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  1. 1. Depression Megan Nord Psych275 Professor Moon
  2. 2. What is Depression? <ul><li>Serious medical syndrome (Sweeney 232). </li></ul><ul><li>Long lasting sadness, does not go away. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor moods, unable to feel happy </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with relating and communicating to family, friends, coworkers (Ainsworth 20). </li></ul><ul><li>Physical symptoms such as headaches and/or body aches, constant pain (Ainsworth 20). </li></ul>
  3. 3. Symptoms of Depression <ul><li>Table 2-1: Symptoms of Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling sad, empty, nervous for a long time </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling hopeless, helpless, pessimistic </li></ul><ul><li>Problems sleeping, waking early in the morning and unable to get back to sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of interest or enjoyment in hobbies, activities previously enjoyed </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling worthless, guilty, overwhelmed, inadequate </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling tired, lazy, no energy or zest </li></ul><ul><li>Problems concentrating, thinking clearly, remembering things </li></ul><ul><li>Ambivalence, can’t make decisions </li></ul><ul><li>No appetite with weight loss or overeating with weight gain </li></ul><ul><li>Agitation, irritability, physical restlessness </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of interest or enjoyment in sex </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent thoughts of death or suicide </li></ul><ul><li>Physical symptoms (such as headaches, stomach distress, chest pain, chronic pain) that won’t go away despite treatment </li></ul><ul><li>(Paolucci, Paolucci, and Buckley 6) </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright © 2007. B.C. Decker. All rights reserved. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Three Types of Depression <ul><li>Clinical Depression (Major Depression) </li></ul><ul><li>Minor (Dysthymia) </li></ul><ul><li>Bipolar Disorder </li></ul>
  5. 5. Clinical Depression <ul><li>Over two weeks of intense sadness, and five other recognized symptoms (Paolucci, Paolucci, and Buckley 5). </li></ul><ul><li>Intense and severe consequences that disrupt one’s personal and professional life (Paolucci, Paolucci, and Buckley 5). </li></ul><ul><li>Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan often used to see shrinkage of the hippocampus and frontal lobe (Sweeney 230). </li></ul><ul><li>Can occur and reoccur in episodes throughout one’s life, but clinical depression is more often an ongoing syndrome in those diagnosed. </li></ul>(“Position Emission Tomography Scan of the Brain for Depression”)
  6. 6. Minor Depression <ul><li>Often referred to as Dysthymia </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms are same as major depression, and occur for at least two years but at a lower level and do not completely disrupt one’s life (Paolucci, Paolucci, and Buckley 6). </li></ul><ul><li>Chances likely to develop major depression if symptoms go untreated (Ainsworth 17). </li></ul><ul><li>Physical shrinkage of the brain less obvious, unless it develops into major depression. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Bipolar Depression <ul><li>Two-sided disease of highs and lows </li></ul><ul><li>High Stage-Individual has lots of energy, mind races, unable to formulate clear and complete thoughts (Ainsworth 19). </li></ul><ul><li>Low Stage-Depressed state, usually recognized as Major Depression (Ainsworth 19). </li></ul><ul><li>Person can have gradual change in between these stages or the change can be rapid and sudden between stages. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Diagnosing Depression <ul><li>Doctor must diagnose depression by in depth discussion with patient about medical history, what might have triggered the depression, and family medical history to see if depression might be present in other family members (Chakraburtty, “Depression in Children”). </li></ul><ul><li>A physical and mental health evaluation are also common in the diagnosis evaluation (Chakraburtty, “Depression in Children”). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Depression in the Brain (Refer to Figure 1 on the next slide) <ul><li>Increased emotion in left brain in Amygdala and right hemisphere of frontal cortex (Sweeney 232). </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased activity in right hemisphere of Amygdala and left hemisphere of frontal cortex (Sweeney 232). </li></ul><ul><li>Less neurotransmitters in frontal lobe and Amygdala shown to lead to Depression, based on an imbalance of these neurotransmitters (Sweeney 232). </li></ul>
  10. 10. Figure 1 (Miller, “Understanding Depression”)
  11. 11. Depression in the Brain Cont’d. <ul><li>Depression is Hereditary, if Depression runs in your family you have a greater risk of developing Depression (Chakraburtty, “Depression in Children”). </li></ul><ul><li>Often massive shrinkage in the Hippocampus, which controls stress level, is visible. Less ability to control stress is linked to Depression (Sweeney 232). </li></ul><ul><li>In Clinical Depression, the Frontal Lobes are affected where emotions and reasoning are involved which can trigger Depression (Ainsworth 66). </li></ul>
  12. 12. Serotonin <ul><li>Serotonin is a chemical neurotransmitter that transmits signals in the brain (Ainsworth 72). </li></ul><ul><li>Imbalance in Serotonin can influence mood and emotions (Ainsworth 72). </li></ul><ul><li>Doctors have placed a great emphasis on researching Serotonin and its relationship to Depression. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems in the brain with low levels of Serotonin: the brain being unable to receive Serotonin and/or an overall shortage of Serotonin in the brain are being linked to Depression and it’s symptoms (Sweeney 232). </li></ul>
  13. 13. Depression in Children “ The National Comorbidity Survey – Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A) examines both Dysthymic disorder and major depressive disorder together. These depressive disorders have affected approximately 11.2 percent of 13 to 18 year olds in the United States at some point during their lives. Girls are more likely than boys to experience depressive disorders. Additionally, 3.3 percent of 13 to 18 year olds have experienced a seriously debilitating depressive disorder (“Major Depressive Disorder in Children”).”
  14. 14. Depression in Children Cont’d. <ul><li>Doctor’s factor in family life and social pressures when diagnosing/treating a child with Depression (Silberg, Maes, and Eaves 735). </li></ul><ul><li>Childhood depression often occurs in children where Depression runs in the family and is not just a stage of puberty, but a serious medical syndrome. </li></ul><ul><li>Both therapy and prescription drugs are used to treat childhood Depression from ages 8+ (Silberg, Maes, and Eaves 734). </li></ul><ul><li>Bipolar Disorder begins to show signs and symptoms in early childhood and adolescence, children diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder often have more intense symptoms at a younger age than adults with Bipolar Disorder (Chakraburtty, “Depression in Children”). </li></ul>
  15. 15. Treatment <ul><li>Medical treatments such as Prozac, Zoloft, Celexa, and Paxil are the most common and are referred to as “Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors” (SSRIs) (Sweeney 232). </li></ul><ul><li>These treatments increase production of Serotonin and help block the breakdown of Serotonin to promote the “lifespan” of the molecule (Ainsworth 93). </li></ul><ul><li>SSRI in combination with therapy often have good affects on patients (Gledhill, Hodes 4). </li></ul>
  16. 16. Questions on Depression <ul><li>Many feel the medicines are too potent on the brain and body, and that Depression can be cured by a proper diet, exercise, socialization, and meditation. What do you think are the best treatment options for Depression? </li></ul><ul><li>Depression is a term people often misuse and is misunderstood as a true syndrome. What are some things about Depression you have learned or did not know before? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Conclusion <ul><li>Three types of Depression: Clinical, Minor, and Bipolar Disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular amount of chemicals such as Serotonin and improper functions of the brain’s Lobes, Hippocampus, and Amygdala are often related to Depression. </li></ul><ul><li>Depression in children does occur and should not be overlooked, it should be taken seriously as Depression is a true medical syndrome. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Works Cited <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>*Ainsworth, Patricia. Understanding Depression. Jackson, MS, USA: University Press of Mississippi, 2000. Ebrary Collections. Web. 31 July. 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>-This book was an informative source that had more in depth information on Depression. Beyond the causes and symptoms, this book also looked at how Depression is diagnosed and provided a great deal of clear, concise information on Depression. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Chakraburtty, Amal. WebMD: Depression in Children. September 12, 2009. Web. 31 July. 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>-This website offered general information on Depression, but also gave information on both diagnosing and treating Depression in children. The website had useful information in reference to Depression and how it is hereditary. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>*Gledhill, J., & Hodes, M. (2011). The Treatment of Adolescents with Depression. Current Medical Literature: Psychiatry, 22(1), 1-7. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. </li></ul><ul><li>-This source was specific to treating young adults with Depression. This was a very thorough and dense source of information. It offered the most information concerning Depression in young adults, especially in treatment options. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clinic: Position Emission Tomography Scan of the Brain for Depression. 1998-2011. Web. 31 July. 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>-This website offered an article on PET Scans of the brain with Depression. These images helped a lot in my research and were a great way to show the affects Depression has on the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Miller, Michael C., MD. Understanding Depression. USA: Harvard Health Publications, 2011. Web. 31 July. 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>-This book was very useful in understanding Depression as a syndrome. This was filled with great information and facts to use in my research. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Works Cited Cont’d <ul><li>NIMH. National Institute of Mental Health: Major Depressive Disorder in Children, July 2010. Web. 31 July. 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>-This website offered great statistical information as well as charts and tables. This was one of the most useful sites in researching Depression specifically in children and young adults. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Paolucci, Susan L., MD Paolucci, Stephen J., MD Buckley, Sandra A. Depression FAQs. Hamilton, ON, CAN: B.C. Decker, 2007. Ebrary Collections. Web. 31 July. 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>-This book was the most general source on Depression. This did not have as much in depth information but was still quite helpful while doing preliminary research. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>*Silberg, J. L., Maes, H., & Eaves, L. J. (2010). Genetic and environmental influences on the transmission of parental depression to children’s depression and conduct disturbance: an extended Children of Twins study. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 51(6), 734-744. </li></ul><ul><li>-This book had very scientific and structured information. This was very useful in understanding the genetic occurrences involving children and Depression. This gave an overall understanding of this along with understanding how one’s environment can affect Depression. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Sweeney, Michael S. Brain: The Complete Mind. Washington DC, USA: National Geographic Society, 2009. Print. </li></ul><ul><li>-This book gave a fair amount of information on Depression. This was mainly general information, but did offer clear details on Depression and the affects it has. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>