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A cooperative and multidisciplinary approach to a Mediterranean in transition

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Blanca Moreno-Dodson
Manager of the Center for Mediterranean Integration, World Bank

“A cooperative and multidisciplinary approach to a Mediterranean in transition”

Climate change, socio-economic crises and food (in) security: a Mediterranean in Transition. Conference in memory of Eugenia Ferragina
2018, 17th September
Italian Navy Officer’s Club, Naples
Via Cesario Console, 3 bis
Naples (Italy)
Institute for Studies on Mediterranean Societies, National Council of Research
www.issm.cnr.it/en/

Published in: Environment
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A cooperative and multidisciplinary approach to a Mediterranean in transition

  1. 1. Climate change, socio-economic crises and food (in) security: a Mediterranean in Transition A cooperative and multidisciplinary approach to a Mediterranean in transition Institute for Studies on Mediterranean Societies Naples, September 17, 2018
  2. 2. EURO-MEDITERRANEAN COOPERATION A recently released report from Hervé Berville on « Modernization of the partnership development policy » advocates for a change of method in the way development policies are done and implemented. Promotion of regional cooperation: only concerted efforts from a regional perspective, with solid support of the international community, can significantly help countries achieve transformative reforms and enhance integration in the Mediterranean region.
  3. 3. THE CENTER FOR MEDITERRANEAN INTEGRATION (CMI)
  4. 4. A multi-partner platform where development agencies, Governments, local authorities and civil society (including youth groups) from across the Mediterranean convene for public policy debates on Mediterranean political economy issues and furthering the “Mediterranean public good” debate. WHAT ARE WE And many others… Observer OUR MEMBERS OUR PARTNERS
  5. 5. OUR GOAL • Strengthening dialogue between Mediterranean actors for the joint identification of regional solutions to regional issues for an inclusive, integrated, and stable region OUR TARGET • Promote regional public goods by focusing only on regional projects
  6. 6. FIVE BUSINESS LINES 1)ANALYTICAL AND ADVISORY PRODUCTS CAPACITY BUILDING TECHNICAL HUBS AND COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICES INCUBATION OF OPERATIONAL PROJECTS MULTI- STAKEHOLDER THEMATIC POLICY EXCHANGES AND DIALOGUES
  7. 7. CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE MEDITERRANEAN
  8. 8. PROJECTED IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN KEY SECTORS IN THE MENA REGION Source: World Bank. 2014. Turn Down the Heat: Confronting the New Climate Normal.
  9. 9. ECONOMIC LOSSES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN Between 2010 and 2030, Alexandria, Casablanca and Tunis will face individually cumulative economic losses of $ 1 billion from floods, earthquakes, coastal erosion, soil instability, maritime floods and water scarcity. The economic cost of environmental degradation ranges from 2% of GDP in Tunisia and Jordan to 4% in Syria, Lebanon, Morocco and Algeria, 6% in Egypt and up to 8% in Iran. Source: World Bank. 2014. Turn Down the Heat: Confronting the New Climate Normal.
  10. 10. ENERGY CONNECTIVITY
  11. 11. PARIS AGREEMENT: PRIORITY TO RENEWABLE ENERGY
  12. 12. THE KEY ROLE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN Large renewable energy potential Euro- Mediterranean energy market integration Large-scale development of renewable energy Source: www.tecsol.fr
  13. 13. EURO-MEDITERRANEAN ENERGY MARKET INTEGRATION Cooperation Voluntary approach and resource mobilization Involvement of all actors: countries, international organizations, regulators and electricity companies
  14. 14. CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE MEDITERRANEAN Rise in temperature Water scarcity Food insecurity Climate migration Need for joint action and regional collaboration
  15. 15. MIGRATION AND MOBILITY
  16. 16. MIGRATION IN THE MEDITERRANEAN Source: UNHCR as of September 13, 2018 Economic Migration Greece, Italy and recently Spain receive increasing numbers of migrants Irregular border crossings and smuggling of migrants from Libya is increasing Forced Displacement Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan and Iraq are carrying the biggest burden of the refugee crisis with more than 5.4 million Syrian refugees in the Mashreq and Turkey Demographic boom According to UNDESA data, African continent is expected to double by 2050, from 1.3 to 2.5 billion people Lack of jobs, infrastructure and basic services, but also, scarcity of resources and environmental degradation will lead part of this population to flee to other countries looking for a better life
  17. 17. POPULATION DEVELOPMENTS AS A KEY CHALLENGE FOR MENA Lack of dynamic private sector involvement in job creation Unemployment and social inequalities Current MENA youth bulge – with 300 million job seekers expected in MENA by 2050 Migration flows
  18. 18. DISPLACEMENT, MIGRATION AND HOST COMMUNITIES Welfare of local communities hosting refugees Strengthen local governments’ response capacity in Local Economic Development and priority service delivery for refugees and the most vulnerable, including South- South and South-North learning. Diaspora mobilization Facilitate the Syrian investors’ diaspora and private sector mobilization to support reflections on the economic engagement of diaspora in host countries. Swith from migration to mobility approach The switch from a “migration” approach to a “regional mobility” approach – that encourages a circular migration that enables the mobility of people and knowledge – would conclusively promote efforts towards the establishment of a two-way exchange and win- win solution for knowledge, and subsequently lead to the enhancement of human capital.
  19. 19. Renewal of the social contract Economic growth Setting up resilience to economic vulnerabilites HUMAN CAPITAL BUILDS CONVERGENT PATHS OF DEVELOPMENT Bolstering human capital holds several advantages
  20. 20. Enhancing the quality of education Fostering the development of a knowledge economy Comprehensive approach to education (from early childhood to tertiary education) Creating an enabling environment for an entrepreneurial class to flourish Empowering youth to become agents for change as a source of stability CMI’S HUMAN CAPITAL APPROACH
  21. 21. PROMOTING INTERNATIONALIZATION OF TERTIARY EDUCATION IN THE MENA REGION TO ENHANCE THE QUALITY OF HUMAN CAPITAL
  22. 22. Benefits for the country • Economic impacts • Quality • Influence Benefits for the student • Skills (soft and socio-emotional) • Employability THE BENEFITS OF INTERNATIONALIZATION
  23. 23. THE BENEFITS ON EMPLOYABILITY Interpersonal skills Foreign languages Flexibility Intercultural understanding Benchmarks Highly skilled and knowledgeable workforce 21st Century Skills
  24. 24. GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS IN TERTIARY EDUCATION BY REGION OF ORIGIN, 1999 AND 2016 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1999 2016 East Asia and the Pacific North America and Western Europe Central and Eastern Europe South and West Asia Latin America and the Caribbean Central Asia Sub-Saharan Africa Arab States Source: UNESCO
  25. 25. INBOUND MOBILITY RATE (% OF TOTAL TERTIARY ENROLMENT), 2014 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Source: CMI’s calculation using UNESCO data
  26. 26. -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Growth rates Growth rate of total enrollment Growth rate of international students Total and international enrolment in Tertiary Education in MENA compared Source: Constructed by the CMI using UNESCO data
  27. 27. OBSTACLES TO INTERNATIONALIZATION Lack of (public) funding Insufficient exposure to international opportunities Limited experience and expertise of faculty members and staff Recognition difficulties for qualifications Visa restrictions on international students, researchers and academics Source: Internationalization of Higher Education: Growing expectations, fundamental values; IAU 4th Global Survey; Eva Egron-Polak and Ross Hudson, April 2014

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