Sleep disorders_

2,105 views

Published on

0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,105
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
61
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
41
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Sleep disorders_

  1. 1. By Elizabeth Stamos
  2. 2. <ul><li>The precise function of sleep is unknown. </li></ul><ul><li>Decades of research implicate that sleep has a major role in central nervous system restoration, memory consolidation, and affect regulation. </li></ul><ul><li>neurotransmitters control whether we are asleep or awake by acting on neurons in the brain. Neurons in the brainstem, which connects the brain with the spinal cord, produce neurotransmitters such as serotonin and norepinephrine that keep some parts of the brain active while we are awake. Other neurons at the base of the brain begin signaling when we fall asleep. These neurons appear to &quot;switch off&quot; the signals that keep us awake. Research also suggests that a chemical called adenosine builds up in our blood while we are awake and causes drowsiness. This chemical gradually breaks down while we sleep </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The National Institutes of Health reports that 40 million Americans suffer from chronic, long-standing sleep disorders. Another 20 million have occasional problems getting – or staying – asleep. </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep disorders often remain unidentified and undiagnosed. Nearly one in two who have the deadliest sleep disorder – sleep apnea – remain undiagnosed. </li></ul><ul><li>There are more than 70 sleep disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Insomnia and sleep apnea account for more than 50 percent of all sleep disorder diagnoses. </li></ul><ul><li>An estimated one in five adults has some form of sleep apnea. One in 15 adults suffers from moderate and severe forms of the disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>Untreated sleep apnea has been linked with three of the four leading causes of death. Of the four – heart disease, cancer, stroke and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – only cancer has not been associated with sleep apnea. More than 100,000 motor vehicle accidents each year are sleep-related. Catastrophes, such as those at Chernobyl, Three-Mile Island, Challenger and the Exxon Valdez were officially attributed to errors caused by sleepiness and fatigue. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The pineal gland, found deep inside the human brain, plays a major role in how people sleep. The gland secretes the hormone melatonin, which induces people to fall asleep. </li></ul><ul><li>Throughout the night, the pineal gland continues to secrete melatonin. As morning approaches, the production of melatonin slows, causing us to awaken. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>A sleep disorder is any recurrent change in a normal sleep pattern. It could be as mild as insomnia or as serious as sleep apnea. </li></ul><ul><li>About 70 million Americans suffer from sleep disorders…60 million of which, suffer from chronic insomnia. </li></ul><ul><li>What do sleep disorders do? </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=evvYmnIhG78&feature=related </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>There are 2 categories of sleep disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>The 1 st category is Dyssomnia - which results in poor sleep. Insomnia (the inability to fall asleep or stay asleep), Sleep Apnea (repeatedly stops breathing for 10 seconds or more during sleep), and Narcolepsy (to fall asleep suddenly) fall under this category. Other forms of Dysommnia are Hypersomnia (the desire to sleep too much), and Circadian Rhythm disorders (an inability to maintain a regular sleep schedule). </li></ul><ul><li>Dyssomnia can be cause by outside factors such as stress and anxiety or physiological factors such as obstructed breathing passageways. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The 2 nd category is Parasomnia. This is where a person’s brain wakes up even though the person is still very much asleep. This can prompt a sleeping person into strange behaviors, such as Sleep Terrors, Sleepwalking, or even physical responses to nightmares… none of which they will remember. </li></ul><ul><li>Other forms of Parasmonia that are common among young children are bed-wetting and head banging. Bed-wetting is attributed to a weak bladder in a deep sleeper. Head banging is believed to have a calming effect on young children. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Physical illness </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety or stress </li></ul><ul><li>Poor sleeping environment such as excessive noise or light </li></ul><ul><li>Caffeine </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol or other drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Use of certain medications </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy smoking </li></ul><ul><li>Physical discomfort </li></ul><ul><li>Daytime napping </li></ul><ul><li>Counterproductive sleep habits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early bedtimes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive time spent awake in bed </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Adults make up the greatest percentage of people who suffer from sleep disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>Young adults all the way up to the elderly are afflicted by sleep disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>The site below show some interesting statistics from 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.sleepmed.md/page/1896 </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Children suffer from sleep disorders as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor sleep in children is associated with lower neurocognitive functioning and increased maladaptive behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>From infancy to early school age, children spend as much or more time asleep than awake. The amount of sleep they require is greater than that of young adults, possibly due to the role that sleep plays in early brain development and learning. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Someone with a circadian rhythm disorder can’t coordinate their sleeping habits with their biological clock, which tells them when it’s daytime and when it’s nighttime. </li></ul><ul><li>People whose job’s require them to work overnight are told by their brains that they should be going to sleep when they arrive to work. This is the time when the brain releases the hormone melatonin, which enhances one’s abilities to fall asleep. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a small group of brain cells located in the hypothalamus that controls the circadian cycles and influences many physiological and behavioral rhythms occurring over a 24-hour period, including the sleep/wake cycle. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Almost everyone occasionally suffers from short-term insomnia. This problem can result from stress, jet lag, diet, or many other factors. Insomnia almost always affects job performance and well-being the next day. About 60 million Americans a year have insomnia frequently or for extended periods of time, which leads to even more serious sleep deficits. Insomnia tends to increase with age and affects about 40 percent of women and 30 percent of men. It is often the major disabling symptom of an underlying medical disorder. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>A lot of sleep disorders cause sleep deprivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep deprivation occurs when a person does not sleep long enough to let the body rest and regenerate. This can lead to serious physical conditions that have short-term and long-term effects on the body. If the body continually gets too little sleep in the long-term, life-threatening conditions can also occur. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Droopy eyes, weakness and irritability are all symptoms expected from lack of sleep. Some short-term affects are less easily identified and can be dangerous. </li></ul><ul><li>They include the inability to problem solve or make decisions, hallucinations, slower reaction times, disorientation, falling asleep, and tremors. People who don't get enough sleep can get sick more easily. With less sleep, the body is unable to produce white cells as well as it should, making the immune system more vulnerable to attack. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>If sleep deprivation is not solved, the body can manifest long-term, serious conditions. Many of these cannot be solved by simply getting more sleep. </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul><ul><li>Coronary heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>The University of Chicago Medical Center discovered that lack of sleep could interfere with the body's regulation of sugar metabolism and insulin production. This can make a person more likely to develop diabetes. </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Even brain damage </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H3cOQBR-zO0 </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>If you think you might be suffering from a sleep disorder, you can go to the link below and give yourself a self assessment quiz. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.talkaboutsleep.com/app/index.cfm?fuseaction=sleepQuiz.view </li></ul><ul><li>If it sounds like you are suffering from a sleep disorder, then you should see a physician. Your primary care physician may be able to help you; if not, you can probably find a sleep specialist at a major hospital near you. Most sleep disorders can be treated effectively, so you can finally get that good night's sleep you need. </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Sleep Disorders By: Hal Marcovitz Published in 2010 by ReferencePoint Press, Inc </li></ul><ul><li>Here I found many things. Info on all the disorders I looked into and where to find more info on the disorders. It is a compact research book and I absolutely love it. It is very easy to understand and gives you massive amounts of facts. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.porterhealth.com/Our%20Services/Pages/Sleep%20Disorders%20Institute%20-%20Sleep%20Facts.aspx This site is where I found the fast facts information. I found it interesting. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/brain_basics/understanding_sleep.htm This is where I found info on neurotransmitters and neurons and the signals they send to our brains for sleep. </li></ul><ul><li>under the brain’s control : http://healthysleep.med.harvard.edu/healthy/science/how/neurophysiology </li></ul><ul><li>http://healthysleep.med.harvard.edu/image/200 This is the website where I found some of the effects from sleep deprivation. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.healthtree.com/articles/sleep-disorders/effects/ Resources </li></ul><ul><li>E-Medicine Health Staff. (2007). Sleep disorders and aging . Retrieved July 5, 2007 from http://www.emedicinehealth.com/sleep_disorders_and_aging/article_em.htm. </li></ul><ul><li>Hellmich, N. (2004). Sleep loss may equal weight gain . Retrieved October 14, 2010, from http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2004-12-06-sleep-weight-gain_x.htm. </li></ul><ul><li>Mayo Clinic Staff. (2009). Insomnia . Retrieved October 14, 2010, from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/insomnia/DS00187. </li></ul><ul><li>National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (n.d). Drowsy driving and automobile crashes . Retrieved October 6, 2010, from http://www.nhtsa.gov/people/injury/drowsy_driving1/drowsy.html#V.%20POPULATION%20GROUPS. </li></ul><ul><li>Neubauer, D. (1999). Sleep problems in the elderly . Retrieved October 7, 2010, from http://www.aafp.org/afp/990501ap/2551.html. </li></ul><ul><li>2006-2011 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.sleepmed.md/page/1896 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.abpi.org.uk/publications/publication_details/azResearch/s2.asp </li></ul><ul><li>http://alumni.berkeley.edu/news/california-magazine/marchapril-2008-mind-matters/your-brain-without-sleep from a 2008 copy of California a UC Berkley magazine </li></ul><ul><li>You tube: Dead Tired - The documentary http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H3cOQBR-zO0 </li></ul><ul><li>You tube: What Do Sleep Disorders Do? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=evvYmnIhG78&feature=related </li></ul><ul><li>http://consciousx.blogspot.com/2010/08/importantance-of-fluoride-free-pineal.html This would be where I found the pineal gland picture. </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Sleep in Psychiatric disorders: Where are we now? This is an article on the EBSCO site thru the spscc library online data base. I found a plethora of information on sleep disorder and affects on people. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>AMA </li></ul><ul><li>(American Medical Assoc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Reference List </li></ul><ul><li>Lee E, Douglass A. Sleep in Psychiatric Disorders: Where Are We Now?. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry [serial online]. July 2010;55(7):403-412. Available from: Academic Search Complete, Ipswich, MA. Accessed February 16, 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>APA </li></ul><ul><li>(American Psychological Assoc.) </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Lee, E., & Douglass, A. B. (2010). Sleep in Psychiatric Disorders: Where Are We Now?. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry , 55(7), 403-412. Retrieved from EBSCO host . </li></ul><ul><li>Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date </li></ul><ul><li>Reference List </li></ul><ul><li>Lee, Elliott Kyung, and Alan B. Douglass. 2010. &quot;Sleep in Psychiatric Disorders: Where Are We Now?.&quot; Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 55, no. 7: 403-412. Academic Search Complete , EBSCO host (accessed February 16, 2011). </li></ul><ul><li>Chicago/Turabian: Humanities </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliography </li></ul><ul><li>Lee, Elliott Kyung, and Alan B. Douglass. &quot;Sleep in Psychiatric Disorders: Where Are We Now?.&quot; Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 55, no. 7 (July 2010): 403-412. Academic Search Complete , EBSCO host (accessed February 16, 2011). </li></ul><ul><li>Harvard </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Lee, E, & Douglass, A 2010, 'Sleep in Psychiatric Disorders: Where Are We Now?', Canadian Journal of Psychiatry , 55, 7, pp. 403-412, Academic Search Complete, EBSCO host , viewed 16 February 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>MLA </li></ul><ul><li>(Modern Language Assoc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Works Cited </li></ul><ul><li>Lee, Elliott Kyung, and Alan B. Douglass. &quot;Sleep in Psychiatric Disorders: Where Are We Now?.&quot; Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 55.7 (2010): 403-412. Academic Search Complete . EBSCO. Web. 16 Feb. 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>Vancouver/ICMJE </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Lee E, Douglass A. Sleep in Psychiatric Disorders: Where Are We Now?. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry [serial on the Internet]. (2010, July), [cited February 16, 2011]; 55(7): 403-412. Available from: Academic Search Complete. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Websites for my Research: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.talkaboutsleep.com/app/index.cfm?fuseaction=sleepQuiz.view </li></ul><ul><li>http://sleep.lovetoknow.com/Physical_Effects_of_Sleep_Deprivation </li></ul><ul><li>2006-2011 LoveToKnow Corp. </li></ul><ul><li> http://www.righthealth.com/topic/Causes_Of_Sleep_Disorders/overview/adam20?fdid=Adamv2_000800&section=Full_Article Review Date: 8/12/2009 Reviewed By: Allen J. Blaivas, DO, Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Department of Veteran Affairs, VA New Jersey Health Care System, East Orange, NJ . Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.righthealth.com/topic/Causes_Of_Sleep_Disorders/overview/adam20#ixzz1E6FZWxMU </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.sleepmed.md/page/1896 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.healthtree.com/articles/sleep-disorders/effects/ </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep Disorder Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Last Modified: November 18, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>The next article is sleep disordered breathing affects auditory processing in 5-7 year old children: evidence from brain recordings </li></ul><ul><li>I found I found the information in this article about the neurocognitive functioning and behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>AMA </li></ul><ul><li>(American Medical Assoc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Reference List </li></ul><ul><li>Key A, Molfese D, O'Brien L, Gozal D. Sleep-Disordered Breathing Affects Auditory Processing in 5-7-Year-Old Children: Evidence From Brain Recordings. Developmental Neuropsychology [serial online]. September 2009;34(5):615-628. Available from: Academic Search Complete, Ipswich, MA </li></ul><ul><li>APA </li></ul><ul><li>(American Psychological Assoc.) </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Key, A. F., Molfese, D. L., O'Brien, L., & Gozal, D. (2009). Sleep-Disordered Breathing Affects Auditory Processing in 5-7-Year-Old Children: Evidence From Brain Recordings. Developmental Neuropsychology , 34(5), 615-628. doi:10.1080/87565640903133608 </li></ul><ul><li>Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date </li></ul><ul><li>Reference List </li></ul><ul><li>Key, Alexandra P. F., Dennis L. Molfese, Louise O'Brien, and David Gozal. 2009. &quot;Sleep-Disordered Breathing Affects Auditory Processing in 5-7-Year-Old Children: Evidence From Brain Recordings.&quot; Developmental Neuropsychology 34, no. 5: 615-628. Academic Search Complete , EBSCO host (accessed February 16, 2011). </li></ul><ul><li>Chicago/Turabian: Humanities </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliography </li></ul><ul><li>David Gozal, et al. &quot;Sleep-Disordered Breathing Affects Auditory Processing in 5-7-Year-Old Children: Evidence From Brain Recordings.&quot; Developmental Neuropsychology 34, no. 5 (September 2009): 615-628. Academic Search Complete , EBSCO host (accessed February 16, 2011). </li></ul><ul><li>Harvard </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Key, A, Molfese, D, O'Brien, L, & Gozal, D 2009, 'Sleep-Disordered Breathing Affects Auditory Processing in 5-7-Year-Old Children: Evidence From Brain Recordings', Developmental Neuropsychology , 34, 5, pp. 615-628, Academic Search Complete, EBSCO host , viewed 16 February 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>MLA </li></ul><ul><li>(Modern Language Assoc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Works Cited </li></ul><ul><li>David Gozal, et al. &quot;Sleep-Disordered Breathing Affects Auditory Processing in 5-7-Year-Old Children: Evidence From Brain Recordings.&quot; Developmental Neuropsychology 34.5 (2009): 615-628. Academic Search Complete . EBSCO. Web. 16 Feb. 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>Vancouver/ICMJE </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Key A, Molfese D, O'Brien L, Gozal D. Sleep-Disordered Breathing Affects Auditory Processing in 5-7-Year-Old Children: Evidence From Brain Recordings. Developmental Neuropsychology [serial on the Internet]. (2009, Sep), [cited February 16, 2011]; 34(5): 615-628. Available from: Academic Search Complete. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>

×