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  1. 1. • -Memory is the ability of an organism to store, retain, and recall information and experiences.• -Memory is a complex brain-wide process that does not only occur in one specific region of the brain.
  2. 2. • We remember things by association. Each piece of information is linked to other information in some way or another. The more you know about a particular topic, the easier it is to remember or learn new things about that topic because you have more “hooks” for the new information to hook onto.
  3. 3. • Encoding• Storage• Retrival
  4. 4. • Requires paying attention.• The strength of the memory may depend upon the type or amount of attention paid to stimuli.• Strategies to maximize encoding include, minimizing distractions, and managing study time effectively.• Involves analyzing material instead of only trying to memorize it.• Involves using associative memory techniques.
  5. 5. • Retains the information gathered in the initial stages of encoding.• The information passes into sensory memory as the brain processes sensations, such as sight and sounds.• Some information gets processed into short-term memory, and a small amount makes it long-term memory.
  6. 6. • -Retrival has two parts:• Recall and Recognition• Recall involves memories of previously thought out information.• Recognition involves identification of learned items.
  7. 7. • The hippocampus is a horse-shoe shaped area of the brain that plays an important role in consolidating information from short-term memory into long-term memory. It is part of the limbic system. The hippocampus is involved in such complex processes as forming, organizing, and storing memories.
  8. 8. • The limbic system is the collective name for structures in the human brain involved in emotion, motivation, and emotional association with memory. It affects motivation and is more active in extroverts and risk-takers than in introverts and cautious people.• The limbic system plays its role in the formation of memory by integrating emotional states with stored memories of physical sensations.
  9. 9. • Emotions improve memory. Memories get encoded in different ways in the brain depending on whether they have emotional content.• Simple memories with out an emotional content get encoded by the hippocampus.• The amygdala takes on a more significant role with memories that do have emotional content, which then communicates with the hypothalamus.• The hypothalamus then sets off the release of hormones and neurotransmitters.
  10. 10. -Your brain works a lot like a computer. …Your brain puts information it judges important into “files.” When you remember something, you pull up a file. As people grow older, it may take longer to retrieve those files. -Medline Plus-We experiences and events which are happening now, so memory differs fromperception. We remember events which really happened, so memory is unlike pureimagination. -Stanford-Simply put, memory makes us. It provides us with a sense of self. If we could not recallthe who’s, what’s, where’s, and when’s of everyday lives, we would never be able tomanage.-We mull over ideas in the present with our short-term (or working) memory, while westore past events and learned meanings in our long-term (episodic or semantic) memory. -Psychology Today-Memories that contain emotional content get an extra “kick” from the amygdala,encoding them more powerfully.-Information only stays in short-term memory for about 20-30 seconds.
  11. 11. •, (2012), The New York Times Company,• Medline Plus, A Service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine, NIH National Institutes of Health,• Psychology Today, (2012), Sussex Publishers,• Sutton, John, “Memory”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy(summer 2010 edition), Edward N. Zalta, URL=>• Sweeny, Micheal, “Brain: The Complete Mind”, National Geographic, Washington, D.C.• Weiner, Martha, “ Where Did I Leave My Glasses?” (2008), Wellness Central, Hachette Book Group USA, New York.• Wikipedia, “Memory”,