Oposite effects on the organs. Drugs can stimulate or block these systems by blocking the effects of the Acetylcholine and Norepinephrine.Another name is cholenergic system named after the receptors fo r acetacholine. For example an adrenergic (adrenaline) increases heart rate this is also called a symphatomemeticabecause the drug mimics the sympathetic system. A Cholenergic drug parasympahomimetic decreases heart rate. A drug that mimics the sympathetic system and a drug that blocks the parasypatheic system can cause a similar response in the organ.
Ch 18 autonomic nervous system agents pharm
PRAYER TO BE A NURSE To be a nurse is to walk with God, Along the path that our Master trod; To soothe the achings of human pain, To faithfully serve for little gain, To lovingly do the kindly deed, A cup of water to one in need, A tender hand on a fevered brow, A word of cheer to those living now; To reach the souls through its bodys woe Oh, this is the way that Jesus would go. Oh, white-capped nurses with hearts so true, Our Great Physician is working through you.
Adrenergic Agents and Adrenergic BlockersBy Kerry FiteAUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM AGENTS
ADRENERGIC AGONISTS (CONT’D) Effects of adrenergic receptor sites Alpha1 receptors in Vascular tissues stimulated = Increases cardiac contractility, BP is increased, vasoconstriction, circulation is improved Dilates pupils, decrease salivary gland secretion Increase bladder & prostate contraction Alpha2 = Inhibits norepinephrine release Promote vasodilation and decreased BP Decrease GI motility and tone
ADRENERGIC AGONISTS (CONT’D) Effects of adrenergic receptor sites Beta1 Found in the heart Increases cardiac contractility, heart rate Increases BP by effects on the kidneys’ renin secretion. Beta2 found primarily in the smooth muscle of the lungs Bronchodilation Decrease Gastrointestinal, relax uterine muscle Increases blood flow in skeletal muscles Increases blood glucose because liver releases stored suger Dopaminergic Receptor sites –located in the renal system and the real arteries are dilated when the receptors are stimulated Vasodilation Increases blood flow
ADRENERGICS AND DISEASEBeta Agonist are used to treat asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease and manage pregnancyBeta-1 are primarily used in heartBeta -2 Agonist stimulate bronchodilatation in the treatment of lung disease.
CLASSIFICATION OF ADRENERGICAGONISTS/SYMPATHOMIMETICS Direct-acting - Endogenous Indirect-acting – Stimulates Endogenous Release Mixed-acting Ephedrine EpinephrinePrototype Drug
CATECHOLAMINES Chemical Structures of a substance that can produce a sympthomemtic response Endogenous= norepinepherine epinepherine, dopamine Exdogenous Catacholimines
EPINEPHRINE (ADRENALIN) Nonselective Action Alpha1 increases the blood pressure Beta1 increases heart rate Beta2 promotes bronchodilation Pharmacodynamics: Frequently used in emergencies to treat life threatening anaphylaxis IE Bee Stings. It is also used as a potent inotropic drug in a CODE.
ADRENERGIC BLOCKERS (ANTAGONIST) Block effects of adrenergic agonist neurotransmitter Block alpha and beta receptor sites 1. Directly by occupying receptors 2. Indirectly by inhibiting release of neurotransmitters epinephrine and norepinephrine, dopamine
ALPHA ADRENERGIC BLOCKERS Nonselective Acting Alpha 1 and Alpha 2 are selected Selective Blockers cause vasodilation, decreases blood pressure. Used to treat BPH and PVD (Raynaud’s Disease)
BETA-ADRENERGIC BLOCKERS Beta-blockers Decrease BP and Pulse Nonselective beta blockers block 1. Blocks beta1 = Decrease BP and Pulse 2. Blocks beta2 = Bronchostriction Uses Angina, cardiac dysrhythmias, hypertension, heart failure, migraine headache prophelaxis
NONSELECTIVE BETA BLOCKERS Must be used with extreme caution in COPD and Asthma patients. Although Propranolol is used still used today it is used sparingly because of the multitude of side effects.
BETA-ADRENERGIC BLOCKERS (CONT’D) Nonselective propranolol Contraindications COPD and Asthma Side Effects Weight gain, impotence, decreased libido, Drug interactions Decreased drug effects with NSAIDs, barbiturates, caffeine P R o T O
ATENOLOL Beta Adrenergic blocker Contraindicated in Sinus Bradycardia, Heart block, bronchospasm Treat Hypertension, angina, MI Side effects :Drawsiness, dizziness, depression, weaknes s, N/D/V leg pain, sexual side effects Adverse Reaction: bradycardia, hypotension, masking hypoglycemia,