8. the juvenile court movement

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CJCJ's Executive Director Daniel Macallair, is a practitioner-in-residence at San Francisco State University (SFSU)'s Department of Criminal Justice Studies. These slides are from his Juvenile Justice course materials.

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8. the juvenile court movement

  1. 1. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103The Juvenile Court Movement
  2. 2. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103CHILD SAVERS• 19TH CENTURY REFORMERS WHO DEVELOPEDPROGRAMS FOR TROUBLED YOUTH ANDINFLUENCED LEGISLATION CREATING THEJUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM
  3. 3. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Contribution of 19th Century Child Savers• Laid the structural foundation for today’s child welfareand juvenile justice systems• Promoted legislation that improved social conditions forchildren• Promoted an expanded definition of childhood
  4. 4. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103First Juvenile CourtAn Act to Regulate the Treatment andControl of Dependent, Neglected andDelinquent Children (Illinois Legislature1899)
  5. 5. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Goals of juvenile court advocates• Remove children form adult jails andprisons• Control children’s behavior outside of thecriminal court• Avoid the obstacles of due processprotections by establishing a civil process
  6. 6. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103
  7. 7. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Legal Foundation of the Juvenile Court• Parens Patriae• In loco parentis• Limited criminal responsibility• Best interest of the child• Individualized justice
  8. 8. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Characertistics of a Juvenile CourtProceeding• Informal hearing• Absence of due process• Judge as parental figure• Probation officer as neutral agent
  9. 9. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103•JUDGE BENJAMIN LINDSEY• Considered the boys that wentthrough his court as “his boys”• Believed that every child is good butsome take the wrong path• Juvenile justice should strengthen thechild’s chances through support andencouragement• Rehabilitation is everything• Saw the adult court as a “chamberthat victimized children”
  10. 10. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Elements of the Early Juvenile Court• Courts• Child Guidance Clinics• Probation case work services• Detention facilities
  11. 11. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103The Juvenile Court Movement• By 1920 all but three states had juvenilecourts and by 1945 all states had juvenilecourts

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