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  3. 3. THE COUNTRY • Conception of the a separate Muslim state was put forwarded on 29th Dec, 1930. • The independence was declared on 14th Aug, 1947 and was made “Islamic Republic” on 23rd march, 1956. • Total land area is 796,095 and is at 36th position in the list of countries by area. • The 2011 estimate showed Pakistan’s population to be 177,100,000. Taking the 6th position across the Globe. • The currency used is Pakistani Rupees (Rs.) (PKR) • The largest city is KARACHI and the capital is ISLAMABAD. • Pakistan is majorly agricultural country but industrialization, despite the short fall of electricity, is also on it’s way to success. • Urdu is the national language of Pakistan whereas Balochi, Sindhi, Punjabi, Pushto and Saraiki are the most common regional languages. MARKHOR JASMINE HOCKEYTHE NATIONAL EMBLEM THE NATIONAL ANIMAL THE NATIONAL SPORT THE NATIONAL FLOWER
  4. 4. THE FAMOUS MONUMENTS Most of the historic monuments across whole Pakistan belongs to the architecture that dates back to the Pre-Islamic and Islamic cultures. The modern architecture has influenced Pakistani culture and has brought a new spectrum of the monumental designs. FAISAL MOSQUE, ISLAMABAD CENTRAL MUSEUM, LAHORE WAZIR-KHAN MOSQUE, LAHORE MEENAR-E-PAKISTAN,TOMB OF THE QUAID, LAHORE KARACHI BADSHAHI MOSQUE, BAB-E-PAKISTAN, LAHORE LAHORE
  5. 5. RELIGION• 77% of all Pakistanis are Muslims.• Christians, Hindus and other religions make up rest of the population.• The central belief of Islam is that there is only one God, Allah and the prophet Mohammed(P.B.U.H) is his final messenger.• The Islamic religion recognizes both the Old & New Testaments.• The Quran is the holy scripture of Islam and is recognized as the holy word of God.• The Muslim people follow the Five Pillars: Shahada: (testimony) “There is no god but God, and Mohammad is his Prophet.” Salat: Mulims must pray five times a day. Zakat: The obligation to provide alms for the poor and disadvantaged. Sawm: The obligation to fast from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan. Hajj: The pilgrimage to Mecca, this must be done at least once in an adult Muslim’s lifetime. The pilgrimage occurs during the last month of the Muslim lunar calendar.
  6. 6. THE LAND• Pakistan-The roof of the world ,Four out of 14 highest peaks are in Pakistan• Pakistan-some of the longest glaciers outside polar region are in Pakistan.• Pakistan-The Largest Salt Deposits-Khewra Mines.• Pakistan-One of the largest reserves of Natural Gas.• One of the largest Bird Sanctuary in the World-Halegi Lake.• World-class recognition in Textile ,IT , Engineering Services• Worlds highest Railway Station-Kan Meftarzai,Quetta
  7. 7. HISTORY Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures including the neolithic Mehrgrh and the bronze era Indus Valley Civilisation. The area has remained a part of numerous empires and dynasties including the Indian empires, Persian empires, Arab caliphates, Mongol, Mughal, Durrani Empire, Sikh and British Empire. The city of Taxila became a major centre of learning in ancient times—the remains of the city, located to the west of Islamabad, are one of the countrys major archaeological sites.In 711 CE, the Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh and Multan in southern Punjab.The Pakistan governments official chronology has stated Muhammad bin Qasims conquest of the region as the point where the "foundation" of Pakistan was laid.
  8. 8. -REASONS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT :• Muslims did not wanted to live under the rules of British Government anymore.• Muslims of the South Asia required a separate Muslim state where they can freely practice the laws of Islam.• Muslims of the subcontinent had been pushed backward in the field of education through out the 200 years of the British Government.• The hatred among the Muslims and the Hindus had grown worse and a large number of both and the British soldiers were killed in such event of rebellions and civil disobedience.
  9. 9. -PROBLEMS DURING ESRABLISHMENT :• The “TWO NATION THEORY”, forwarded by Quaid-e-Azam was rejected and opposed by Mahatma Gandhi.• Congress never wanted to split the land.• Congress was a large party at that time and it’s rejection for the separate Muslim state had caused the Muslims to put even more efforts to make the British government realize the need of an independent state.• Even the British did not wanted to divide the state and wanted to keep the hold on the continent.• Muslims of the south-Asia only got the help of the Hindus to make the British government to realize that they need to leave the continent, but after that Hindu leaders were planning on ruling the state side by side with Muslims which seemed impossible through the role of congress in all those years.
  10. 10. ECONOMICS• Pakistan has been listed among Next Eleven, the eleven countries that along with the BRICS have a high potential of becoming the worlds largest economies in the 21st century.• Pakistans estimated gross domestic product (nominal) as of 2011 is US$ 202 billion.• The estimated nominal per capita GDP is US$ 1,197• Pakistan is the 27th largest in the world in terms of PPP and the 45th largest in nominal terms.• The economy of Pakistan is South Asias second largest economy; representing about 15 percent of regional GDP.• Despite being a very poor country in 1947, the growth rate has been better than the global average during the subsequent four decades.• The early to middle 2000s was a period of rapid reform; the government raised development spending which reduced the poverty levels by 10% and increased GDP by 3%.• The large number of overseas Pakistanis also send remittances totaling close to US$8 billion annually. These remittances are the second largest source of foreign exchange after exports.
  11. 11. -DECLINE OF THE ECONOMY :• Pakistan economic growth since its inception has been varied.• Pakistan economic growth has been slow during the civilian rules; while three long periods of military rule have seen remarkable recovery.• The economy has slowed down again since 2007.• In 2008, inflation reached as high as 25% and Pakistan had to depend on a aggressive fiscal policy backed by the International Monetary Fund to avoid possible bankruptcy.• According to the World Trade Organization Pakistans share in overall world exports is declining; with the country only contributing 0.128% in 2007. The trade deficit in the fiscal year 2010/11 was US$11.217 billion.• Agriculture now only accounts for 21.2% of the GDP.
  12. 12. EDUCATION• Education in Pakistan is overseen by the government Ministry of Education and the provincial governments.• The federal government mostly assists in curriculum development, accreditation and some financing of research.• The education system in Pakistan is generally divided into five levels: – primary (grades one through five) – middle (grades six through eight) – high (grades nine and ten, leading to the Secondary School Certificate or SSC) – intermediate (grades eleven and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary (School) Certificate or HSC) – university programs leading to undergraduate and graduate degrees.• Pakistan now has 135 universities, of which 74 are public universities and 61 are private universities.• Pakistan produces about 445,000 university graduates and 10,000 computer science graduates per year.• Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D) education is also available in selected areas and is usually pursued after earning a M.Phill degree.
  13. 13. -LITERACY RATE :• English is fast spreading in Pakistan, with 18 million Pakistanis (51% of the population) having a command over the English language, which makes it the 9th Largest English Speaking Nation in the world and the 3rd largest in Asia.• The literacy rate ranges from 37% in Islamabad to 20% in the Kohlu District.• Between 2000—2004, Pakistanis in the age group 55–64 had a literacy rate of almost 30%, those aged between 45–54 had a literacy rate of nearly 20%, those between 25–34 had a literacy rate of 20%, and those aged 15–24 had a literacy rate of 10%.• These data indicate that, with every passing generation, the literacy rate in Pakistan has risen by around 10%.• Literacy rates vary regionally, particularly by sex. In tribal areas female literacy is 7.5%.• Despite these statistics, Pakistan still has one of the highest illiteracy rates in the world
  14. 14. MILITARY• The armed forces of Pakistan are the seventh-largest in the world in terms of active forces.• The Pakistan Army came into existence after independence in 1947 and is currently headed by General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani.• Pakistani military establishment has frequently been involved in the politics of Pakistan since its inception.• It has an active force of about 612,000 personnel and 513,000 men in reserve.• the Army has been involved in four wars with neighboring India.• Pakistan has been strategic ally of China.
  15. 15. -SOLDIERS• The Pakistani armed soldiers have been ranked top for their performance in any region of the world.• The soldiers showed their true potential in front of all the other country’s army men and survived the toughest and most harsh tests of all time.• Pakistani pilots have also been ranked in the top for their flight performances.
  16. 16. -ATOMIC POWER• Nuclear program of Pakistan started on January 20, 1972.• Bhutto was the main architect of this program and it was here that Bhutto orchestrated nuclear weapons program and rallied Pakistans academic scientists to build the atomic bomb for national survival.• In December 1972, Abdus Salam led the establishment of Theoretical Physics Group (TPG) as he called scientists working at ICTP to report to Munir Ahmad Khan. This marked the beginning of Pakistans pursuit of nuclear deterrence capability.• On 28 May 1998, a few weeks after Indias second nuclear test (Operation Shakti), Pakistan detonated five nuclear devices in the Chagai Hills in the Chagai district.• Pakistans nuclear energy programme was established and started in 1956 following the establishment of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC).• Pakistan became a participant in U.S President Eisenhowers "Atoms for Peace Program.• " PAECs first chairman was Dr. Nazir Ahmad.• In 1961, the PAEC set up a Mineral Center at Lahore and a similar multidisciplinary Center was set up in Dhaka, in the East Pakistan. With these two centers, the basic research work started.
  17. 17. -MARSHAL LAW• Genral Ayub Khan, the first chief martial law administrator. – He had the constitution of 1962 tailor made to his requirements. – He ruled well and laid the foundations for the industrialization f the country. – But, he also laid the foundation of breakup of Quaid-e-Azam’s Pakistan.• General Agha Mohammad Yahya Khan Qizilbash, the military dictator from 1969 until the dissolution of East-Pakistan, in December 16, 1971. – under his command came the east Pakistan tragedy. – Thousands of innocent citizens were killed and the ensuing war resulted in the break Quaid e Azam’s Pakistan and emergence of Bangladesh. contd.
  18. 18. • General muhammad zia-ul-haq, – was the 4th Chief Martial Law Administrator and the sixth President of Pakistan from July 1977 to his death in August 1988. – Zias idea of religious conservatism in Pakistan became the primary line of his military government. – Throughout the 1980s, Zia managed to consolidate more and more power in his hands, gradually putting down all opposition groups in Pakistan.• Genral parvaiz musharraf, – served as the 13th Chief of Army Staff and tenth President of Pakistan as well as tenth Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee. – Musharraf headed and led an administrative military government from October 1999 till August 2007. – He ruled Pakistan as Chief Executive from 1999–2001 and as President from 2001-08. In the face of impeachment, he preferred to resign on 18 August 2008.
  19. 19. WARS• The Army has been involved in four wars with neighboring India.• For the first time in the First Kashmir War, gaining control of what is now Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan.• Pakistan and India were at war again in 1965 and in 1971.• In 1999, Pakistan was involved in the Kargil War.• The army has also been engaged in several skirmishes with Afghanistan on the western border; in 1961, it repelled a major Afghan incursion.• From 2001, the Pakistan Armed Forces have been engaged in a war in North-West Pakistan against terrorist organizations.• Apart from conflicts, the Army has been an active participant in United Nations peacekeeping missions and played a major role in rescuing trapped American soldiers from Mogadishu, Somalia in 1993 in Operation Gothic Serpent. Pakistani armed forces are the second largest contributors to UN peacekeeping missions.• During the Six-Day War in 1967 and Yom Kippur War in October 1973 PAF pilots volunteered to go to the Middle East to support Egypt and Syria in a state of war against Israel; Air Force pilots shot down ten Israeli planes in the Six-Day War.
  20. 20. FOREIGN POLICY Pakistan s foreign policy is guided by its history, geographical location and the aspiration of its people. It is also responsive to regional and international imperatives. Given the persistent challenges, Pakistan has opted for a proactive foreign policy. While there are elements of continuity in the foreign policy, as they should be, there is also a change of emphasis and nuance. The essence of Pakistans Foreign Policy are:-• Develop friendly relations with all countries particularly the Muslim world, major powers and immediate neighbors.• Safeguard vital security and geo-strategic interests of Pakistan.• Resolve the core issue of Jammu and Kashmir in accordance with the resolutions of the UN Security Council and wishes of the Kashmiri people.• Promote the image of Pakistan as a strong, dynamic, progressive, moderate and democratic Islamic country.• Augment economic and commercial interests abroad.• Protect the interests of Pakistan s expatriate community abroad.
  21. 21. DISASTERS• The most deadliest earthquake in the history of the region occurred on 8- october-2005, taking the lives of 78,000 people and leaving about 2.5 million affected.• A wind storm on 15-dec-1965, killed 10,000 people.• 31st of May 1935 earthquake, occurred at Quetta city of Balochistan costing the lives of 60,000 people.• The floods that took lives: – Jun-1997, killing 10,354, affecting about1,022,000 – Sep-1992, killing 1,334, affecting about 12,324,024 – Mar-1998, killing 1,000.
  22. 22. PHARMACEUTICALS• The Pakistani pharmaceutical industry at 5.0 billion and growing at 8%anually, is the 18th largest pharmaceutical industry in the world, and is expected to be worth 10 billion by 2010.• Its exports are over 0.75 billion. Pakistan is among the top ten bulk drug makers international and at home, the local industry has edged out the multi-national companies.• Trade of medical plants has crossed 500M already.• There are 40 biotechnology companies in Pakistan , involving in the development and manufacture of genomic drugs, whose business is growing exponentially.
  23. 23. MEDIA• Radio is an effective method for spreading news in Pakistan because the poverty rate is higher then the other developed countries .• The Government took over The Associated Press of Pakistan in 1960.• The major news agencies in Pakistan are the Associated Press of Pakistan and Pakistan Press International.• By the mid 1990’s television reached 80% of the Pakistan population.• Until 1990 the government owned, Pakistan Television Corporation, was the only channel available. PTV then bought Cable News Network (CNN) to Pakistan.
  24. 24. -ELECTRONIC MEDIA : In the past few years the electronic media in Pakistan has been on it’s way to progress. In just the period of three years number of private channels have increased rapidly. The reason for the increase in the development was the allowance of the private channels under the government of Pervaiz Musharraf.
  25. 25. ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES• Total Nuclear energy that is being produced is 462 MW Pakistan has a total power generation capacity of 19,754 MW. The existing hydro power potential is estimated at 50,000 MW but the hydro generation installedby WAPDA varies between two extremities, i.e., between Hydel electricity generated capacity stands at 6481 MW. minimum of 2,414 MW and maximum of 6,761 MW depending upon the river flow.• Bio-diesel: With the rising international fuel prices, Biodiesel is set to become much more popular as a fuel option in the Total Power Generation Capacity of Pakistan (including all sources) is 19,855 MW and farming and transportation industries. The Government plans to gradually introduce Biodiesel Fuel Blends with petroleum diesel so as to achieve(as of April 2010) isof Bio Fuels by volumePEPCO is merely generating the electricity demand a minimum share of 5% 14,500 MW and to the total diesel consumption in the 10,000 MW. country by the year 2015. The current short fall is 7500 MW• Unleashing the Power of Wind: Another area with respect to renewable energy resources is the exploration of wind power. Pakistan has a potential to generate more than 50,000 MW from its 1046 KM coastline. Several IPPs have completed their feasibility studies for 550 MW of wind power projects. Pakistan s first ever wind power plant with a 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 capacity of 50 MW has been commissioned earlier this year and additional projects with cumulative capacity of 1200 MW Existing Generation being developed. are currently 15,903 15,903 15,903 15,903 15,903 15,903 15,903 15,903 15,903 15,903 15,903 15,903 15,903 Proposal / 530 4,235 7,226 10,115 10,556 13,307 13,520 14,607 16,134 18,448 18,448 18,448 18,448• Electricity in Committed Pakistan is generated, transmitted, distributed and retail supplied by two vertically integrated public sector Generation utilities: Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) for all of Pakistan (except Karachi), and the Karachi Electric Total Supply Corporation (KESC) for the City of Karachi and26,459 Existing/Committed 16,484 20,138 23,129 26,018 its surrounding29,423 There are 32,037 34,351 29,210 areas. 30,510 around 16 independent power 34,351 34,351 34,351 Generation producers that contributes significantly in electricity generation in Pakistan. Expected Available 13,146 16,110 18,503 20,814 21,167 23,368 23,538 24,408 25,630 27,481 27,481 27,481 27,481 Generation• There are four major power producers in country: WAPDA (Water & Power Development Authority), KESC (Karachi Demand (Summer 16,484 17,868 19,352 20,874 22,460 24,126 25,919 28,029 30,223 35,504 34,918 37,907 41,132 Electric Supply Company), IPPs Peak) (Independent Power Producers) and PAEC (Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission). Surplus/Deficit - -3,338 -1,758 -849 -60 -1,293 -758 -2,381 -3,621 -4,593 -8,023 -7,437 -10,426 Generation 13,651 Supply and Demand of Electricity in Pakistan POSITION OF 2008-2020 (MW)