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Advanced Construction Technology Project


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Advanced Construction Technology Project

  1. 1. Advanced Construction Technology Course: DT117/4 Lecturer: Mr. Ruairi Hayden ADVANCED CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY Continuous Assessment Scenario 3 (The Contractor) Student Name: Gemma Rice Student No: D05107441 Page 1 of 18
  2. 2. Advanced Construction Technology Course: DT117/4 Lecturer: Mr. Ruairi Hayden Contents: Introduction ……………………………………………………………………....... Page 3 What are modern methods of construction? ……………………………………..... Page 4 Benefits of MMC ………………………………………………………………...... Page 6 Proposed MMC for South Cumberland Street Development…………................... Page 9 Precast Wall Panels ………………………………………………………….......... Page 10 Precast Floor Slabs, Stairs & Internal Finishes …………………………………….Page 13 Reduction in Programme………………………………………………….............. Page 15 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………............ Page 16 References………………………………………………………………................. Page 17 Appendices…………………………………………………………………............ Page 18 Student Name: Gemma Rice Student No: D05107441 Page 2 of 18
  3. 3. Advanced Construction Technology Course: DT117/4 Lecturer: Mr. Ruairi Hayden Introduction: The purpose of this paper is to put forward a proposal on the most appropriate way to reduce the overall construction programme on the South Cumberland Street development adopting modern methods of construction (MMC) to achieve same. In this report, I will define MMC and outline the advantages of using this type of construction. I will also discuss and analyse the proposed MMC’s which I believe, as the contractor, should be adopted to best achieve a reduction in the overall programme duration, while still achieving the specification and high level of quality required by the client. Student Name: Gemma Rice Student No: D05107441 Page 3 of 18
  4. 4. Advanced Construction Technology Course: DT117/4 Lecturer: Mr. Ruairi Hayden What are modern methods of construction (MMC)? In a report published by the National Audit Office, MMC is defined as follows: “Modern methods of construction are about better products and processes. They aim to improve business efficiency, quality, customer satisfaction, environmental performance, sustainability and the predictability of delivery timescales. Modern methods of construction are, therefore, more broadly based than a particular focus on product. They engage people and process to seek improvement in the delivery and performance of construction” (National Audit Office, 2005, p.4) In a similar report published by NHBC Foundation entitled ‘A guide to modern methods of construction’, MMC is defined as a collective term which is used to describe a number of construction methods including industrialised construction, off-site assembly, off-site construction, modular construction, system building etc. (NHBC Foundation, 2006, p. 3) Different types of MMC’s include: Volumetric Construction Three dimensional units produced in a factory fully fitted out and dropped onto foundations to form a structure e.g. bathroom or kitchen PODS. Panellised construction Units produced in a factory and assembled into a three- dimensional structure on site e.g. concrete wall panels, structural insulated panels (SIPS), curtain walling etc. Hybrid construction Volumetric construction integrated with panelised construction e.g. kitchen pod as volumetric unit with the rest of the dwelling constructed using panels. Sub-assemblies and Larger components that can be incorporated into either components conventionally built MMC structures e.g. pre-fabricated foundations, floor cassette systems, pre-assembled roof structures, pre-fabricated chimney stacks etc. Student Name: Gemma Rice Student No: D05107441 Page 4 of 18
  5. 5. Advanced Construction Technology Course: DT117/4 Lecturer: Mr. Ruairi Hayden Most modern methods of construction are based off site but there are also site based methods including tunnelform construction, insulated permanent formwork and aerated concrete products used to form major elements of a structure. Student Name: Gemma Rice Student No: D05107441 Page 5 of 18
  6. 6. Advanced Construction Technology Course: DT117/4 Lecturer: Mr. Ruairi Hayden Benefits of MMC: There are many beneficial factors associated with MMC’s, not only for the benefit of the client but also for main contractors, sub-contractors, local communities etc. Some of the main advantages to using modern methods of construction include the following: 1) Quicker on site build time/shorter programmes/reduced preliminaries: With MMC, much of the work is removed from the site and it is therefore possible to execute various activities of the project concurrently or even before the project has commenced on site. This reduces the projects construction time as the building or elements of the building can be manufactured off site while the ground and site works are taking place. MMC leads to a reduction in trades on site and a shorter construction programme which in turn leads to reduced preliminaries, overheads and a quicker return on investment for the client. 2) Reduced waste and better waste management: As production is often executed in a factory controlled environment, the waste stream can be easier to manage. Exact quantities of materials can be purchased, materials can be used more efficiently and because materials are properly stored, breakages and damage are less likely to occur. Furthermore any un-used materials can be easily collected, re- used or recycled contributing to less waste. Constant monitoring also takes place within a production plant allowing new waste management strategies to be implemented without difficulty, if necessary. Waste reduction is a very significant advantage as waste from construction is one of the principle waste streams to landfills and it has been proven that a high percentage of materials delivered to site are never even used and go straight into the waste cycle. 3) Reduction in defects and increased quality control: As you can imagine, a building site in Ireland, fully exposed to our rainy and windy climate is not exactly the perfect working environment for high quality workmanship. Student Name: Gemma Rice Student No: D05107441 Page 6 of 18
  7. 7. Advanced Construction Technology Course: DT117/4 Lecturer: Mr. Ruairi Hayden Construction work exposed to the elements of wind and rain proves more difficult to monitor with regard to quality control. Human error is also another significant factor which deters the achievement of high quality construction as it can prove difficult to work in extreme weather conditions. Factory based constructions forms, engage better and safer working conditions with no interference by the Irish climate and therefore a very high standard of quality control can be achieved which includes testing, trials, checks and re-checks. For more reasons than one, factory based construction provides better working conditions than a building site and in turn produces better quality too. 4) Increased Health & Safety: Construction work carried out in a factory controlled environment is without doubt a safer working environment for all trades. Safety controls are implemented and monitored and safe working conditions are easier to meet and maintain. With off-site construction there is a significant reduction in the number of trades working on site and this proves more manageable from a health and safety perspective. Construction work on site can incorporate some very dangerous activities and in turn lead to a large number of causalities and/or fatal injuries. Construction is among the largest number of fatal injuries between all the main industries in Ireland. Statistics from 2002 to 2009 (as seen in Appendix A) show that the construction sector has been either the first or second largest contributor to fatal injuries in the past 8 years. 5) Social benefits and reduced local impacts: MMC’s and in particular off-site construction, allow local communities to benefit from the process of manufacturing away from site. The main advantage to communities is that there is much less traffic and smaller on site workforces adding to traffic congestion in the area. Furthermore due to speedier on-site programmes, noise and pollution levels will decrease and the locality surrounding the site will be disrupted for a far shorter period of time. Student Name: Gemma Rice Student No: D05107441 Page 7 of 18
  8. 8. Advanced Construction Technology Course: DT117/4 Lecturer: Mr. Ruairi Hayden Construction sites are only temporary employment locations and offer little or no amenities for the local communities whereas manufacturing facilities very often provide long term social services and economic benefits for the surrounding community. Manufacturing facilities are also more likely to invest in education and training for their workforce and develop a highly trained local workforce within their facility. 6) Greater efficiency in the use of resources and transport Over the years it has been noted that the use of labour, plant and materials on building sites is extremely inefficient as is not the case with factory based activities which are kept under extreme scrutiny, monitored and controlled. Re-cycling and re-using of materials is also more difficult to enforce on a building site but is easily implemented in a factory based environment. On another note, monitoring of transport patterns and schedules can be very difficult on construction sites especially if the site is condensed and compact. With off-site MMC the number of deliveries direct to the building site is reduced and deliveries to factories can be planned and controlled so that full loads can be used and transport costs are kept to a minimum. On the other hand, transport of prefabricated or modular buildings to site must be carefully planned and heavy plant and equipment necessary for off-loading and erection requires careful site management and consideration. Student Name: Gemma Rice Student No: D05107441 Page 8 of 18
  9. 9. Advanced Construction Technology Course: DT117/4 Lecturer: Mr. Ruairi Hayden Proposed MMC for South Cumberland Street Development: As the contractor, I believe that the best way to achieve a reduction in the programme would be in the concrete frame and the internal finishes and I will discuss and analyse this through-out the report. The proposed modern methods of construction for this development include the use of precast wall and floor panels, precast stairs and also the use of Alltek spray on plastering to the internal walls. I believe that this will give a signification reduction on the overall programme while also adding additional benefits which will also be discussed in detail later in the report. It is proposed that the insitu basement walls be substituted with 300mm double precast retaining walls with factory applied Volclay waterproofing and the insitu walls from ground to fourth floor will be substituted with 200mm thick solid precast walls. It is also proposed to use 100mm wideslab flooring with a 150mm screed finish as well as precast stairs at all levels. All of the precast products are manufactured in a factory controlled environment and delivered to site ready to be lifted into place easily via a mobile or tower crane. Specialised Machines forming the element perimeter using magnetic steel moulds Student Name: Gemma Rice Student No: D05107441 Page 9 of 18
  10. 10. Advanced Construction Technology Course: DT117/4 Lecturer: Mr. Ruairi Hayden In addition to the benefits of MMC mentioned above, precast construction offers many other benefits over insitu as follows: 1) No scaffolding required – this can save time on site and leads to further cost savings. 2) Less co-ordination needed on site – there is no need to co-ordinate the shuttering carpenters, the concrete deliveries and pump, deliver & positioning of re- enforcement etc and therefore problems and delays on site are eliminated before the arise. 3) Fair faced finish on wall panels – the precast wall panels offer a fair faced finish on one side which is ready to be painted without the need for a skim coat plaster finish. The external walls will take a cladded or external insulation finish therefore will not require any finishes as the rough side of the panel will face the external or cavity of the building. On the other hand the internal walls will require further finishing on the rough trowel side of the wall and this will be carried out using a spray on plaster finish of just a few millimetre thickness. In this case finishing works will be kept to a minimum while also eliminating the need for drying out of wet trades. 4) Electrical conduits and sockets can be cast into the precast wall panels during manufacture thus saving further time on site for chasing of walls and installation of services by mechanical and electrical contractors. 5) Connections for external cladding such as dywidag sleeves etc can also be cast into the walls speeding up the external completions process. Dywidag Sleeve – is cast into wall allowing for connection of cladding panels to wall afterwards i.e. bolt can be screwed in to this sleeve Precast Wall Panels: Student Name: Gemma Rice Student No: D05107441 Page 10 of 18
  11. 11. Advanced Construction Technology Course: DT117/4 Lecturer: Mr. Ruairi Hayden It is proposed that a 300mm precast double wall panel will be used on the perimeter at basement level with 200mm solid walls being used internally. The double wall will act as a retaining wall and also as a shear wall to take the load from above. Further details on double walls can be found in Appendix D. The double wall will be waterproofed using the Volclay Voltex waterproofing system which can be factory applied. Full factory application details including step-by-step photographs can be found in Appendix C. It is also recommended that 200mm thick, 60N solid precast wall panels be used from the ground to fourth floor. These panels will be manufactured on an automatic production system therefore resulting in overall lengths and opes to within mm accuracy. The walls will carry the vertical load and act as shear walls within the structure. The Erection Process: The precast crew will work off a finished ground floor with starter bars already in place. Starter bars are vertical bars cast into the floor slab and set out, as per the positioning details for the wall panels. A 20mm shim and grout bedding is then applied at this level. The wall panels are lifted in place via a mobile or tower crane. Lifting brackets located at the top of the panels are slung with chains and the walls are set down on these starter bars which connect the building to the ground floor slab. (See Fig 1.3 in Appendix E) If the starter bars are not in position or in an incorrect position, the following method should be applied: 1) Drill a hole 400mm deep, with the diameter of the hole being 12mm greater than the diameter of the bar. 2) Clean out the hole and remove all dust. Place the resin in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Student Name: Gemma Rice Student No: D05107441 Page 11 of 18
  12. 12. Advanced Construction Technology Course: DT117/4 Lecturer: Mr. Ruairi Hayden 3) Place the bar into the hole displacing the resin to the top and hold the bar in position until the resin has set. 4) Wait at least 24 hours before placing walls over bars. The panels themselves are connected to each other on the vertical side using Philips loops and threaded bar. The Philips loops are connectors at the sides of each of the solid panels and provide a fully grouted rigid connection. The threaded bar is pushed down through these loops interlocking the panels. (See Fig 1.0 in Appendix E) There is usually up to a 20mm gap between panels here and it may be necessary to shutter these joints prior to filling with grout else the joints could be sealed and left to set and then the filled in from above with grout. This 20mm gap can also be advantageous when the building is to be plumbed and lined as it may offer some leeway. The wall panels are connected on the horizontal with threaded bar which sits down a dowel tube in one panel and up the tube in the other. These tubes are then also filled with grout. The result of all these connections is that all elements are connected together and the building is also connected to the ground thus providing maximum stability. Electrical socket outlets and conduits can be cast in to both faces of these wall panels and the service tube allows for easy wiring of the sockets and eliminates chasing of walls by electricians at a later stage. Steel sections or additional reinforcement can also be cast into the walls at the production stage if necessary. Opening for doors, windows or services can be provided within the wall panel but extra reinforcement must be used around these opes to prevent cracking or breakage. The wall panels will be erected using a crane. (See Fig 1.1 in Appendix E) Lifting brackets located at the top of the panels will be slung with chains and erected into position. M16 sockets can be pre-cast into the panel face to take diagonal push pull props on site, thus increasing erection speed and reducing damage to the panel on site. (See Fig 1.2 in Appendix E) Once the wall panels are erected all joints between walls will be insitu filled with a cement and fine aggregate grout and this will provide a smooth even surface on the panels. Student Name: Gemma Rice Student No: D05107441 Page 12 of 18
  13. 13. Advanced Construction Technology Course: DT117/4 Lecturer: Mr. Ruairi Hayden Precast Floor Slabs: For this project it is proposed to use pre-stressed wideslab as wideslab will span up to 8m simply supported. This is sufficient for the development as the maximum floor span is around five and a half meters. Other options are Filigree slabs which can span 5.5m simply supported but this type of slab is not as widely used in the industry. Hollowcore flooring is another alternative but this is only really necessary for spans greater that 8m and up to 16.5m and the building is in excess of seven or eight floors and a lighter weight option is required. It will be necessary to prop the floor at 600 centres using acro type props with timber girders running horizontally from prop to prop. (See Fig 1.5 in Appendix E) For this structure, the proposed wideslab will have a 100mm slab depth and a width of 2400mm as standard will be used where possible. This shallow floor will give maximum floor-to-floor height resulting in no loss of space. It will also provide a smooth soffit finish, which can be used as a finished surface in areas where suspended ceilings are not specified i.e. the apartments. The floor slab will sit approx 70mm into the wall panel and the slabs will also be lifted in by crane via projecting lifting hooks on the surface of the slab. A 125mm screed over the 100mm wideslab will be sufficient and can incorporate services into the floor if necessary. It may be possible to cast upstands on the precast walls instead of shuttering the perimeter for screeding. A393 mesh along with tie steel will be placed on the slab and a 35-40N structural screed will be poured over this. The perimeter of the floor, opes, stairwells etc will have to be shuttered to house the screed and prevent spillages. The concrete will be pumped in using a concrete pump and all floors will receive a powerfloat finish. The floors will be connected to the wall panels via U bars which are wrapped around the treaded bar projecting from the panel to connect the wall directly above. (See Fig 1.4 in Appendix E) Handrail will also be necessary around the perimeter and large opes. There will be a plastic leg on the handrail posts that can be left in the screed afterwards. The Student Name: Gemma Rice Student No: D05107441 Page 13 of 18
  14. 14. Advanced Construction Technology Course: DT117/4 Lecturer: Mr. Ruairi Hayden perimeter handrail will be moved up floor by floor as screeding progresses but handrail around opes must remain until it is safe to remove. Precast Stairs: It is proposed to use precast stairs from basement to fourth floor. The stairs are prefabricated off site and are cast in a steel mould for manufacture. The use of precast stairs means that while they can be erected by crane with the wall and floor panels, they also allow access up the building for the precast crew as the building progresses. Internal Finishes: It is also proposed that a thin coat spray on plaster system will be used on the rough side of the precast walls and also on the ceilings. The material recommended for this is a thin spray on plaster known as Alltek which is supplied by International Coating Products (ICP) and who many suppliers and applicators across Ireland, the United Kingdom and Europe. The Alltek product is packaged in standard 25kg bags and comes in the form of a white powder which comes from fine graded marble. Alltek is applied in two coats and is suitable to be sprayed onto fair faced concrete surfaces, gypsum boards, smooth plastered surfaces etc. The Alltek Red Label can also be sprayed over the Alltek Blue Course plaster which is used on rough surfaces. Alltek also supply dry fillers used to fill joints in panels, the filler is just mixed with water on site and applied to the joint. Once the joints are dried and sanded down, the walls are then ready to receive the plaster spray coat. The Alltek red label is poured into the spray machine and the applicator then commences spraying the Alltek onto the prefilled surface. The second coat of spray can only be applied once the first has fully dried out. Alltek can be applied in a flat or textured finish and in several pastel shade thus reducing painting and decorating costs. Between 200-300m2 of two coat Alltek application can be achieved per day. Further details of Alltek products can be seen in Appendix B. Student Name: Gemma Rice Student No: D05107441 Page 14 of 18
  15. 15. Advanced Construction Technology Course: DT117/4 Lecturer: Mr. Ruairi Hayden Reduction in Programme: It is my belief as the contractor that by adopting the above mentioned modern methods of construction on the South Cumberland Development we can significantly reduce the programme duration for this project. Based on figures from one precast manufacturer, Alcrete Ltd, 1450m2 of precast walls can be produced in their factory in just one week. As can be seen from the below chart, this is more walls that needed for the entire development. Hence production of precast walls off-site will automatically reduce the programme and even taking into account the lead in time required by the manufacturer, signification time savings can be achieved here. It must also be noted that lead in times for precast manufacturers has reduced significantly due to lack of workload in this economic downturn. Basement 1st Floor 2nd Floor 3rd Floor 4th Floor Double Walls 144 m² Solid Walls 95 m² 241 m² 254 m² 228 m² 162 m² Wideslab 168 m² 168 m² 168 m² 168 m² Further reductions in programme durations can be achieved through erection on site of the precast elements. Further figures from Alcrete show that 325m2 of double walls and 450m2 of solid walls can be erected per week by a 5 man crew. In addition, 280m2 of wideslab can be erected per day by a 4 man crew thus showing how the frame can be erected in just a number of weeks. Furthermore with no scaffolding, drying out time, erection or dismantling of shutters/pans etc needed, the precast frame is less weather dependant than insitu construction forms and is therefore less likely to experience delays or set backs on site. Once erection of the frame has been completed additional time savings can also be achieved in the finishes such as plastering works, mechanical and electrical works, installation of cladding etc. Student Name: Gemma Rice Student No: D05107441 Page 15 of 18
  16. 16. Advanced Construction Technology Course: DT117/4 Lecturer: Mr. Ruairi Hayden Conclusion: As can be seen through-out the above report, the use of a precast frame and a thin coat spray on plaster finish on this development can produce significant reductions on the overall construction programme while also not only maintaining, but excelling the standards set out in the original specification. The precast frame exceeds specification as it will be 60N concrete and manufactured to a very high specification in a factory controlled environment. Tight factory production control ensures that the re-enforcement is located accurately and the panels are made to tight dimensional tolerances. Structural connections are also accurate which assists in the accurate installation of cladding, windows and other elements thereafter. Furthermore precast concrete improves structural efficiency as longer spans and shallower construction depths can be obtained using prestressed floors and/or beams. Most importantly, there will be no additional work created for the design team as the precast manufacturer produces their own in-house precast drawings for approval by the architect thus design costs do not change or increase. The Alltek plaster finish will also provide a high quality finish with all Alltek materials undergoing extensive testing before being released onto the market. Furthermore surfaces can be emulsion painted after only 24-48 hours with only a mist-coat and finish coat being required. Further details of Alltek standards can be seen on Appendix B, page 2. In addition, there are other MMC’s which could be adopted on this project to further reduce the programme if necessary. Such methods include the use of bathroom and/or hot press PODs in the apartments and/or office units. References: Student Name: Gemma Rice Student No: D05107441 Page 16 of 18
  17. 17. Advanced Construction Technology Course: DT117/4 Lecturer: Mr. Ruairi Hayden Alcrete Ltd. Allco Waterproofing Solutions Construction & Property News; Volume 34; Number 07; February 2008 Construction & Property News; Volume 33; Number 11; May 2007 Elliott, K. & Tovey, A (1992). Precast Concrete Frame Buildings: Design Guide. U.K.: British cement Association Future Build Ltd. Alltek Spray Plaster. Retrieved April 19, 2010 from Health & Safety Authority. Statistics. Retrieved April 18, 2010 from International Coating Products National Audit Office. (2005). Using Modern Methods of Construction to build homes more quickly and efficiently. London: National Audit Office NHBC Foundation. (2006). A Guide to Modern Methods of Construction. IHS BRE Press Previous Projects Gemma Rice - Off-site Construction DT134/4 - Work Placement Project DT134/4 Appendices: Student Name: Gemma Rice Student No: D05107441 Page 17 of 18
  18. 18. Advanced Construction Technology Course: DT117/4 Lecturer: Mr. Ruairi Hayden Appendix A HAS Statistics (1 Page) Appendix B Alltek Data Sheets (2 Page) Appendix C Volclay Voltex Waterproofing (4 Pages) Appendix D Double/Twin Walls System (1 Page) Appendix E Precast Details (1 Page) Student Name: Gemma Rice Student No: D05107441 Page 18 of 18