53: Suitability Results for S120 Station Processing Procedure Suitability 2011 Suitability Score Suitability 2012 Suitability Score Suitability 2013 Suitability Score Total GDD5 1708 4 1823 4 1712 4 12 GDD10 803 1 918 2 851 1 4 Frost Free Period Winter Minimum 000 4 000 4 100 4 12 Downy Mildew 1 1 4 Powdery Mildew 0 0 2 Black Rot 3 10 13 Soil Table 63: Suitability Results for S80 Station Processing Procedure Suitability 2011 Suitability Score Suitability 2012 Suitability Score Suitability 2013 Suitability Score Total GDD5 1754 4 1537 4 1766 4 12 GDD10 823 2 626 2 840 1 5 Frost Free Period Winter Minimum 000 4 000 4 000 4 12 Downy Mildew 0 0 0 Powdery Mildew 0 0 0 Black Rot 3 0 8 Soil Table 77: Suitability Results for WE1 Station Processing Procedure Suitability 2011 Suitability Score Suitability 2012 Suitability Score Suitability 2013 Suitability Score Total GDD5 1783 4 1977 4 1786 4 12 GDD10 882 1 1000 2 853 1 4 Frost Free Period Winter Minimum 000 4 000 4 000 4 12 Downy Mildew 1 0 0 Powdery Mildew 0 0 1 Black Rot 2 7 7 Soil Table 84: Suitability Results for YA1 Station Processing Procedure Suitability 2011 Suitability Score Suitability 2012 Suitability Score Suitability 2013 Suitability Score Total GDD5 1801 4 1917 4 1699 4 12 GDD10 814 1 936 2 759 1 4 Frost Free Period Winter Minimum 000 4 000 4 000 4 12 Downy Mildew 0 0 1 Powdery Mildew 0 0 0 Black Rot 1 3 3 Soil
  31. 31. 2012 vs. 2011, 2013  On average 100 GDD10 higher  2013 poor frost free period  Results vs. quality of grape  3 years vs. 5 years vs. 10
  32. 32. Conclusions and Future Considerations  AGRG station modifications  Site analysis for disease modelling  Base criteria for disease development  Time factor
  33. 33. Acknowledgements I would like to thank David Colville from the Applied Geomatics Research Group (AGRG) for his time, commitment and assistance on this project. Also, I would like to thank Wayne Reiger from the AGRG who greatly assisted with providing project data. I would like to thank Josh Horton and Micheal and Jocelyn Lightfoot, from Lightfoot and Wolfville Organic Vineyards (L&W) who were generous to provide private data for this project. I would like to thank Kevin Keys for providing soil related data for this project. I would like to thank Garett Gaudet for his assistance with python programming.
  34. 34. References AgraPoint. (2009).Recommended grape varieties for Nova Scotia. Retrieved from http://www.google.ca/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=3&ved=0CDYQFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.perennia.ca%2FFact%2520Sheets%2F Horticulture%2FFruit%2FGrape%2FRecommended_Wine_Grape_Varieties_for_NS.pdf&ei=d878Uo- mIem9yAG0uoHACw&usg=AFQjCNGG8VTnT77Sxku0HFak-wBB_nLPbA Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. (2014). Download soil name table and soil layer table. Retrieved from http://sis.agr.gc.ca/cansis/nsdb/soil/v2/download.html Carisse, O., Bacon, R., Lasnier, J., & McFadden-Smith, W. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. (2006). Identification Guide to the Major Diseases of Grapes. Retrieved from http://www.agr.gc.ca/eng/science-and-innovation/science-publications-and-resources/technical-factsheets/identification-guide-to-the-major-diseases-of- grapes/?id=1210281691267#alt Craig, B. (2013). Grape Management Schedule: A guide to weed, insect and disease management in grapes in Nova Scotia. Perrenia. Retrieved from http://perennia.ca/Pest%20Management%20Guides/Fruits/2013%20Grape%20Insect%20and%20Disease%20Management%20Schedule.pdf Drysdale, C., Webster, T., Mccarthy, C., Ure, D., Kehler D., Spooner I., Brylinsky M., Richard M., Fenech A., Liu8, A., Milne K., Murphy M., Colville D., & Ross A. () Climate Change And Adaptive Resource Management In The Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve. Government of Canada. (2014). Climate and Tides. Retrieved from http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/eppp- archive/100/200/301/ic/can_digital_collections/west_nova/climate.html Gadoury, D. M., Seem, R.C., Wilcox, W.F. Kennelly, M. (2005). Epidemology and Control of Grape Downy Mildew. Hardwick Jones, R., Westra, S., & Sharma, A. (2010). Observed relationships between extreme sub‐daily precipitation, surface temperature, and relative humidity. Geophysical Research Letters, 37(22). Integrated Pest Management. (2004). Degree-day Calculation. Retrieved from https://ipm.illinois.edu/degreedays/calculation.html JOST Vineyards. Grape Growing. Retrieved from http://www.jostwine.com/default.asp?mn=1.25.52
  35. 35. References Kittilsen, L. (2008). Business Planning and Economics of Wine Grape Production in Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia Department of Agriculture. Retrieved from http://www.perennia.ca/Fact%20Sheets/Horticulture/Fruit/Grape/NSAgricultureEconomicsofWineGrapeProduction.pdf Lewis, J. An introduction to grape growing in Nova Scotia. Retrieved from http://www.perennia.ca/Fact%20Sheets/Horticulture/Fruit/Grape/An%20Intro%20to%20Grape%20Growing%20in%20NS.pdf Lewis, J. C., Jamieson, A., Gordon, R., & Patterson, G. (2008). Opportunities and Challenges for Wine Grape Production in Nova Scotia. http://www.perennia.ca/Fact%20Sheets/Horticulture/Fruit/Grape/Opportunities_and_Challenges_for_wine_grape.pdf Moran, J. (2012). On Nova Scotia Farms: A Teacher’s Guide to Nova Scotia Agriculture. Nova Scotia Department of Agriculture. Retrieved from http://novascotia.ca/agri/documents/education/resources_NSFarmPRF16-sen.pdf Nova Scotia Department of Agriculture. (2007). Nova Scotia Farm Winery Policy. Retrieved from http://www.novascotia.ca/agri/mbd/WineryPolicy.pdf. Pesticide Risk Reduction Program, Pest Management Centre & Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. (2006) Crop Profile for Grape in Canada. Rimerman, F. (2013). The Economic Impact of the Wine and Grape Industry in Canada 2011. Retrieved from http://winesofnovascotia.ca/wp- content/uploads/2013/04/CVA-WANS-Economic-ImpactStudy.pdf Rieger, W. and Colville, D. (2012). South West Nova Scotia (SWNS) Temperature and Solar Radiation Study: 2012 Project Summary. Soliman, A., Heck, R. J., Brenning, A., Brown, R., & Miller, S. (2013). Remote sensing of soil moisture in vineyards using airborne and ground-based thermal inertia Data. Remote Sensing, 5(8), 3729-3748. VineTech Canada. (2014). Helps & Tips. AE Media Inc. Retrieved from http://www.vinetechcanada.com/help-tips/ Vierra, T. (2005). Mechanized leaf removal shows good results. Retrieved from http://www.practicalwinery.com/marapr05/marapr05p48.htm Warnert, J. (2007). UC Cooperative Extension advisor researches biodynamic grape production. Retrieved from http://ucanr.edu/News/?uid=991&ds=191 Winery Association of Nova Scotia. (2011) Room to Grow: We are rooted in Nova Scotia. Retrieved from http://winesofnovascotia.ca/wp- content/uploads/2013/04/CVA-Study-WANS-Press-Kit.pdf Wines of Canada: Nova Scotia. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.winesofcanada.com/scotia.html

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